Abdus Salam
Pakistani physicist
Abdus Salam
Mohammad Abdus Salam, NI, SPk (was a Pakistani theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate in Physics for his work on the electroweak unification of the electromagnetic and weak forces. Salam, Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg shared the 1979 Nobel prize for this discovery. Salam holds the distinction of being the first Pakistani and the first Muslim Nobel Laureate to receive the prize in Physics.
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Mysterious death of New York judge was initially called a suicide. Now, police think it's suspicious
LATimes - 3 days
The mystery of how a prominent African American judge came to be found floating dead in the Hudson River has deepened as her family and widowed husband disputed suggestions by the New York Police Department that she had committed suicide. What is known is that Sheila Abdus-Salaam, 65, a judge on...
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LATimes article
Mysterious death of New York judge was initially called a suicide. Now, police think it's suspicious
LATimes - 4 days
The mystery of how a prominent African American judge came to be found floating dead in the Hudson River has deepened as her family and widowed husband disputed suggestions by the New York Police Department that she had committed suicide. What is known is that Sheila Abdus-Salaam, 65, a judge on...
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LATimes article
Video Shows Judge Walking Alone Before Her Death
Wall Street Journal - 5 days
New York police detectives have discovered a video showing Judge Sheila Abdus-Salaam walking alone toward the Hudson River in Manhattan the night before police found her body floating in the water, a senior law-enforcement official said Wednesday.
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Wall Street Journal article
Trailblazing judge found dead
CNN - 11 days
Sheila Abdus-Salaam, the first African-American woman appointed to the New York Court of Appeals, was found dead in the Hudson River.
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CNN article
Trailblazing judge found dead in Hudson River
CNN - 12 days
Sheila Abdus-Salaam, the first African-American woman appointed to the New York Court of Appeals, was found dead in the Hudson River.
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CNN article
Pakistan’s Premier Honors Nobel Laureate From Persecuted Minority
NYTimes - 5 months
Abdus Salam, a theoretical physicist, was honored by having a department of physics at one of the nation’s leading public universities renamed after him.
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NYTimes article
Saudi Airstrikes Kill Scores Of Mourners At Funeral Service In Yemen
Huffington Post - 7 months
SANAA (Reuters) - Saudi-led warplanes killed at least 82 people when they struck mourners at a hall in the Yemeni capital Sanaa on Saturday, the acting health minister in the Houthi-run administration said, but the coalition denied any role in the incident. Ghazi Ismail also said that 534 other people were wounded in the air strike in the southern part of the city, where a wake was taking place for the father of the administration’s interior minister, Jalal al-Roweishan, who had died of natural causes on Friday. The death toll was one of the largest in any single incident since the Saudi-led alliance began military operations to try to restore President Abd-Rabbu Mansour Hadi to power following his ousting by the Iran-aligned Houthis in March 2015. “The Saudi aggression committed a major crime today, by attacking a mourning hall for the al-Roweishan family, targeting residents in the hall. As a result, 534 were wounded and 82 were martyred,” Ismail told a news conference in ...
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Huffington Post article
The Ahmadi Conundrum in Pakistan
Huffington Post - over 1 year
Blasphemy is a crime in Pakistan, the punishment for which can be death. The law is a left over of the Indian Penal Code that the British had introduced, and which was later expanded upon by the military dictator Zia ul Haq. More often than not, it is used to target minority communities, especially the Ahmadiyya, who were declared non-Muslims in 1974, through a constitutional amendment. Under this amendment, the community is banned from using Islamic terms, using Islamic texts to pray or even calling their places of worship 'masjid'. In October 2015, the Council of Islamic Ideology, took the persecution of this blighted community a step further, when its Chairman announced that he was going to call a meeting to discuss -- among other things -- whether Ahmadis are non-Muslims or apostates. The Council does not make laws for Pakistan, and its position is advisory, however, making statements like these only adds to the bigotry against the Ahmadi. If the Council does decide that Ahmadi ...
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Huffington Post article
Yemen's warring sides say ceasefire to begin on Monday
Yahoo News - over 1 year
By Mohammed Ghobari DUBAI (Reuters) - A seven-day ceasefire in Yemen will start on Monday, the day before planned U.N.-sponsored peace talks in Switzerland, senior officials on both sides of the civil war that has killed nearly 6,000 people said on Saturday. "Based on what had been agreed upon, there will be a halt of the aggression on the 14th of this month," Houthi spokesman Mohammed Abdul-Salam told a news conference broadcast live from the Yemeni capital Sanaa. The Houthis, allied with Iran, have been locked for nine months in a civil war with forces loyal to President Abd-Rabbu Mansour Hadi's exiled government, who are backed by air strikes and ground forces from a mainly Gulf Arab coalition led by Saudi Arabia.
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When Will The Muslim World Honor Its First Muslim Scientist Nobel Laureate?
Huffington Post - about 3 years
Muslims today boast, rightfully, about Islam's Golden Age and its unprecedented contributions to the sciences. Muslim leaders worldwide implore Muslims to rise up to that greatness once more. But in doing so, too many ignore the 20th century's most prominent Muslim scientist--one who once again rekindled the brilliance of the countless Muslim scientists who created the Golden Age of Islam. On January 29th, the world celebrates Pakistani scientist Dr. Abdus Salam's 88th birthday. Sadly, much of the Muslim world, with Pakistan leading the way, will once again ignore him. Dr. Salam was the world's first Muslim scientist Nobel Laureate. He received the Nobel in Physics in 1979 for predicting the Higgs Boson decades before its discovery in 2012. Despite his unprecedented contribution to humanity, the Muslim world at large and Pakistan in particular has ignored and demonized him--even desecrating his grave after he died. Why this injustice? The following is an excerpt from my critically acc ...
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Huffington Post article
Overcoming Historical Amnesia: Muslim Contributions to Civilization
Huffington Post - over 3 years
In his recent article, Sam Harris, a popular critic of Islam, referred to Malala Yousafzai, the Pakistani education activist, as "the best thing to come out of the Muslim world in 1,000 years." Hidden in this comment is the idea that Malala's fellow Muslims are backward and that her religion, Islam, is not conducive to change or progress. Conversely to the beliefs of Harris and others like him, Muslims have actually made enormous contributions to civilization, perhaps due to the heavy emphasis that Islam places on knowledge. People who forget or blatantly ignore major trends or events in world history can be said to suffer from "historical amnesia." Though this mindset cannot be cured in one short blog post, I hope to dispel some of the stereotypes and misperceptions exacerbated by Harris and other anti-Islam activists by highlighting the contributions that Muslims have made to civilization over the years. Contributions to education Malala's quest for universal education follows ...
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Huffington Post article
Yemeni chief killed, apparent al-Qaida revenge
Fox News - over 4 years
Yemeni security officials say a prominent tribal chief has been killed in an ambush, an apparent revenge attack by al-Qaida for his security links. The officials said suspected al-Qaida militants fatally shot Ali Abdul-Salam Thursday and wounded two of his guards as they rode in his vehicle in the southern province of Abyan. Security and tribal officials said Abul-Salam, an elected local council member in Shabwa province, was accused by militants of providing information to security agencies and foreign intelligence that led to the targeting of al-Qaida members. The officials were speaking on condition of anonymity because they were not authorized to speak to reporters. The government, backed by the U.S., has been going after al-Qaida militants who have established strongholds in Yemen's south.
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Fox News article
Gunmen kill 2 local Afghan officials in north
Fox News - over 4 years
Police say gunmen have killed two local government officials in separate attacks in northern Afghanistan. Deputy Police Chief of Kunduz province Ghulam Mohammad says both attacks happened Tuesday. He says the commander of a police detention center in Dashti Archi district was ambushed by gunmen while driving on a main road through the area in the afternoon. Commander Abdul Salam and his bodyguard were killed. Mohammad says the commander of the district's government-backed militia force was also killed in a similar ambush about the same time. He says it was not clear if there was a connection between the two attacks.
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Fox News article
Reviews!
Discover Magazine - over 4 years
Many writerly friends of mine swear with a straight face that they never look at reviews of their books. I have tried but failed to comprehend the inner workings of these alien minds; personally, as much as I know it might pain me, I can’t help but read reviews. Sometimes I might even learn something! Or at least be gratified, in this nice review of The Particle at the End of the Universe by Adam Frank at NPR. Or, on the other hand, simply be amazed and astonished. The most amusing “review” so far has come from one of the good readers at Amazon, working under the nom de plume “Chosenbygrace Notworks,” and coming with the to-the-point title “Arrogant atheist `science’.” Apparently Chosenbygrace is not handicapped by actually having read the book, but did hear me talk on Coast to Coast AM. Here’s the opening: Sean Carroll is a typical atheist physicist who arrogantly disregards creationists to the point where he does not even acknowledge they exist unless prompted (like happened on ...
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Discover Magazine article
Owning Dr Salam
The Express Tribune Blogs - over 4 years
MELBOURNE: Dr Abdus Salam passed away on November 21, 1996. A lot has been written and said about him and his remarkable contributions towards science, which need no eulogy. On his death anniversary, I would like to sympathise with a hero who is not owned by anyone in his country in the real sense. Dr Salam got a scholarship due to the beneficence of Sir Chottu Ram of the Unionist Party of Punjab and hence reached the Cambridge University. His country, to which he remained loyal till his last breath, ostracised him from 1953 onwards. He even won the Nobel Prize, yet remained an unwanted child of his motherland. It is an extremely unfortunate and distressing fact that the government of Pakistan has never named any building or road after him or initiated any scholarship in his name. This remains a painful reality. I wish someone will own this orphan of great stature. Malik Atif Mahmood Majoka Published in The Express Tribune, November 21st, 2012 ...
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Abdus Salam
    TWENTIES
  • 1996
    In August 1996, the former chairman of PAEC and lifelong friend, Munir Ahmad Khan and met Salam in Oxford.
    More Details Hide Details Munir Ahmad Khan (late), who headed the nuclear weapons and energy programme, said: "My last meeting with Abdus Salam was only three months ago. His disease had taken its toll and he was unable to talk. Yet he understood what was said. I told him about the celebration held in Pakistan on his seventieth birthday. He kept staring at me. He had risen above praise. As I rose to leave he pressed my hand to express his feelings as if he wanted to thank everyone who had said kind words about him. Dr. Abdus Salam had deep love for Pakistan in spite of the fact that he was treated unfairly and indifferently by his own country. It became more and more difficult for him to come to Pakistan and this hurt him deeply. Now he has returned home finally, to rest in peace for ever in the soil that he loved so much. May be in the years to come we will rise above our prejudice and own him and give him, after his death, what we could not when he was alive. We Pakistanis may choose to ignore Dr. Salam, but the world at large will always remember him."
  • TEENAGE
  • 1983
    In 1983, Riazuddin and Asghar Qadir returned to ICTP where they had joined Salam, and stayed with him until 1990.
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  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1979
    During his visit at the Institute of Physics of Quaid-i-Azam University in 1979, Salam had explained after receiving his award: Physicists believed there are four fundamental forces of nature; the gravitational force, the weak and strong nuclear force, and the electromagnetic force.
    More Details Hide Details Salam was a firm believer that "scientific thought is the common heritage of mankind", and that developing nations needed to help themselves and invest in their own scientists to boost development and reduce the gap between the Global South and the Global North, thus contributing to a more peaceful world. Although Salam had departed from Pakistan, he did not terminate his connection to Pakistan. Salam continued inviting Pakistan's scientists to ICTP, and maintained a research programme for the Pakistani scientists. Many prominent scientists, including Ghulam Murtaza, Riazuddin, Kamaluddin Ahmed, Faheem Hussain, Raziuddin Siddiqui, Munir Ahmad Khan, Ishfaq Ahmad, and I. H. Usmani, considered him as their mentor and a teacher. Salam was a very private individual, who kept his public and personal lives quite separate. He married twice (the first time to a cousin, the second time in accordance with Islamic law), and at his death, was survived by three daughters and a son by his first wife, and a son and daughter by his second, Professor Dame Louise Johnson, formerly Professor of Molecular biophysics in Oxford University.
  • 1974
    In 1974, he founded International Nathiagali Summer College (INSC) to promote science in his country.
    More Details Hide Details The INSC is an annual meeting of scientists from all over the world to come to Pakistan and hold discussions on different aspects of physics and science. Even today, the INSC holds annual meetings, and Salam's pupil student Riazuddin is its director since its inception. In 1997, the scientists at ICTP commemorated Salam and renamed ICTP as "Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics". Salam had advocated for development of Science in third world countries, and attended various seminars in different countries. Throughout the years, Salam served on a number of United Nations committees concerning science and technology in developing countries. Salam also founded the Third World Academy of Sciences (TWAS) and was a leading figure in the creation of a number of international centres dedicated to the advancement of science and technology.
    Salam remained associated with the nuclear weapons programme until the mid-1974, when he left the country after Ahmadi were declared non-Muslims by the Pakistani Parliament.
    More Details Hide Details His own relations with Prime minister Bhutto fell out and turned into open hostility after the Ahmadiyya Community was declared as not-Islamic; he lodged a public and powerful protest against Bhutto regarding this issue and gave great criticism to Bhutto over his control over science. In spite of this, Salam maintained close relations with the theoretical physics division at PAEC who kept him informed about every status of the calculations needed to calculate the performance of the atomic bomb, according to Norman Dombey. After seeing Indian aggression in Northern Pakistan, followed by massive troops rotation in Southern Pakistan, Salam again renewed his ties with the senior scientists working in the atomic bomb projects, including Ishfaq Ahmad and others, who had kept him inform about the scientific development of the program. In the 1980s, Salam personally approved many appointments and a large influx of Pakistani scientists to the associateship program at ICTP and CERN, and engaged in research in theoretical physics with his students at the ICTP.
    On March 1974, Salam and Khan also established the Wah Group Scientist that was charged with manufacturing materials, explosive lenses and triggering mechanism development of the weapon.
    More Details Hide Details Following the setting up of DTD, Salam, along with Riazuddin and Munir Ahmad Khan, visited the Pakistan Ordnance Factories (POF) where they held talks with senior military engineers led by POF chairman Lieutenant-General Qamar Ali Mirza. It was there that the Corps of Engineers built the Metallurgical Laboratory in Wah Cantt in 1976. Thus, the Wah Group working under the DTD was charged with the material and triggering mechanism development of the weapon.
    In 1974, Abdus Salam departed from his country, in protest, after the Pakistan Parliament passed a controversial parliamentary bill declaring the Ahmadiyya movement, to which Salam belonged, as not-Islamic.
    More Details Hide Details In 1998, following the country's nuclear tests, the Government of Pakistan issued a commemorative stamp, as a part of "Scientists of Pakistan", to honour the services of Salam. Salam's major and notable achievements include the Pati–Salam model, magnetic photon, vector meson, Grand Unified Theory, work on supersymmetry and, most importantly, electroweak theory, for which he was awarded the most prestigious award in physics – the Nobel Prize. Salam made a major contribution in quantum field theory and in the advancement of Mathematics at Imperial College London. With his student, Riazuddin, Salam made important contributions to the modern theory on neutrinos, neutron stars and black holes, as well as the work on modernising the quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. As a teacher and science promoter, Salam is remembered as a founder and scientific father of mathematical and theoretical physics in Pakistan during his term as the chief scientific advisor to the president. Salam heavily contributed to the rise of Pakistani physics to the physics community in the world. Even until shortly before his death, Salam continued to contribute to physics, and to advocate for the development of science in Third-World countries.
  • 1972
    In 1972, Salam had formed the Mathematical Physics Group, under Raziuddin Siddiqui, that was charged, with the Theoretical Physics Group, with carrying out research in the theory of simultaneity during the detonation process, and the mathematics involved in the theory of nuclear fission Following India's surprise nuclear test —Pokhran-I – in 1974, Munir Ahmad Khan had called for a meeting to initiate work on atomic bomb, which was attended by Salam and at which Muhammad Hafeez Qureshi was appointed head of the Directorate of Technical Development in PAEC.
    More Details Hide Details The DTD was set up to co-ordinate the work of the various specialised groups of scientists and engineers working on different aspects of the atomic bomb. The word "bomb" was never used in this meeting, but the participants fully understood what was being discussed.
    In December 1972, two theoretical physicists working at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics were asked by Salam to report to Munir Ahmad Khan, the scientific director of the program.
    More Details Hide Details This marked the beginning of the "Theoretical Physics Group (TPG)", reporting directly to Salam. The TPG, in PAEC, was assigned to conduct research in fast neutron calculations, hydrodynamics (how the explosion produced by a chain reaction might behave), problems of neutron diffusion, and the development of theoretical designs of Pakistan's nuclear weapon devices. Later, the Theoretical Physics Group working under the leadership of Riazuddin, who was also Salam's student, began to directly report to Salam, and the work on the theoretical design of the nuclear weapon device was completed in 1977. Hence, Salam had led the groundbreaking work in the development of the weapons programme, with Khan.
    In 1972, Salam, as Science Advisor to the President, had managed and participated in a secret meeting of nuclear scientists with Bhutto in Multan, which came to be known as the "Multan Meeting".
    More Details Hide Details At this meeting, only I.H. Usmani protested, believing that the country had neither facilities nor talent to carry out such an ambitious and technologically remanding project at that time, whilst Salam remained quiet. Here, Bhutto entrusted Salam and appointed Munir Ahmad Khan as Chairman of the PAEC and head of the atomic bomb program, as Salam had supported Khan. Few months after the meeting, Salam, along with Khan and Riazuddin, met with Bhutto in his residence where the scientists briefed Bhutto about the nuclear weapons program. After the meeting, Salam established the "Theoretical Physics Group (TPG)" in PAEC. Abdus had led groundbreaking work at the TPG and was initially headed by Salam until 1974. An office was set up for Salam in the Prime ministers' Secretariat by order of Bhutto. Salam immediately started to motivate and invite scientists to begin work with PAEC in the development of fission weapons.
  • 1971
    In 1971, Salam had travelled to the United States and returned to Pakistan with scientific literature about the Manhattan Project, and calculations involving in atomic bombs.
    More Details Hide Details In 1972, the Government of Pakistan learned about the development status of the first atomic bomb completed under the Indian nuclear programme. On 20 January 1972, at the Multan meeting, Bhutto orchestrated to develop the deterrence programme. Former prime minister, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, formed a group of scientists and engineers, which was first headed by Salam.
    In November 1971, Salam met with Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in his residence, and following Bhutto's advice, Salam went to United States to avoid the 1971 Indo-Pak winter war.
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  • OTHER
  • 1965
    In 1965, the plutonium reactor Pakistan Atomic Research Reactor went critical under the leadership of Salam.
    More Details Hide Details In 1973, Salam proposed the idea of establishing an annual college to promote scientific activities in the country to the Chairman of PAEC, Munir Ahmad Khan, who wholeheartedly accepted and fully supported this idea. This led to the establishment of the International Nathiagali Summer College on Physics and Contemporary Needs (INSC), where each year since 1976 scientists from all over the world come to Pakistan to interact with Pakistani scientists. The first annual INSC conference was held on advanced particle and nuclear physics.
    In 1965, Salam led the establishing of the nuclear research institute—Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology.
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    In 1965, Abdus Salam and Edward Durrell Stone signed a contract for the establishment of Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology at Nilore, Islamabad.
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    In 1965, with the efforts led by Abdus Salam, the United States and Pakistan signed an agreement in which the US provided Pakistan with a small research reactor.
    More Details Hide Details Abdus Salam had a long dream to establish a research institute in Pakistan, for which he had advocated on many different occasions.
    It was due to his effort that in 1965, Canada and Pakistan signed a nuclear energy co-operation deal.
    More Details Hide Details Salam had obtained the permission from Ayub Khan – against the wishes of Ayub Khan's own government functionaries – to set up the nuclear power plant near Karachi.
  • 1964
    Abdus Salam played an influential and significant role in Pakistan's development in nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. In 1964, Abdus Salam was made head of Pakistan's IAEA delegation and represented Pakistan for a decade.
    More Details Hide Details The same year, Abdus Salam joined Munir Ahmad Khan – Abdus Salam's lifelong friend and contemporary at Government College University. Khan was the first person in the IAEA that Abdus Salam had consulted about the establishment of International Centre for Theoretical Physics, a research physics institution, in Trieste, Italy. With an agreement signed with IAEA, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics was set up with Abdus Salam as its first director. At IAEA, Abdus Salam had advocated the importance of nuclear power plants in his country.
  • 1961
    Salam was the founder of Pakistan's space programme as he was responsible for the establishment of the space research activities in Pakistan. In early 1961, Salam approached President Ayub Khan to lay the foundation of country's first executive agency to co-ordinate space research.
    More Details Hide Details On 16 September 1961, through an executive order, the Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) was established of which Salam was made its first and founder director of the agency. Salam immediately travelled to United States, where he successfully signed a space co-operation agreement with United States Government. In November 1961, NASA built Flight Test Center (FTC) in Balochistan Province. During this time, Salam visited Air Force Academy where he met with Air Commodore (Brigadier-General) Wladyslaw Turowicz – a Polish military scientist and an aerospace engineer. Turowicz was made the first technical director of the space centre, and a programme of rocket testing ensued. In 1964, while in the United States, Salam visited the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and met with nuclear engineers Salim Mehmud and Tariq Mustafa. Salam signed another agreement with National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in which NASA launched a programme to provide training to Pakistan's scientists and engineers. Both nuclear engineers returned to Pakistan in few months and were inducted in Suparco.
    In November 1961, NASA started to build a space facility – Flight Test Range – in Balochistan where Abdus Salam served as its first technical director.
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    In October 1961, Salam travelled to the United States and signed a space-co-operation agreement between Pakistan and United States.
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    On 16 September 1961, through an executive order, Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission was established, in which Abdus Salam served as the first director.
    More Details Hide Details Before 1960, very little work on scientific development was done, and scientific activities in Pakistan were almost diminished. Abdus Salam called Ishfaq Ahmad, a nuclear physicist, who had left the country for Switzerland where he joined CERN, to Pakistan. With the support of Abdus Salam, PAEC established PAEC Lahore Center-6, with Ishfaq Ahmad as its first director. In 1967, Abdus Salam became a central and administrative figure to lead the research in both Theoretical and Particle physics. With the establishment of Institute of Physics at Quaid-e-Azam University, the research in theoretical and particle physics was engaged. Under Abdus Salam's direction, physicists tackled the greatest outstanding problems in physics and mathematics. Another physicist, Raziuddin Siddiqui, established numerous physics research groups and supervised research activities in the academic institutions of Pakistan. Under the direction of Abdus Salam, research in physics reached a point that prompted worldwide recognition of Pakistani physicists.
    In September 1961, Abdus Salam approached President Ayub Khan to set up the country's first national space agency.
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  • 1960
    Abdus Salam returned to Pakistan in 1960 to take charge of a government post that was given to him by President Field Marshal Ayub Khan.
    More Details Hide Details From her independence, Pakistan has never had a coherent science policy, and the total expenditure on research and development represent ~1.0% of Pakistan's GDP. Even the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) headquarters was located in a small room, and less than 10 scientists were working on a fundamental concepts of physics. Abdus Salam replaced Salimuzzaman Siddiqui as Science Advisor, became first Member (technical) of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. Abdus Salam expanded the web of physics research and development in Pakistan by sending more than 500 scientists abroad.
  • 1959
    Physicists had believed that there were four fundamental forces of nature: the gravitational force, the strong and weak nuclear forces, and the electromagnetic force. Salam had worked on the unification of these forces from 1959 with Glashow and Weinberg.
    More Details Hide Details While at Imperial College London, Salam successfully showed that weak nuclear forces are not really different from electromagnetic forces, and two could inter-convert. Salam provided a theory that shows the unification of two fundamental forces of nature, weak nuclear forces and the electromagnetic forces, one into another. Glashow had also formulated the same work, and the theory was combined in 1966. In 1967, Salam proved the electroweak unification theory mathematically, and finally published the papers. For this achievement, Salam, Glashow, and Weinberg were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1979. The Nobel Prize Foundation paid tribute to the scientists and issued a statement saying: "For their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current". In the 1970s Salam continued trying to unify forces by including the strong interaction in a grand unified theory.
    Salam took a fellowship at the Princeton University in 1959, where he met with J.
    More Details Hide Details Robert Oppenheimer and to whom he presented his research work on neutrinos. Oppenheimer and Salam discussed the foundation of electrodynamics, problems and their solution. His dedicated personal assistant was Jean Bouckley. In 1980, Salam became a foreign fellow of the Bangladesh Academy of Sciences. Early in his career, Salam made an important and significant contribution in quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory, including its extension into particle and nuclear physics. In his early career in Pakistan, Salam was greatly interested in mathematical series and their relation to physics. Salam had played an influential role in the advancement of nuclear physics, but he maintained and dedicated himself to mathematics and theoretical physics and focused Pakistan to do more research in theoretical physics. However, he regarded nuclear physics (nuclear fission and nuclear power) as a non-pioneering part of physics as it had already "happened". Even in Pakistan, Salam was the leading driving force in theoretical physics in Pakistan, with many scientists he continued to influence and encourage to keep their work on theoretical physics.
    At age 33, Salam became one of the youngest persons to be elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1959.
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  • 1957
    In 1957, Punjab University conferred Salam with an Honorary doctorate for his contribution in Particle physics.
    More Details Hide Details The same year with help from his mentor, Salam launched a scholarship programme for his students in Pakistan. Salam retained strong links with Pakistan, and visited his country from time to time. At Cambridge and Imperial College he formed a group of theoretical physicists, the majority of whom were his Pakistani students.
    In 1957, he was invited to take a chair at Imperial College, London, and he and Paul Matthews went on to set up the Theoretical Physics Department at Imperial College.
    More Details Hide Details As time passed, this department became one of the prestigious research departments that included well known physicists such as Steven Weinberg, Tom Kibble, Gerald Guralnik, C. R. Hagen, Riazuddin, and John Ward.
  • 1953
    As a result of 1953 Lahore riots, Salam went back to Cambridge and joined St John's College, and took a position as a professor of mathematics in 1954.
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    In 1953, Salam was unable to establish a research institute in Lahore, as he faced strong opposition from his peers.
    More Details Hide Details In 1954, Salam took fellowship and became one of the earliest fellows of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences.
  • 1952
    In 1952, he was appointed professor and Chair of the Department of Mathematics at the neighbouring University of the Punjab.
    More Details Hide Details In the latter capacity, Salam sought to update the university curriculum, introducing a course in Quantum mechanics as a part of the undergraduate curriculum. However, this initiative was soon reverted by the Vice-Chancellor, and Salam decided to teach an evening course in Quantum Mechanics outside the regular curriculum. While Salam enjoyed a mixed popularity in the university, he began to supervise the education of students who were particularly influenced by him. As a result, Riazuddin remained the only student of Salam who has the privilege to study under Salam at the under-graduate and post-graduate level in Lahore, and Post-doctoral level in Cambridge University.
  • 1951
    After receiving his doctorate in 1951, Salam returned to Lahore at the Government College University as a Professor of Mathematics where he remained till 1954.
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  • 1950
    In 1950, he received the Smith's Prize from Cambridge University for the most outstanding pre-doctoral contribution to Physics.
    More Details Hide Details After finishing his degrees, Fred Hoyle advised Salam to spend another year in the Cavendish Laboratory to do research in experimental physics, but Salam had no patience for carrying out long experiments in the laboratory. Salam returned to Jhang, Punjab (now part of Pakistan) and renewed his scholarship and returned to the United Kingdom to do his doctorate. He obtained a PhD degree in Theoretical Physics from the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge. His doctoral thesis contained comprehensive and fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics. By the time it was published in 1951, it had already gained him an international reputation and the Adams Prize. During his doctoral studies, his mentors challenged him to solve within one year an intractable problem which had defied such great minds as Dirac and Feynman. Within six months, Salam had found a solution for the renormalisation of meson theory. As he proposed the solution at the Cavendish Laboratory, Salam had attracted the attention of Bethe, Oppenheimer and Dirac.
  • 1949
    That same year, he was awarded a scholarship to St John's College, Cambridge, where he completed a BA degree with Double First-Class Honours in Mathematics and Physics in 1949.
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  • 1946
    He received his MA in Mathematics from the Government College University in 1946.
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  • 1944
    Salam's mentor and tutors wanted him to become an English teacher, but Salam decided to stick with Mathematics As a fourth-year student there, he published his work on Srinivasa Ramanujan's problems in mathematics, and took his B.A. in Mathematics in 1944.
    More Details Hide Details His father wanted him to join Indian Civil Service. In those days, the Indian Civil Service was the highest aspiration for young university graduates and civil servants occupied a respected place in the civil society. Respecting his father's wish, Salam tried for the Indian Railways but did not qualify for the service as he failed the medical optical tests because he had worn spectacles since an early age. The results further concluded that Salam failed a mechanical test required by the railway engineers to gain a commission in Indian Railways, and moreover that Salam was too young to compete for the job. Therefore, Indian Railways rejected Abdus Salam's job application. While in Lahore, Abdus Salam went on to attend the graduate school of Government College University.
  • 1926
    Born on January 29, 1926.
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