Adolf Anderssen
German chess master
Adolf Anderssen
Karl Ernst Adolf Anderssen was a German chess master. He is considered to have been the world's leading chess player in the 1850s and 1860s. He was "dethroned" temporarily in 1858 by Paul Morphy.
Biography
Adolf Anderssen's personal information overview.
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160 Jahre "Unsterbliche" - Chessbase News
Google News - over 5 years
In einer freien Partie am Rande des berühmten ersten Turniers der modernen Schachgeschichte, London 1851, spielten Adolf Anderssen und Lionel Kieseritzky gegeneinander. Dem Geiste der Schachromantik folgend opferte Anderssen im Königsgambit zwei Türme
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Ajedrez, venganza del raptado - El Colombiano
Google News - over 5 years
Con las piezas blancas el ajedrecista polaco Adolf Anderssen, con las negras el bigotudo alemán Jean Dufresne. En la jugada 47 Anderssen canta el mate, luego de trazar los últimos lances al filo de la navaja, con su rey a solo una jugada de la muerte
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Historischer Kalender - derStandard.at
Google News - over 5 years
1851 - Im Londoner St.-Georgs-Club beginnt das erste Meisterturnier im Schach, es wird von dem Deutschen Adolf Anderssen gewonnen. 1931 - Der Schweizer Physiker Auguste Piccard steigt mit Hilfe eines Ballons mit geschlossener Kabine auf 15.800 Meter
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Arte, la sfida dei re: scacchiera animata a piazza Vittorio a Roma - L'UNICO (Blog)
Google News - over 5 years
... gli alunni delle classi medie dell'Istituto e gli adulti che frequentano il Centro territoriale Permanente «N. Mandela» mostreranno le partite «'immortale» del 1851 e la «Sempreverde» del 1852 giocate dal Grande Maestro Adolf Anderssen col bianco!
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Scacchi in musica: te le suono in 7 note! - Blogosfere (Blog)
Google News - almost 6 years
Jonathan non ci lascia a metà strada, mettendo in mp3 l'Immortale di Adolf Anderssen contro Lionel Kieseritzky. Prima la partita, poi la musica! Per ascoltare questa immortale partita cliccate qui, ma non so se la melodia sarà altrettanto immortale
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ART; The Ritual of Chess, a Decoder of Life
NYTimes - about 9 years
NATHANIEL LAGEMANN had just clinched a tournament victory at a chess club in Santa Monica, Calif., when the artist Diana Thater found him discussing the match with his final opponent. Ms. Thater was looking for a teenage chess player for her new video project, she told Mr. Lagemann, 19. She asked if she could inspect his hands. ''I guess she wanted
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Long Live the King
NYTimes - over 10 years
THE IMMORTAL GAME A History of Chess, or How 32 Carved Pieces on a Board Illuminated Our Understanding of War, Art, Science, and the Human Brain. By David Shenk. 327 pp. Doubleday. $26. For all the words written on the topic of chess -- and there are entire libraries devoted to the subject -- some fundamental mysteries persist: What exactly are the
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CHESS; Morozevich Shuns Fireworks, Thriving on Positional Battles
NYTimes - over 12 years
Salo Flohr of Czechoslovakia made his debut in top-class chess in the pre-World War II years as a brilliant combination player who was hot at speed chess. Unlike many players destined for greatness, he was a chess reporter before his genius was recognized. After tournaments, he challenged the champions to play for stakes. They soon recognized that
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CHESS; An Old, Slow-Going Method That Gives Nothing Away
NYTimes - about 15 years
The National Chess Congress at the Adam's Mark Hotel in Philadelphia, Nov. 23 to 25, ended in a five-way tie for first: the grandmaster Leonid Yudasin of Israel, the international master Enrico Sevillano of the Philippines, and Daniel Shapiro, Igor Khmelnitsky and Dmitry Schneider of the United States got the winning 5 points. A total of 150
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Chess
NYTimes - over 25 years
Not since Adolf Anderssen of Germany, 1818-1879, has any world class player preferred knights to bishops, but Anderssen got his comeuppance at the hands of Wilhelm Steinitz, the world's greatest player from 1866, when he defeated Anderssen, to 1894. Now along comes the 21-year-old Ukrainian grandmaster, Vasily Ivanchuk, to champion the knight. He
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CHESS; THE KING'S GAMBIT: SHADOW OR SUBSTANCE?
NYTimes - over 33 years
The King's Gambit, once the noble trigger of glorious, scintillating attacking play, hardly appears anymore in tournament practice; and when it does, nostalgia or reckless suprise is its motive. Even as early as 1858, Paul Morphy and Adolf Anderssen, two of the greatest connoisseurs of the gambit, put it aside for the serious games of their match
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CHESS; HIS SPIRIT LIVES ON IN THE ANTI-MERAN
NYTimes - over 33 years
What would there be in the current openings repertoire to whet the appetite of a 19th-century romantic master of attack such as Adolf Anderssen? It would be a waste of time to show him hypermodern openings like the Reti and Catalan, whose delicate finesses and subtle pawn play would put an Anderssen to sleep. But he could not help being intrigued
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Adolf Anderssen
    LATE_ADULTHOOD
  • 1879
    Age 60
    The Deutsche Schachzeitung noted his death in 1879 with a nineteen-page obituary.
    More Details Hide Details Bombing raids during World War II damaged his grave in Breslau. After the war, the city became part of Poland and is now known under its Polish name Wrocław. In 1957, the Polish Chess Federation decided to re-bury Anderssen in a new grave at the Osobowicki Cemetery. Sources: Sources:
  • FIFTIES
  • 1877
    Age 58
    The Leipzig 1877 tournament, in which Anderssen came second behind Louis Paulsen, was organized to commemorate the 50th anniversary of Anderssen's learning the chess moves.
    More Details Hide Details The initiative sprang from the Central German Chess Federation. It is the only tournament ever organized to commemorate a competitor. Still at Leipzig, Anderssen lost a match against tournament winner Louis Paulsen (three wins, one draw, and five losses). Matches were Anderssen's relative weakness; his only match win in this period was in 1868, against the 26-year-old Johann Zukertort (eight wins, one draw, and three losses). Anderssen was very successful in European tournaments from 1851 to early 1878, taking first prize in over half of the events in which he played. His only recorded tournament failures were a one-game-per-round knock-out event in 1857 and sixth place at Paris 1878 when his health was failing and he had only about a year to live. His match record was much weaker: out of the 12 that he played, he won only two, drew four and lost six.
  • 1871
    Age 52
    Anderssen usually beat Zukertort in matches but his dominance came to an end came 1871.
    More Details Hide Details
  • 1870
    Age 51
    One of his first places was ahead of Steinitz, Gustav Neumann, Joseph Henry Blackburne, Louis Paulsen and several other very strong players at the Baden-Baden 1870 chess tournament.
    More Details Hide Details This is regarded as one of the top 20 strongest tournaments ever despite the proliferation of "super tournaments" since 1990. One of Anderssen's third places was at the strong Vienna 1873 tournament, when he was 55. About half of Anderssen's tournament successes came at championships of the different regional German Chess Federations; but these were open to all nationalities, and most of them had a few "top ten" or even "top five" competitors.
  • FORTIES
  • 1866
    Age 47
    In 1866 Anderssen lost a close match with 30-year-old Wilhelm Steinitz (six wins, eight losses, and no draws; Steinitz won the last two games). Although Steinitz is now known for inventing the positional approach to chess and demonstrating its superiority, the 1866 match was played in the attack-at-all-costs style of the 1850s and 1860s.
    More Details Hide Details This is generally seen as the point at which Steinitz succeeded Anderssen as the world's leading active player. Although ideas of a contest for the world championship had been floating around since the 1840s, the 1866 Anderssen–Steinitz match was not defined as being for the world championship, and many were opposed to the claim of such a title while Morphy was retired from chess and still alive. Furthermore, Anderssen remained dominant both in top tournaments & in personal matches against Zukertort until 1871. By this time tournaments were becoming more frequent, and the round-robin format was adopted. At the same time, Anderssen, after losing the match to Morphy in 1858 and to Steinitz in 1866, re-dedicated himself to chess, particularly studying both endgames and positional play. The result was that Anderssen, in his early fifties, was playing the finest chess of his career. As a result, Anderssen compiled a very successful tournament record in the late stages of his career: five first places, two second places, two third places; and a sixth place in the final year of his life, when his health was failing.
  • 1862
    Age 43
    Anderssen's only known competitive chess between 1862 and 1866 was a drawn match (three wins, three losses, and two draws) in 1864 against Berthold Suhle, who was a strong player and respected chess writer.
    More Details Hide Details
    Anderssen won the London 1862 chess tournament, the first international round-robin tournament (in which each participant plays a game against each of the others) with a score of twelve wins out of thirteen games.
    More Details Hide Details He lost only one game, to the Rev. John Owen and finished two points ahead of Louis Paulsen, who had the best playing record in the early 1860s. Morphy had retired from chess at this time, so Anderssen was again generally regarded as the world's leading active player.
  • 1860
    Age 41
    After the match with Morphy, Anderssen played two matches against Ignác Kolisch, one of the leading players of the time, who later became a wealthy banker and patron of chess. Anderssen drew their match in 1860 and narrowly won in 1861 (5/9; won four, drew two, lost three; Kolisch was ahead at the half-way stage).
    More Details Hide Details
  • 1859
    Age 40
    However Morphy returned to the USA in 1859 and soon afterwards announced his retirement from serious chess.
    More Details Hide Details Hence Anderssen was once again the strongest active player. Anderssen played the curious opening move 1. a3 in three games of his match against Morphy, and broke even with it (one loss, one draw, one win). This opening move, now referred to as "Anderssen's Opening", has never been popular in serious competition. Shortly after the 1851 London International tournament, Anderssen played his two most famous games, both casual encounters which he won by combinations that involved several sacrifices. In the first, as Black, but moving first, against Lionel Kieseritzky in London just after the International tournament (1851) and now called the "Immortal Game", he sacrificed a bishop, both rooks and finally his queen. In the second, played in Berlin in 1852 as white against Jean Dufresne and now called the "Evergreen Game", the total sacrifice was more modest, but still exceeded a queen and a minor piece.
  • THIRTIES
  • 1858
    Age 39
    Then in late 1858 he was beaten 8–3 by the American champion Paul Morphy in a famous match held in Paris, France (two wins, two draws, seven losses).
    More Details Hide Details Although Anderssen knew as well as anyone how to attack, Morphy understood much better when to attack and how to prepare an attack. Morphy had recently scored equally convincing wins in matches against other top-class players: Johann Löwenthal, the Rev. John Owen and Daniel Harrwitz.
  • 1851
    Age 32
    Opportunities for tournament play remained rare, and Anderssen was reluctant to travel far because of the expense. In his one recorded tournament between 1851 and 1862, a one-game-per-round knock-out tournament at Manchester in 1857, he was eliminated in the second round.
    More Details Hide Details
    Although most chess books regard Wilhelm Steinitz as the first true world champion, one of the organizers of the 1851 London International tournament had said the contest was for "the baton of the World’s Chess Champion".
    More Details Hide Details In fact Anderssen was not described as "the world champion", but the tournament established Anderssen as the world's leading chess player, at the time it had same meaning. The London Chess Club, which had fallen out with Staunton and his colleagues, organized a tournament that was played a month later and included several players who had competed in the International Tournament. The result was the same – Anderssen won.
    The 1851 International Tournament was a knock-out event in which pairs of competitors played short matches, and Anderssen won it by beating Lionel Kieseritzky, József Szén, Staunton, and Marmaduke Wyvill – by margins of at least two games in every case.
    More Details Hide Details His prize was two-thirds of the total prize fund of £500, i.e. about £335; that is equivalent to about £240,000 ($370,200) in 2006's money. When Anderssen and Szén found they were to play each other, they agreed that, if either won the tournament, the other would receive one-third of the prize; this does not appear to have been considered in any way unethical.
    Anderssen's preparations for the 1851 London International Tournament produced a surge in his playing strength: he played over 100 games in early 1851 against strong opponents including Carl Mayet, Ernst Falkbeer, Max Lange and Jean Dufresne.
    More Details Hide Details
    On the basis of this match and his general chess reputation, he was invited to represent German chess at the first international chess tournament, to be held in London in 1851.
    More Details Hide Details Anderssen was reluctant to accept the invitation, as he was deterred by the travel costs. However the tournament's principal organizer, Howard Staunton, offered to pay Anderssen's travel expenses out of his own pocket if necessary, should Anderssen fail to win a tournament prize. Anderssen accepted this generous offer.
  • TWENTIES
  • 1848
    Age 29
    In 1848 Anderssen drew a match with the professional player Daniel Harrwitz.
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  • 1846
    Age 27
    Nevertheless, by 1846 he was able to put up a good fight against another Pleiades member, Tassilo von Heydebrand und der Lasa, who may have been the world's strongest player at the time.
    More Details Hide Details In 1846, he became the editor of the magazine Schachzeitung der Berliner Schachgesellschaft (later called Deutsche Schachzeitung) when its founder Ludwig Bledow, one of the "Berlin Pleiades", died. Anderssen held this post until 1865.
  • 1842
    Age 23
    Anderssen first came to the attention of the chess world when he published Aufgabe für Schachspieler ("Task for chess players"), a collection of 60 chess problems, in 1842.
    More Details Hide Details He continued to publish problems for many years, both in magazines and as a second collection in 1852. These brought him to the attention of the "Berlin Pleiades" group, which included some of the strongest players of the time, and he played matches against some of them. Anderssen's development as a player was relatively slow, largely because he could spare neither the time nor the money to play many matches against strong players.
  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1818
    Born
    Anderssen was born in Breslau (now called Wrocław), in the Prussian Province of Silesia, in 1818.
    More Details Hide Details He lived there for most of his life, sharing a house with and supporting his widowed mother and his unmarried sister. Anderssen never married. He graduated from the public gymnasium (high school) in Breslau and then attended university, where he studied mathematics and philosophy. After graduating in 1847 at the age of 29, he took a position at the Friedrichs-Gymnasium as an instructor and later as Professor of Mathematics. Anderssen lived a quiet, stable, responsible, respectable middle-class life. His career was teaching mathematics, while his hobby and passion was playing chess. When Anderssen was nine years old, his father taught him how to play chess. Anderssen said that as a boy, he learned the strategy of the game from a copy of William Lewis' book Fifty Games between Labourdonnais and McDonnell (1835).
Original Authors of this text are noted here.
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