Alaric I
King of the Visigoths
Alaric I
Alaric I was the King of the Visigoths from 395–410. Alaric is most famous for his sack of Rome in 410, which marked a decisive event in the decline of the Roman Empire. Alaric's first appearance was as the leader of a mixed band of Goths and allied peoples who invaded Thrace in 391, who were stopped by the half-Vandal Roman General Stilicho. Later joining the Roman army, he began his career under the Gothic soldier Gainas.
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Buzz Blabber: You're Happy to See Caroline and Tyler Together - BuzzSugar.com (blog)
Google News - over 5 years
I am in the minority though — I love Elena and Stefan together. I loved that he called her at the end. I'm loving Tyler and Caroline. Then there is Alaric. Poor Alaric. I hope they do something good with him because I've always liked that character
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5 Other Surprise Attacks That Changed History - NPR
Google News - over 5 years
Aided by rebellious slaves, Alaric I and the Visigoths rushed through a city gate unexpectedly. The three-day siege was the first time in centuries that Rome had been sacked and invaded, says Dameron, "and it was a massive political and psychological
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MUSIC REVIEW; For the Classical Saxophone, A Chance at Last to Show Off
NYTimes - about 13 years
It's easy to feel sorry for the classical saxophone, that orchestral Cinderella, brought in to join the symphonic fun when a little exotic color is needed but mostly left at home to practice watered-down arrangements of violin showpieces and transcriptions of Bach cello suites. But before shedding too many tears, consider how well it fared in the
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Children's Cemetery a Clue To Malaria as Rome Declined
NYTimes - over 22 years
DIGGING among the ruins of a Roman villa, archeologists have made a macabre discovery about disease and death in the fifth century A.D., and perhaps even about the reasons for Attila the Hun's decision to leave his invasion of Italy unfinished and for the decline and fall of the Roman Empire. The discovery is a cemetery for infants, excavated over
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ART; In Litchfield, Mongolian Artists Celebrate Their Country
NYTimes - almost 23 years
IN the fifth century they were the Huns; pushing other barbarian peoples ahead of them, they reached Gaul. If their king, Attila, had lived longer, they might have penetrated Italy to complete the destruction of Rome begun in 410 by Alaric I, the Visigoth. Early in the 13th century they surged out of Asia as the Mongols, to establish the largest
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Alaric I
    CHILDHOOD
  • 4100
    Died in 410.
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    However, this may be—for our information at this point of the story is meagre—on August 24, 410, Alaric and his Visigoths burst in by the Porta Salaria on the northeast of the city.
    More Details Hide Details Rome, for so long victorious against its enemies, was now at the mercy of its foreign conquerors. The contemporary ecclesiastics recorded with wonder many instances of the Visigoths' clemency: Christian churches saved from ravage; protection granted to vast multitudes both of pagans and Christians who took refuge therein; vessels of gold and silver which were found in a private dwelling, spared because they "belonged to St. Peter"; at least one case in which a beautiful Roman matron appealed, not in vain, to the better feelings of the Gothic soldier who attempted her dishonor. But even these exceptional instances show that Rome was not entirely spared the horrors which usually accompany the storming of a besieged city. Nonetheless, the written sources do not mention damages wrought by fire, save the Gardens of Sallust, which were situated close to the gate by which the Goths had made their entrance; nor is there any reason to attribute any extensive destruction of the buildings of the city to Alaric and his followers. The Basilica Aemilia in the Roman Forum did burn down, which perhaps can be attributed to Alaric: the archaeological evidence was provided by coins dating from 410 found melted in the floor. The pagan emperors' tombs of the Mausoleum of Augustus and Castel Sant'Angelo were rifled and the ashes scattered.
    Alaric is best known for his sack of Rome in 410, which marked a decisive event in the decline of the Roman Empire.
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  • 4090
    As all attempts to conduct a satisfactory negotiation with this emperor failed, Alaric, after instituting a second siege and blockade of Rome in 409, came to terms with the Senate.
    More Details Hide Details With their consent, he set up a rival emperor, the prefect of the city, a Greek named Priscus Attalus. Alaric cashiered his ineffectual puppet emperor after eleven months and again tried to reopen negotiations with Honorius. These negotiations might have succeeded had it not been for the influence of another Goth, Sarus, an Amali, and therefore hereditary enemy of Alaric and his house. Alaric, again outwitted by an enemy's machinations, marched southward and in deadly earnest, began his third siege of Rome. Apparently, defence was impossible; there are hints, not well substantiated, of treachery; surprise is a more likely explanation.
  • 4030
    After another defeat before Verona, Alaric left Italy, probably in 403.
    More Details Hide Details He had not "penetrated to the city" but his invasion of Italy had produced important results. It caused the imperial residence to be transferred from Milan to Ravenna, and necessitated the withdrawal of Legio XX Valeria Victrix from Britain. Alaric became the friend and ally of his erstwhile opponent, Stilicho. By 407, the estrangement between the eastern and western courts had become so bitter that it threatened civil war. Stilicho actually proposed using Alaric's troops to enforce Honorius' claim to the prefecture of Illyricum. The death of Arcadius in May 408 caused milder counsel to prevail in the western court, but Alaric, who had actually entered Epirus, demanded in a somewhat threatening manner that if he were thus suddenly requested to desist from war, he should be paid handsomely for what modern language would call the "expenses of mobilization". The sum which he named was a large one, 4,000 pounds of gold. Under strong pressure from Stilicho, the Roman Senate consented to promise its payment.
  • 4010
    It was probably in 401 that Alaric made his first invasion of Italy, originally with the intention to petition for a position closer to Rome.
    More Details Hide Details Alaric had a fascination for the 'golden age' of Rome and insisted on his tribesmen calling him 'Alaricus'. Supernatural influences were not lacking to urge him to this great enterprise. Some lines of the Roman poet Claudian inform us that he heard a voice proceeding from a sacred grove, "Break off all delays, Alaric. This very year thou shalt force the Alpine barrier of Italy; thou shalt penetrate to the city." But the prophecy was not to be fulfilled at this time. After spreading desolation through North Italy and striking terror into the citizens of Rome, Alaric was met by Stilicho at Pollentia, today in Piedmont. The battle which followed on April 6, 402 (coinciding with Easter), was a victory for Rome, though a costly one. But it effectively halted the Goths' progress. Stilicho's enemies later reproached him for having gained his victory by taking impious advantage of the great Christian festival. Alaric, too, was outwardly a Christian, though an Arian, not Orthodox though he continued to practice the Pagan rituals of his ancestors as well as observing Christian ritual practices. He had trusted to the sanctity of Easter for immunity from attack.
  • 3960
    Rufinus' death and Stilicho's departure gave free rein to Alaric's movements; he ravaged Attica but spared Athens, which capitulated at once to the conqueror. In 396, he wiped out the last remnants of the Mysteries at Eleusis in Attica, ending a tradition of esoteric religious ceremonies that had lasted since the Bronze Age.
    More Details Hide Details Then he penetrated into the Peloponnesus and captured its most famous cities—Corinth, Argos, and Sparta—selling many of their inhabitants into slavery. Here, however, his victorious career suffered a serious setback. In 397 Stilicho crossed the sea to Greece and succeeded in trapping the Goths in the mountains of Pholoe, on the borders of Elis and Arcadia in the peninsula. From there Alaric escaped with difficulty, and not without some suspicion of connivance by Stilicho, who supposedly had again received orders to depart. Alaric then crossed the Gulf of Corinth and marched with the plunder of Greece northward to Epirus. Here his rampage continued until the eastern government appointed him magister militum per Illyricum, giving him the Roman command he had desired, as well as the authority to resupply his men from the imperial arsenals.
  • 3950
    Disappointed, he left the army and was elected reiks of the Visigoths in 395, and marched toward Constantinople until he was diverted by Roman forces.
    More Details Hide Details He then moved southward into Greece, where he sacked Piraeus (the port of Athens) and destroyed Corinth, Megara, Argos, and Sparta. As a response, the Eastern emperor Flavius Arcadius appointed Alaric magister militum ("master of the soldiers") in Illyricum. In 401 Alaric invaded Italy, but he was defeated by Stilicho at Pollentia (modern Pollenza) on April6, 402. A second invasion that same year also ended in defeat at the Battle of Verona, though Alaric forced the Roman Senate to pay a large subsidy to the Visigoths. During Radagaisus' Italian invasion in 406, Alaric remained idle in Illyria. In 408, Western Emperor Flavius Honorius ordered the execution of Stilicho and his family, amid rumours that the general had made a deal with Alaric. Honorius then incited the Roman population to massacre tens of thousands of wives and children of foederati Goths serving in the Roman military. Subsequently, around 30,000 Gothic soldiers defected to Alaric, and joined his march on Rome to avenge their murdered families.
  • 3940
    In 394 Alaric served as a leader of foederati under Theodosius I in the campaign which crushed the usurper Eugenius.
    More Details Hide Details As the Battle of the Frigidus, which terminated this campaign, was fought at the passes of the Julian Alps, Alaric probably learned the weakness of Italy's natural defences on its northeastern frontier at the head of the Adriatic Sea. Theodosius died in 395, leaving the Empire to be divided between his two sons Arcadius and Honorius, the former taking the eastern and the latter the western portion of the Empire. Arcadius showed little interest in ruling, leaving most of the actual power to his Praetorian Prefect Rufinus. Honorius was still a minor; as his guardian, Theodosius had appointed the magister militum Stilicho. Stilicho also claimed to be the guardian of Arcadius, causing much rivalry between the western and eastern courts. According to Edward Gibbon in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, during the shifting of offices that took place at the beginning of the new reigns, Alaric apparently hoped he would be promoted from a mere commander to the rank of general in one of the regular armies. He was denied the promotion, however. Among the Visigoths settled in Lower Moesia (now part of Bulgaria and Romania), the situation was ripe for rebellion. They had suffered disproportionately great losses at Frigidus. According to rumour, exposing the Visigoths in battle was a convenient way of weakening the Gothic tribes. This, combined with their post-battle rewards, prompted them to raise Alaric "on a shield" and proclaim him king; according to Jordanes, a 6th-century Roman bureaucrat of Gothic origin who later turned his hand to history, both the new king and his people decided "rather to seek new kingdoms by their own work, than to slumber in peaceful subjection to the rule of others."
    In 394 he led a Gothic force of 20,000 that helped the Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius defeat the Frankish usurper Arbogast at the Battle of Frigidus.
    More Details Hide Details Despite sacrificing around 10,000 of his men, Alaric received little recognition from the Emperor.
  • 3910
    Alaric began his career under the Gothic soldier Gainas and later joined the Roman army. Alaric's first appearance was as the leader of a mixed band of Goths and allied peoples who invaded Thrace in 391 and were stopped by the half-Vandal Roman General Stilicho.
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  • 3700
    Born in 370.
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