<%= render :partial => '/v9/shared/analytics'

Alois Hudal

Catholic Bishop

Alois Hudal was a Rome-based bishop of Austrian descent. For thirty years, he was the head of the small Austrian-German congregation of Santa Maria dell'Anima in Rome and, until 1937, an influential representative of the Austrian Church.

related links

News + Updates

Browse recent news and stories about Alois Hudal.


Learn about the memorable moments in the evolution of Alois Hudal.


1885 Birth Bishop Alois Hudal was born on 31 May 1885, the son of a shoemaker in the Austrian city of Graz, where he studied theology (1904–1908) and was ordained to the priesthood in July 1908. … Read More


1911 26 Years Old In 1911 he became a Doctor of Sacred Theology at the University of Graz. … Read More
1914 29 Years Old He took residency in the faculty for Old Testament Studies at the University of Graz in 1914. … Read More


1917 32 Years Old In 1917 he published his sermons to the soldiers, Soldatenpredigten (see below, in his selected works), in which he expressed the idea that "loyalty to the flag is loyalty to God", though also warning against "national chauvinism" at that time. … Read More
1922 37 Years Old The Austrian ambassador Ludwig von Pastor, highly regarded as a papal historian and enjoying unparalleled access to the Vatican, introduced Hudal to Pius XI and the Vatican. On April 9, 1922, he first mentioned Hudal by recommending a scholarly Hudal publication on the Serbo-Croatian National Church to the interested Pontiff.
1923 38 Years Old 1 More Event
On February 5, 1923, he recommended Hudal for the position in the Anima, mainly because he was Austrian. … Read More
1924 39 Years Old In 1924, Hudal, in a rare Vatican ceremony in the presence of Pope Pius XI, Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri and numerous cardinals, delivered a laudation of Pastor. … Read More


1930 45 Years Old In 1930 he was appointed a consultant to the Holy Office by Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val, whom Hudal in his memoirs considered a "grand seigneur of the Church". … Read More
1933 48 Years Old From 1933 on, Hudal embraced publicly the pan-Germanic nationalism he had previously condemned, proclaiming in July of that year that he always wished to be a "servant and herald" of "the total German cause". … Read More
1934 49 Years Old 1 More Event
Hudal was highly critical of the works of several Nazi ideologues, like Alfred Rosenberg or Ernst Bergmann, who publicly despised Christianity and considered it "alien to Germanic genius". The condemnation in 1934 by the Holy Office of Reich secretary Alfred Rosenberg's The Myth of the Twentieth Century and, shortly thereafter, of Ernst Bergmann's The German National Church had in fact been based on Hudal's secret assessment of both works In his own 1937 book, Alois Hudal proposed a reconciliation and a pragmatic compromise between Nazism and Christianity, leaving the education of the youth to the Churches, while the latter would leave politics entirely to National Socialism. … Read More


1935 50 Years Old 1 More Event
By 1935, Alois Hudal, however, had become influential in creating a proposed list of "errors and heresies" of the "era", containing several racist errors of Nazi politicians, the Nuremberg laws, but also condemning several quotes directly taken from Mein Kampf; this list was accepted by Pope Pius XI as an adequate condemnation, but he wanted an encyclical rather than a mere syllabus. … Read More
1936 51 Years Old Hudal was particularly close to Franz von Papen, who as the Reich's ambassador in Vienna prepared the German-Austrian agreement of 11 July 1936, which some claim paved the way for the Anschluss. … Read More
…  In his 1937 book The Foundations of National Socialism Hudal praised Adolf Hitler and some of his policies and indirectly attacked the policies of the Vatican. … Read More
1943 58 Years Old …  In September 1943, Rauff was sent to Milan, where he took charge of all Gestapo and SD operations throughout northwest Italy. … Read More


After 1945, Hudal continued to be isolated in the Vatican. … Read More
1947 62 Years Old Hudal's activities caused a press scandal in 1947, after he was accused of leading a Nazi smuggling ring by the Passauer Neue Presse, a Catholic newspaper, but, as in 1923, playing the Austrian versus the Vatican and German cards, he only resigned as rector of Santa Maria dell'Anima in 1952, under joint pressure from the German and Austrian bishops and the Holy See.
1948 63 Years Old While his official status was a minor one, Hudal clearly played a role in the rat line. In 1999, Italian researcher Matteo Sanfilippo revealed a letter drafted on 31 August 1948 by Bishop Hudal to Argentinian President Juan Perón, requesting 5,000 visas, 3,000 for German and 2,000 for Austrian "soldiers". … Read More
1949 64 Years Old He died on July 14, 1949, in the Roman hospital of Santo Spirito "in the arms" of Bishop Hudal.
1952 67 Years Old In January 1952, the Bishop of Salzburg told Hudal that the Holy See wanted to dismiss him. … Read More
1962 77 Years Old 1 More Event
He resided afterwards in Grottaferrata, near the city of Rome, where in 1962 he wrote his embittered memoirs called Römische Tagebücher. … Read More
1963 78 Years Old 1 More Event
Until his death in 1963, he never gave up in trying to obtain an amnesty for Nazis.
Original Authors of this text are noted on http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alois_Hudal.
Text is made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.