Alois Hudal
Catholic bishop
Alois Hudal
Alois Hudal was a Rome-based bishop of Austrian descent. For thirty years, he was the head of the small Austrian-German congregation of Santa Maria dell'Anima in Rome and, until 1937, an influential representative of the Austrian Church.
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The Flight from Justice: Historian Gerald Steinacher on How Nazis Fled Europe ... - History News Network
Google News - over 5 years
Gerald Steinacher: Yes, especially with the people from the Catholic Church, and people who were close to Bishop Alois Hudal in Rome, a key figure in helping some of the worst perpetrators escape from justice. I talked to people who were people
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Pio XII e il rastrellamento degli ebrei, prove che ne salvò 11.000 - RomaToday
Google News - over 5 years
Il Pontefice inviò allora suo nipote, il principe Carlo Pacelli, dal vescovo austriaco Alois Hudal, guida della Chiesa nazionale tedesca a Roma, "che era secondo alcuni in rapporti cordiali con i nazisti. Il principe Pacelli disse a Hudal che era stato
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Új dokumentumok bizonyítják XII. Piusz szerepét római zsidók ezreinek ... - Vatikáni Rádió
Google News - over 5 years
Ekkor a pápa elküldte unokaöccsét, Carlo Pacelli herceget Alois Hudal osztrák püspökhöz, aki a római német nemzeti templom vezetője volt és szívélyes kapcsolatot tartott fenn a nácikkal. A herceg elmondta Hudal püspöknek, hogy a pápa küldötte,
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Pio XII salvó a más de 11.000 judíos de la deportación en la II Guerra Mundial - La Vanguardia
Google News - over 5 years
Al no recibir respuesta, el Pontífice envió a su sobrino, Carlo Pacelli para que se reuniera con el obispo austríaco Alois Hudal, vicario de la iglesia de Santa María del Alma, con quien el régimen nazi mantenía una relación "cordial",
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'Duizenden Joden in Rome gered dankzij Pius XII' - Katholiek Nederland
Google News - over 5 years
Volgens PTWF blijkt uit nieuw archiefonderzoek dat paus Pius XII, na een officiële klacht te hebben ingediend bij de Duitse ambassadeur, zijn neef prins Carlo Pacelli naar de Oostenrijkse bisschop Alois Hudal stuurde, de rector van de Santa Maria
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Así movilizó Pío XII a su sobrino y un obispo pronazi para llegar a Himmler y ... - Religión en Libertad
Google News - over 5 years
Según descubrió este experto, Pío XII (Eugenio Pacelli) envío a su sobrino, el príncipe Carlo Pacelli, a que se entrevistase con el obispo austriaco Alois Hudal, cabeza de Santa María del Alma, que tenía buenas relaciones con los nazis porque compartía
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La libération (41) : l'Opération Lusty... et Roswell - AgoraVox
Google News - over 5 years
Le propre fils de John Foster Dulles était prêtre, et fut un proche d'Alois Hudal, l'organisateur des "rats-lines". Entre White Sands et le site supposé du crash de Roswell, il ya 217 km. Autour du site, on trouve aujourd'hui un peu partout des
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Wish you were here: the Church, the Red Cross and the Nazis' great escape - Irish Times
Google News - over 5 years
It has long been established that individual Nazi sympathisers within the clergy, such as Bishop Alois Hudal in Rome and the Archbishop of Genoa, Giuseppe Siri, actively supported the flight of Nazi war criminals. However, Steinacher disputes the
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Vad du inte visste om katolska kyrkan #5 - Sourze
Google News - over 5 years
De hade i hemlighet verkat sen krigsslutet och samarbetat med ett internationellt nätverk nazister för att bistå flyende naziförbrytare och man fick frikostig hjälp från både påven och Vatikanens biskop Alois Hudal, som 1937 skickat ett exemplar av sin
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A Nazi's Trail Leads to a Gold Cache in Brazil
NYTimes - over 19 years
Albert Blume died 14 years ago, an outcast and a mystery to his relatives, buried in a poor man's grave. As odd as his life was his legacy -- a $4 million fortune in luxury watches, rings, gold bars and gold teeth for which an aging aunt has been battling in court since his death. The case might have ended unnoticed this year, with a
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Why the Vatican Kept Silent on Nazi Atrocities; The Failure to Act
NYTimes - over 27 years
LEAD: To the Editor: To the Editor: Patrick J. Buchanan's letter (''In Defense of Pius XII,'' Sept. 12), is replete with misleading statements and omits discussion of relevant facts. These are the facts of the role of Pope Pius XII and the Roman Catholic Church in the Holocaust and its immediate aftermath: * As papal nuncio to Germany, the
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NYTimes - almost 33 years
To the Editor: In reference to your Feb. 23 news articles about Nazis' post-World War II escape via Italy, I can give you some additional information. In the 1950's, when I was working on the Eichmann case, I was in Rome and found out how this escape route operated after 1945. I never heard of Dr. Willi Nix, the focus of one of your articles, but I
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Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Alois Hudal
  • 1963
    After he was banned from Rome by the Vatican of Pope Pius, he withdrew to his sumptuous residence in Grottaferrata near Rome, embittered towards Pius XII. He died in 1963.
    More Details Hide Details His diaries were published in Austria thirteen years after his death and describe perceived Vatican injustices he experienced under Pius XI and Pius XII after the publication of his book. Hudal maintained the opinion that a Faustian bargain between socialism, nationalism and Christianity is the way of the future.
  • 1962
    Despite his protests against anti-Semitism in the 1930s, in his memoirs, with full knowledge of the Holocaust as of 1962, the "Brown Bishop" said of his actions in favour of war criminals and genocide perpetrators and participants: "I thank God that He opened my eyes and allowed me to visit and comfort many victims in their prisons and concentration camps and help them escape with false identity papers" — however, the "victims" were Axis prisoners of war and their "concentration camps" were Allied detention camps.
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    He resided afterwards in Grottaferrata, near the city of Rome, where in 1962 he wrote his embittered memoirs called (Roman Diaries, Confessions of an Old Bishop), published posthumously in 1976.
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  • 1952
    In January 1952, the Bishop of Salzburg told Hudal that the Holy See wanted to dismiss him.
    More Details Hide Details In June Hudal announced to the cardinal protector of Santa Maria dell'Anima that he had decided to leave the College, though disapproving of the Church allegedly being governed by the Allies.
    This position he was forced to resign in 1952.
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  • 1948
    While his official status was minor, Hudal clearly played a role in the rat line. In 1999, Italian researcher Matteo Sanfilippo revealed a letter drafted on 31 August 1948 by Bishop Hudal to Argentinian President Juan Perón, requesting 5,000 visas, 3,000 for German and 2,000 for Austrian "soldiers".
    More Details Hide Details In the letter, Hudal explained that these were not (Nazi) refugees, but anti-Communist fighters "whose wartime sacrifice" had saved Europe from Soviet domination. According to Argentine researcher Uki Goñi, the documents he uncovered in 2003 show the Roman Catholic Church was also deeply involved in the secret network. "The Perón government authorized the arrival of the first Nazi collaborators Argentina, as a result of a meeting in March 1946 between Antonio Caggiano, a elevated Argentine cardinal, and Eugène Tisserant, a French cardinal attached to the Vatican".
  • 1947
    Hudal's activities caused a press scandal in 1947, after he was accused of leading a Nazi smuggling ring by the Passauer Neue Presse, a Catholic newspaper, but, as in 1923, playing the Austrian versus the Vatican and German cards, he only resigned as rector of Santa Maria dell'Anima in 1952, under joint pressure from the German and Austrian bishops and the Holy See.
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  • 1945
    After the war, Hudal was one of the main Catholic organizers of the ratline nets, along with Monsignor Karlo Petranović, himself an Ustasha war criminal who fled to Austria and then to Italy after 1945, Father Edward Dömöter, the Franciscan of Hungarian origin who forged the identity of Eichmann's passport, issued by the Red Cross in the name of Ricardo Klement, and Father Krunoslav Draganović, a Croatian professor of Theology.
    More Details Hide Details Draganović, a smuggler of fascist and Ustasha war criminals who had also been involved in pro-Fascist espionage, was recycled by the U.S. during the Cold War – his name appears in the Pentagon payrolls in the late 1950s and early 1960s – and was eventually granted immunity, ironically, in Tito's Yugoslavia, where he died in 1983 at age 79. Monsignor Karl Bayer, Rome's Director of Caritas International after the war, also cooperated with this ring. Interviewed in the 1970s by Gitta Sereny, Bayer recalled how he and Hudal had helped Nazis to South America with the Vatican's support: "The Pope XII did provide money for this; in driblets sometimes, but it did come". Hudal's ratline was supposedly financed by his friend Walter Rauff, with some funds allegedly coming from Giuseppe Siri, the recently appointed Auxiliary Bishop (1944) and Archbishop (1946) of Genoa. Siri was regarded as "a hero of the Resistance movement in Italy" during the German occupation of northern Italy. Siri's involvement remains unproven.
    In 1945, Hudal gave refuge to Otto Wächter.
    More Details Hide Details From 1939 onward, as governor of the Cracow district, Wächter organized the persecution of the Jews and ordered the establishment of the Cracow Ghetto in 1941. Wächter is mentioned as one of the leading advocates in the General Government who were in favor of the Jewish extermination by gassing and as a member of the SS team who under Himmler's supervision and Odilo Globocnik's direction planned Operation Reinhard, the first phase of the Final Solution, leading to the death of more than 2,000,000 Polish Jews. After the war, Wächter lived in a Roman monastery "as a monk", under Hudal's protection. Wächter died on 14 July 1949 in the Santo Spirito hospital in Rome.
    After 1945, Hudal gained notoriety by working on the ratlines, helping former Nazis and Ustasha families to find safe haven in overseas countries.
    More Details Hide Details He viewed it as "a charity to people in dire need, for persons without any guilt who are to be made scapegoats for the failures of an evil system." He used the services of the Austrian Office (Österreichisches Bureau) in Rome, which had the necessary cards ("Carta di riconoscimento"), for migration mainly to Arab and South American countries. It is unclear whether he was an official appointee of the Papal refugee organization Pontificia Commissione di Assistenza (PCA) ('Pontifical Commission of Assistance') or whether he acted as de facto head of the Catholic Austrian community in Rome. He is credited with helping, networking and organising the escape of war criminals such as Franz Stangl, commanding officer of Treblinka. Stangl told Gitta Sereny that he went looking for Hudal in Rome as he had heard that the bishop was helping all Germans. Hudal arranged quarters in Rome for him until his "Carta di riconoscimento" came through, then gave him money and a visa to Syria. Stangl left for Damascus, where the bishop found him a job in a textile factory.
    In 1945, Allied-occupied Austria forced Hudal to give up his Graz professorship; however Hudal appealed on a technicality and regained it two years later.
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    After 1945, Hudal continued to be isolated from the Vatican.
    More Details Hide Details In his native Austria, his pro-Nazi book was now openly discussed and critiqued.
  • 1943
    In September 1943, Rauff was sent to Milan, where he took charge of all Gestapo and SD operations throughout northwest Italy.
    More Details Hide Details Hudal is said to have met Rauff then and to have begun some cooperation with him that was useful afterwards in the setting up of an escape network for Nazis, including for Rauff himself. After the war Rauff escaped from a prisoner camp in Rimini and "hid in a number of Italian convents, apparently under the protection of Bishop Alois Hudal", eventually finding safe haven in Syria, Egypt, and later in Chile.
  • 1937
    His close relationship with Pacelli and Pius XI stopped immediately after the publication of his book in 1937, which was seen as contradicting Mit brennender Sorge and the 1933 Reichskonkordat.
    More Details Hide Details Hudal's exile within Rome continued during World War II. He continued as pastoral head of the Anima Church and College but had no position in the Vatican and no access to Pope Pius XII or his senior staff. The French Jesuit historian, Fr. Pierre Blet, co-editor of Acts and Documents, mentioned Hudal only once, stating that the pope's nephew Carlo Pacelli saw Hudal and after this meeting, Hudal wrote to the military governor of Rome, General Stahel, and urged him to suspend all actions against Jews. The Germans suspended the actions "out of the consideration for the special character of Rome". According to another author, however, the idea of Hudal's intervention came from the German ambassador himself, who asked the rector of the Anima to sign a letter to the military commander of Rome, General Reiner Stahel, requesting that the arrests be halted, otherwise the pope would take a position in public against the arrests and the German occupiers. Ambassador Weizsäcker argued that he had chosen this ruse because Hitler might have reacted against the Vatican and the Pope if it had been the German embassy conveying the warning, instead of the Nazi-friendly bishop.
    The 1937 Hudal book froze his steady rise in Rome and resulted in his leaving the city after the war.
    More Details Hide Details His publication like his two previous, (1935) and (1935) did not have an Imprimatur or ecclasiastical approval, which was another reason for the cooling of relations with the Vatican. Hudal had proposed a "truly Christian National Socialism": education and church affairs would be controlled by the Church, while political discourse would remain exclusively National Socialist. The Nazis had no intention of giving up education to the Church. Together - according to Hudal - Church and state in Germany would fight against Communism. Hudal saw a direct link between Jews and Marxism, lamenting their alleged dominance in academic occupations, and supporting segregation legislation against Jews in order to protect against foreign influence. Hudal, previously a popular and influential guest in the Vatican, lived from 1938 on in isolation in the Anima College.
    When, in 1937, Hudal published his book on the foundations of National Socialism Church authorities were upset because of his deviation from Church policy and teachings.
    More Details Hide Details Hudal, without mentioning names, had openly questioned the Vatican policy of Pope Pius XI and Eugenio Pacelli towards National Socialism, which culminated in the encyclical Mit brennender Sorge, in which the Vatican openly attacked National Socialism.
    In his 1937 book, The Foundations of National Socialism, Hudal praised Adolf Hitler and his policies and indirectly attacked Vatican policies.
    More Details Hide Details After World War II, Hudal helped establish the ratlines, which allowed prominent Nazi German and other European former Axis officers and political leaders, among them accused war criminals, to escape Allied trials and denazification.
  • 1936
    Hudal was particularly close to von Papen, who as the Reich's ambassador in Vienna prepared the German-Austrian agreement of 11 July 1936, which some claim paved the way for the Anschluss.
    More Details Hide Details This agreement was backed by Hudal in the Austrian press, against the position of several Austrian Bishops. The former Centre politician von Papen, who was considered dangerous and disliked by the Nazis for his Catholicism, was later sent to the German Embassy in Ankara.
  • 1935
    In 1935, even before he wrote the Foundations of National Socialism Hudal had said about Rosenberg: "If National Socialism wants to replace Christianity by the notions of race and blood, we will have to face the greatest heresy of the twentieth century.
    More Details Hide Details It must be rejected by the Church as decisively as, if not more severely than the Action Française, with which it shares some errors. But Rosenberg's doctrine is more imbued with negation and creates, above all in the youth, a hatred against Christianity greater than that of Nietzsche". Despite the restrictions imposed on his book, and despite National Socialist restrictions against German monasteries and parishes, and attempts by the Nazi government to forbid Catholic education at schools, going as far as banning the crucifix in schools and other public areas (the Oldenburg crucifix struggle of November 1936), and despite the Nazi dissolution and confiscation of Austrian monasteries and the official banning of Catholic newspapers and associations in Austria ("Ostmark"), Hudal remained close to some Nazi officials, as he was convinced that the Nazi new order would nevertheless prevail in Europe due to its "force".
    By 1935, Hudal had become influential in creating a proposed list of "errors and heresies" of the "era", containing several racist errors of Nazi politicians, the Nuremberg laws, but also condemning several quotes directly taken from Mein Kampf; this list was accepted by Pope Pius XI as an adequate condemnation, but he wanted an encyclical rather than a mere syllabus.
    More Details Hide Details Three years later, in June 1938, the Pope ordered American Jesuit John La Farge to prepare an encyclical condemning antisemitism, racism and the persecution of Jews, which he did together with fellow Jesuits t Gustav Gundlach (Germany) and Gustave Desbuquois (France), resulting in a draft for an encyclical which was on Pius XI's desk when he died, but was never promulgated by Pius XII. Rosenberg's reaction to Hudal's ideas was violent, and the circulation of the Foundations of National Socialism was restricted in Germany. "We do not allow the fundaments of the Movement to be analyzed and criticized by a Roman Bishop", said Rosenberg.
  • 1934
    In the autumn of 1934, Hudal had personally explained this strategy to Pius XI: the "good" ought to be separated from the "bad" in National Socialism.
    More Details Hide Details The bad - Rosenberg, Bergmann, Himmler and others - according to Hudal represented the "left wing" of the Nazi party. The Nazi "conservatives", headed, he believed, by Hitler, should be directed toward Rome, Christianized and used against the Communists and the Eastern danger. Hitler's book, Mein Kampf was never put on the Index by Rome, as censors continually postponed and eventually terminated its examination, balking at taking on the chancellor of Germany.
    Hudal was critical of the works of several Nazi ideologues, like Alfred Rosenberg or Ernst Bergmann, who despised Christianity and considered it "alien to Germanic genius". The condemnation by the Holy Office of Rosenberg's The Myth of the Twentieth Century in 1934 and, shortly thereafter, of Bergmann's The German National Church had been based on Hudal's assessment of both works.
    More Details Hide Details In his own 1937 book, Hudal proposed a reconciliation and a pragmatic compromise between Nazism and Christianity, leaving the education of youth to the Churches, while the latter would leave politics entirely to National Socialism. This had been the line followed by German Catholic politician and former Reich Chancellor Franz von Papen.
  • 1933
    Hudal's 1933 promotion to Bishop has been cited as evidence that he had close ties to members of the Roman Curia, particularly Cardinal Merry del Val (who died in 1930), and Cardinal Secretary of State Eugenio Pacelli, the future Pius XII, who had been Papal Nuncio in Germany.
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    From 1933 on, Hudal publicly embraced the pan-Germanic nationalism he had previously condemned, proclaiming that he wished to be a "servant and herald" of "the total German cause".
    More Details Hide Details His invective against Jews became more frequent, linking the so-called "Semitic race" - which allegedly "sought to set itself apart and dominate" - with the nefarious movements of democracy and internationalism and even denouncing an alleged Jewish bankers' conspiracy to become "the financial masters of the Eternal City". His opportunism and duplicity were patent in several moves he made at the time; for example, he wrote a preface to an Italian biography of Engelbert Dollfuss in 1935 without mentioning that the Austrian politician had been murdered by Austrian Nazis during a coup attempt in the previous year. Hudal was a committed anti-Communist, and also opposed Liberalism. Before Nazism, he was already critical of Parliamentary governance. His ideas were similar to the political and economic ideas of such fascist politicians as Dollfuss and Kurt Schuschnigg (Austria), Franz von Papen (Germany), Salazar (Portugal), and, less clearly, of Benito Mussolini (Italy). According to an author, "Hudal squarely fitted into a formula current at the time, the category of Clerical-Fascism." Don Luigi Sturzo, the exiled Italian Catholic priest and Christian Democrat leader coined the term 'Clerical-Fascism' in the mid-20s to refer specifically to the faction of the Catholic party Italian People's Party (Partito Popolare Italiano-PPI) who chose to support Mussolini. It was used afterwards to describe various authoritarian situations and regimes supported by members of the hierarchy of the Catholic Church, including Dollfuss's politics and Austrofascism.
    In June 1933, Hudal was ordained Titular Bishop of Aela by Eugenio Cardinal Pacelli, who had succeeded Merry del Val as the cardinal protector of the German national church at Rome.
    More Details Hide Details In April 1938, Hudal helped organise a vote of German and Austrian clerics at the German college of Santa Maria dell'Anima, over the question of the German annexation of Austria ("Anschluss"). The vote took place on the German heavy cruiser Admiral Scheer, anchored in the Italian harbour of Gaeta. Contrary to the overall German result, these votes rejected the Anschluss with over 90%, an incident named the "Shame of Gaeta" (Italian: Vergogna di Gaeta; German: Schande von Gaeta) at the time.
  • 1930
    In 1930, he was appointed a consultant to the Holy Office by Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val, whom Hudal considered a "grand seigneur of the Church".
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  • 1924
    In 1924, Hudal, in a Vatican ceremony in the presence of Pope Pius XI, Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri and numerous cardinals, delivered a commendatory address of Pastor, commemorating the 40th anniversary of Pastor's History of the Popes From the Close of the Middle Ages.
    More Details Hide Details Thus Hudal was established within the Vatican as the leading Austrian Church representative, a position which he enjoyed until the publication of his controversial book on Nazism.
  • 1923
    On 5 February 1923 he recommended Hudal for the position in the Anima, mainly because he was Austrian.
    More Details Hide Details Ambassador von Pastor was concerned that Austria, which had just lost World War I and with it much influence, would lose the Anima to a German, Dutch or Belgian candidate. The Pope agreed to name Hudal (in a private audience with Pastor on 24 February 1923). Hudal became the Austrian front line for Austria, the Austrian bishops' conference, and Austrian prestige in the Vatican, as German groups attempted to regain the Anima. Pope Pius XI supported Hudal, while simultaneously rejecting an Austrian request to subordinate German pastoral care to the Austrian Hudal.
  • 1922
    Austrian diplomat Ludwig von Pastor introduced Hudal to Pope Pius XI in 1922, and recommended a publication by Hudal on the Serbo-Croatian National Church to the interested Pontiff.
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  • 1917
    In 1917, he published a book of sermons to the soldiers, Soldatenpredigten, in which he expressed the idea that "loyalty to the flag is loyalty to God", though also warning against "national chauvinism".
    More Details Hide Details In 1923, he was named rector of the Collegio Teutonico di Santa Maria dell'Anima (or simply "Anima") in Rome, a theological seminary for German and Austrian priests.
  • 1914
    He joined the faculty for Old Testament Studies at the University of Graz in 1914.
    More Details Hide Details During the First World War, he was a military chaplain.
    He took his Doctor of Sacred Scripture degree with a dissertation on Die religioesen und sittlichen Ideen des Spruchbuches ("The Religious and Moral Ideas of the Book of Proverbs"), published in 1914.
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  • 1911
    Hudal became a noted specialist on the liturgy, doctrine and spirituality of the Slavic-speaking Eastern Orthodox Churches while a parish priest in Kindberg. In 1911, he earned a Doctor of Sacred Theology at the University of Graz.
    More Details Hide Details After completing his doctorate, he entered the Teutonic College of Santa Maria dell'Anima in Rome where he was a chaplain (1911–1913), attending courses in Old Testament at the Pontifical Biblical Institute.
  • 1908
    He was ordained to the priesthood in July 1908.
    More Details Hide Details A professorship promised to him at the University of Vienna did not materialize.
  • 1885
    Alois Hudal was born on 31 May 1885, the son of a shoemaker in the Austrian city of Graz, where he studied theology from 1904 through 1908.
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