Andrew Huxley
physiologist and biophysicist
Andrew Huxley
|death_place = Grantchester, Cambridgeshire, England |nationality = British |fields = physiologist and biophysicist |workplaces = |alma_mater = Trinity College, Cambridge |residence = London, England |citizenship = United Kingdom |doctoral_advisor = |academic_advisors = |doctoral_students = |notable_students = |known_for = nerve action potentials |author_abbrev_bot = |author_abbrev_zoo = |influences = |influenced = |awards = 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine |religion = |signature = |footnotes = |spouse = Jocelyn R.G.
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IBM vs. Blue Brain: Wettlauf der Himmelstürmer - Telepolis
Google News - over 5 years
Für die Ausarbeitung dieses Ansatzes haben Alan Hodgkin und Andrew Huxley 1963 den Nobelpreis bekommen. Heute lassen sich Tausende von Neuronen nach diesem Verfahren, das mit den Jahren verbessert und besser verstanden worden ist,
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Cricket roundup: week ending July 1 - Ely Standard
Google News - over 5 years
An opening knock of 43 from Andrew Huxley at the top of the order for Girton piled on the pain for Ely and the rapidly drying pitch became increasingly batsmen friendly as the innings wore on. The home side hit the winning runs with just 28 overs
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Uses of Sodium: The Salt in our Lives - Decoded Science
Google News - over 5 years
English scientists Alan Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley and Australian scientist Sir John Eccles shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or medicine in 1963 for this discovery. In the human requirement diet, on the average, about 1.5 grams sodium per day is
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Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, 84, A Nobelist in Nerve Research
NYTimes - about 18 years
Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, an English biophysicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1963 for helping to explain how nerve cells transmit impulses between the the skin to the brain, died Sunday at the age of 84. London newspaper reports, quoting his family, said he died after a long illness at home in Cambridge, where he was long
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FORSTER'S 'MAURICE' BECOMES A MOVIE
NYTimes - over 30 years
The manuscript of ''Maurice,'' the homosexual love story E. M. Forster wrote in 1914 and then suppressed for 56 years, bore a characteristically quizzical note in the novelist's own hand when it was discovered in his rooms at King's College here after his death in 1970. ''Publishable,'' it said, ''but worth it?'' Donald Parry, a biologist who was
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POLES DISCOVER IT'S NOT 1948 ANYMORE
NYTimes - about 31 years
The idea was simple: an international convention of artists and scientists who would come to Poland this week to talk about world peace, and in so doing echo a conference of intellectuals held 37 years ago in Wroclaw. At the Wroclaw gathering Pablo Picasso presented his dove of peace and Albert Einstein sent a letter of greetings. ''Early last year
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STAMPS; A CONTINUING SERIES ON MAPS AND NAVIGATION
NYTimes - about 32 years
The Republic of the Marshall Islands has issued four additional values of definitive stamps. They cover the most popular postage rates used by the islands' residents. The new stamps, issued last Tuesday, make up the second part of the Maps and Navigation Series. Depicted on each stamps are atolls and navigational instruments. The 13- cent stamp
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Andrew Huxley
    FORTIES
  • 2012
    Huxley died on 30 May 2012.
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  • THIRTIES
  • 2003
    His wife Richenda, Lady Huxley died in 2003, aged 78. A funeral service was held in Trinity College Chapel on 13 June 2012, followed by a private cremation.
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  • TWENTIES
  • 1990
    He was Master until 1990 and was fond of reminding interviewers that Trinity College had more Nobel Prize winners than did the whole of France.
    More Details Hide Details He maintained up to his death his position as a fellow at Trinity College, Cambridge, teaching in physiology, natural sciences and medicine. He was also a fellow of Imperial College London in 1980. From his experimental work with Hodgkin, Huxley developed a set of differential equations that provided a mathematical explanation for nerve impulses—the "action potential". This work provided the foundation for all of the current work on voltage-sensitive membrane channels, which are responsible for the functioning of animal nervous systems. Quite separately, he developed the mathematical equations for the operation of myosin "cross-bridges" that generate the sliding forces between actin and myosin filaments, which cause the contraction of skeletal muscles. These equations presented an entirely new paradigm for understanding muscle contraction, which has been extended to provide understanding of almost all of the movements produced by cells above the level of bacteria. Together with the Swiss physiologist Robert Stämpfli, he evidenced the existence of saltatory conduction in myelinated nerve fibres.
  • TEENAGE
  • 1984
    In 1984, he was elected Master of Trinity, succeeding his longtime collaborator, Sir Alan Hodgkin.
    More Details Hide Details His appointment broke the tradition that the office of Master of Trinity alternates between a scientist and an arts man.
  • 1983
    In 1983, he defended the Society’s decision to elect Margaret Thatcher as a fellow on the ground of her support for science even after 44 fellows had signed a letter of protest.
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  • 1981
    In his Presidential Address in 1981, he chose to defend the Darwinian explanation of evolution, as his ancestor, T. H. Huxley had in 1860.
    More Details Hide Details Whereas T. H. Huxley was defying the bishops of his day, Sir Andrew was countering new theories of periods of accelerated change.
  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1980
    In 1980, Huxley was elected as President of the Royal Society, a post he held until 1985.
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  • 1976
    In 1976–77, he was President of the British Science Association and from 1980 to 1985 he served as President of the Royal Society.
    More Details Hide Details Huxley's portrait by David Poole hangs in Trinity College's collection.
  • 1969
    In 1969 he was appointed to a Royal Society Research Professorship, which he holds in the Department of Physiology at University College London.
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  • OTHER
  • 1963
    In 1963, he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his part in discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms of the nerve cell.
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  • 1960
    Huxley held college and university posts in Cambridge until 1960, when he became head of the Department of Physiology at University College London.
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  • 1955
    Huxley was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1955, and was awarded its Copley Medal in 1973 "in recognition of his outstanding studies on the mechanisms of the nerve impulse and of activation of muscular contraction."
    More Details Hide Details He was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II on 12 November 1974. He was appointed to the Order of Merit on 11 November 1983.
    In 1955, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and served on the Council of the Royal Society from 1960 to 1962.
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    He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1955, and President in 1980.
    More Details Hide Details The Royal Society awarded him the Copley Medal in 1973 for his collective contributions to the understanding of nerve impulses and muscle contraction. He was conferred a Knight Bachelor by Queen Elizabeth II in 1974, and was appointed to the Order of Merit in 1983. He was a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, until his death.
  • 1953
    In 1953, Huxley worked at Woods Hole, Massachusetts, as a Lalor Scholar.
    More Details Hide Details He gave the Herter Lectures at Johns Hopkins Medical School in 1959 and the Jesup Lectures at Columbia University in 1964. In 1961 he lectured on neurophysiology at Kiev University as part of an exchange scheme between British and Russian professors. He was an editor of the Journal of Physiology from 1950 to 1957 and also of the Journal of Molecular Biology.
    By 1953, with the assistance of Rolf Niedergerke, he began to find the features of muscle movement.
    More Details Hide Details Around that time, Hugh Huxley and Jean Hanson came to a similar observation. Authored in pairs, their papers were simultaneously published in the 22 May 1954 issue of Nature. Thus the four people introduced what is called the sliding filament theory of muscle contractions. Huxley synthesized his findings, and the work of colleagues, into a detailed description of muscle structure and how muscle contraction occurs and generates force that he published in 1957. In 1966 his team provided the proof of the theory, and has remained the basis of modern understanding of muscle physiology.
  • 1952
    In 1952, having completed work on action potentials, Huxley was teaching physiology at Cambridge and became interested in another difficult, unsolved problem: how does muscle contract?
    More Details Hide Details To make progress on understanding the function of muscle, new ways of observing how the network of filaments behave during contraction were needed. Prior to the war, he had been working on a preliminary design for interference microscopy, which at the time he believed to be original, though it turned out to have been tried 50 years before and abandoned. He, however, was able to make interference microscopy work and to apply it to the problem of muscle contraction with great effect. He was able to view muscle contraction with greater precision than conventional microscopes, and to distinguish types of fiber more easily.
  • 1947
    In 1947, Huxley married Jocelyn "Richenda" Gammell (née Pease), the daughter of the geneticist Michael Pease (a son of Edward R. Pease) and his wife Helen Bowen Wedgwood, eldest daughter of the first Lord Wedgwood (see also Darwin-Wedgwood family).
    More Details Hide Details They had one son and five daughters – Janet Rachel Huxley (born 20 April 1948), Stewart Leonard Huxley (born 19 December 1949), Camilla Rosalind Huxley (born 12 March 1952), Eleanor Bruce Huxley (born 21 February 1959), Henrietta Catherine Huxley (born 25 December 1960), and Clare Marjory Pease Huxley (born 4 November 1962).
  • 1946
    In 1946, with the war ended, he was able to take this up and to resume his collaboration with Hodgkin on understanding how nerves transmit signals.
    More Details Hide Details Continuing their work in Plymouth, they were, within six years, able to solve the problem using equipment they built themselves. The solution was that nerve impulses, or action potentials, do not travel down the core of the fiber, but rather along the outer membrane of the fiber as cascading waves of sodium ions diffusing inward on a rising pulse and potassium ions diffusing out on a falling edge of a pulse. In 1952, they published their theory of how action potentials are transmitted in a joint paper, in which they also describe one of the earliest computational models in biochemistry. This model forms the basis of most of the models used in neurobiology during the following four decades.
  • 1941
    Huxley was elected to a research fellowship at Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1941.
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  • 1935
    Beginning in 1935 in Cambridge, he had made preliminary measurements on frog sciatic nerves suggesting that the accepted view of the nerve as a simple, elongated battery was flawed.
    More Details Hide Details Hodgkin invited Huxley to join him researching the problem. The work was experimentally challenging. One major problem was that the small size of most neurons made it extremely difficult to study them using the techniques of the time. They overcame this by working at the Marine Biological Association laboratory in Plymouth using the giant axon of the Atlantic squid (Loligo pealei), which have the largest neurons known. The experiments were still extremely challenging as the nerve impulses only last a fraction of a millisecond, during which time they needed to measure the changing electrical potential at different points along the nerve. Using equipment largely of their own construction and design, including one of the earliest applications of a technique of electrophysiology known as the voltage clamp, they were able to record ionic currents. In 1939, they jointly published a short paper in Nature reporting on the work done in Plymouth and announcing their achievement of recording action potentials from inside a nerve fibre.
    Having entered Cambridge in 1935, Huxley graduated with a bachelor's degree in 1938.
    More Details Hide Details In 1939, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin returned from the USA to take up a fellowship at Trinity College, and Huxley became one of his postgraduate students. Hodgkin was interested in the transmission of electrical signals along nerve fibres.
  • 1917
    Huxley was born in Hampstead, London, England, on 22 November 1917.
    More Details Hide Details He was the youngest son of the writer and editor Leonard Huxley by Leonard Huxley's second wife Rosalind Bruce, and hence half-brother of the writer Aldous Huxley and fellow biologist Julian Huxley, and grandson of the biologist T. H. Huxley. When he was about 12, Andrew and his brother David were given a lathe by their parents. Andrew soon became proficient at designing, making and assembling mechanical objects of all kinds, from wooden candle sticks to a working internal combustion engine. He used these practical skills throughout his career, building much of the specialized equipment he needed for his research. It was also in his early teens that he formed his lifelong interest in microscopy. He was educated at University College School and Westminster School in Central London, where he was a King's Scholar. He graduated and won a scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge, to read natural sciences. He had intended to become an engineer but switched to physiology after taking the subject to fulfill an elective.
  • 1730
    Born in 1730.
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