Arthur Ashe
American tennis player
Arthur Ashe
Arthur Robert Ashe, Jr. was a World No. 1 professional tennis player. He won three Grand Slam titles, ranking him among the best tennis players from the United States. Ashe, an African American, was the first black player ever selected to the United States Davis Cup team and the only black man ever to win the singles title at Wimbledon, the US Open, and the Australian Open. He retired in 1980. He was ranked World No.
Biography
Arthur Ashe's personal information overview.
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2011 Arthur Ashe Essay and Art Contest Winners Announced During US Open - 10sBalls
Google News - over 5 years
epa02315120 A fan rides an escalator up the outside of Arthur Ashe Stadium at the 2010 US Open Tennis Championship at the USTA National Tennis Center in Flushing, Meadows, New York, USA, 03 September 2010. The US Open Championship runs through 12
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Aetna honors Arthur Ashe at US Open - Hartford Business
Google News - over 5 years
Hartford medical insurer Aetna announced a three-year agreement with the US Tennis Association on Wednesday to sponsor events at the US Open honoring late tennis great Arthur Ashe who served on Aetna's board of directors. In the three-year agreement ... - -
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Sprite, Elected Officials Unveil Spankin' New Tennis Court for BGHS - Patch.com
Google News - over 5 years
The next Serena Williams or Arthur Ashe could be coming soon, right out of Bed-Stuy, now that a proper court has been made available to the aspiring tennis team at Boys & Girls High School. A perfectly sunny day set the stage for a
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Acts Announced For Arthur Ashe Kids' Day - Pollstar (blog)
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Arthur Ashe Kids' Day honors its namesake tennis legend and “continues his mission of using tennis as a means to instill in kids the values of humanitarianism, leadership and academic excellence.”
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What's New at the US Open in 2011? - Long Island Tennis Magazine
Google News - over 5 years
11, 2001, with a pair of pre-match ceremonies in Arthur Ashe Stadium. Prior to the start of the prime-time women's singles final on Saturday, Sept. 10, there will be a special performance by Grammy and Emmy Award-winner Cyndi Lauper
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Roddick's bid for tennis greatness hits a bit of turbulence - Houston Chronicle
Google News - over 5 years
So we Texans could even claim him as our own as he carved up Juan Carlos Ferrero on the floor of Arthur Ashe Stadium, then later cut up as the host of Saturday Night Live. Now that was transcendent stardom in the making. But Roddick's triumphant return
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It's Vinci vs. Begu for Budapest title - UPI.com
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Roberta Vinci of Italy reacts after losing a point to Venus Williams of the USA in the first round of the US Open Tennis Championships in Arthur Ashe Stadium in New York City on August 30, 2010. UPI/John Angelillo BUDAPEST, Hungary,
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Celebrating Arthur Ashe, Wimbledon's First Black Winner and Social Activist - ColorLines magazine
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Arthur Ashe runs for the ball during a match at Wimbledon in England. (1975) (Getty Images) by Julianne Hing | Print | Comment ( View ) This week 36 years ago Arthur Ashe, who broke down barriers in his record-breaking career, became the first black
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10 Valpo Student-Athletes Receive Arthur Ashe Jr. Sports Scholars Award - Boxscore News
Google News - over 5 years
Ten Valparaiso University student-athletes received the Arthur Ashe Jr. Sports Scholar Awards as selected by Diverse: Issues in Higher Education magazine. The award recognizes minority undergraduate students who have made achieving both academically
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Dewey Bozell Will Be Given The Arthur Ashe Courage Award at The 2011 ESPYs - BoxingInsider.com (blog)
Google News - over 5 years
This isn'ta belief held by this year's Arthur Ashe Courage Award winner Dewey Bozella. The 2011 ESPYs will celebrate the courage and conviction that lead Bozella to the ultimate path of freedom after 26 years of imprisonment. Bozella's early life was
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Wimbledon mulling retractable roof for Court 1 - ESPN
Google News - over 5 years
There are two retractable roofs at the Australian Open, and the French Open says it will have a retractable roof on its main stadium by 2016. The US Tennis Association says it does not plan to put a roof on Arthur Ashe Stadium, the top court for the US
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Is Li Na the Next Arthur Ashe? - Huffington Post (blog)
Google News - over 5 years
... however, she will enter a rare nexus of sports, politics and culture. Like Arthur Ashe and Martina Navratilova before her, she might transcend tennis. Let's hope she manufactures herself into something more than a mere sports star. by Michael Levy
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Arthur Ashe
    FORTIES
  • 1993
    Age 49
    On June 20, 1993, Ashe was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by then United States President Bill Clinton.
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    On February 12, 1993, a memorial service for Ashe was held at the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine in Manhattan.
    More Details Hide Details 1The Australian Open was held twice in 1977, in January and December. A = did not participate in the tournament SR = the ratio of the number of Grand Slam singles tournaments won to the number of those tournaments played
    On February 6, 1993, Ashe died from AIDS-related pneumonia at New York Hospital.
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  • 1992
    Age 48
    In a speech to the United Nations General Assembly on World AIDS Day, December 1, 1992, he addressed the growing need for AIDS awareness and increased research funding saying "We want to be able to look back and say to all concerned that we did what we had to do, when we had to do it, and with all the resources required."
    More Details Hide Details Two months before his death, he founded the Arthur Ashe Institute for Urban Health to help address issues of inadequate health care delivery and was named Sports Illustrated magazine's Sportsman of the Year. He also spent much of the last years of his life writing his memoir Days of Grace, finishing the manuscript less than a week before his death.
    In September 1992, Ashe suffered a mild heart attack.
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    Ashe decided to preempt USA Todays plans to publish the story about his illness and, on April 8, 1992, publicly announced he had contracted HIV.
    More Details Hide Details Ashe blamed USA Today for forcing him to go public with the news but also stated that he was relieved that he no longer had to lie about his illness. After the announcement, hundreds of readers called or wrote letters to USA Today criticizing their choice to run the story about Ashe's illness which subsequently forced Ashe to publicize his illness. After Ashe went public with his illness, he founded the Arthur Ashe Foundation for the Defeat of AIDS, working to raise awareness about the virus and advocated teaching sex education and safe sex. He also fielded questions about his own diagnosis and attempted to clear up the misconception that only homosexuals or IV drug users were at risk for contracting AIDS.
    In 1992, a friend of Ashe who worked for USA Today heard that he was ill and called Ashe to confirm the story.
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  • 1989
    Age 45
    In March 1989 Ashe's father died of a stroke at age 68.
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  • 1988
    Age 44
    In September 1988, Ashe was hospitalized after experiencing paralysis in his right arm.
    More Details Hide Details After undergoing exploratory brain surgery and a number of tests, doctors discovered that Ashe had toxoplasmosis, a parasitic disease that is commonly found in people infected with HIV. A subsequent test later revealed that Ashe was HIV positive. Ashe and his doctors believed he contracted the virus from blood transfusions he received during his second heart surgery. He and his wife decided to keep his illness private for the sake of their daughter, who was then two years old.
  • 1986
    Age 42
    In December 1986, Ashe and Moutoussamy adopted a daughter.
    More Details Hide Details She was named Camera after her mother's profession.
  • 1985
    Age 41
    He was arrested on January 11, 1985, for protesting outside the Embassy of South Africa, Washington, D.C. during an anti-apartheid rally.
    More Details Hide Details He was arrested again on September 9, 1992, outside the White House for protesting on the recent crackdown on Haitian refugees.
    He was elected to the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1985.
    More Details Hide Details In 1988, Ashe published a three-volume book titled A Hard Road to Glory: A History of the African-American Athlete, after working with a team of researchers for nearly six years. Ashe stated that the book was more important than any tennis titles. Ashe was also an active civil rights supporter. He was a member of a delegation of 31 prominent African-Americans who visited South Africa to observe political change in the country as it approached racial integration.
  • THIRTIES
  • 1981
    Age 37
    After his retirement, Ashe took on many roles, including writing for Time magazine and The Washington Post, commentating for ABC Sports, founding the National Junior Tennis League, and serving as captain of the U.S. Davis Cup team from 1981-1985.
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  • 1979
    Age 35
    However, after undergoing heart surgery in December 1979, Ashe officially retired in April 1980, at age 36.
    More Details Hide Details His career record was 818 wins, 260 losses and 51 titles. Ashe remains the only black man to win the singles title at Wimbledon, the US Open, or Australian Open. He is one of only two men of black African ancestry to win any Grand Slam singles title, the other being France's Yannick Noah, who won the French Open in 1983. He also led the United States to victory for three consecutive years (1968–70) in the Davis Cup.
    In July 1979, Ashe suffered a heart attack while holding a tennis clinic in New York.
    More Details Hide Details In view of his high level of fitness as an athlete, his condition drew attention to the hereditary aspect of heart disease; Ashe's mother already had cardiovascular disease at the time of her death, aged 27, and his father had suffered a first heart attack, aged 55, and a second, aged 59, just a week before Ashe's own attack. Cardiac catheterization revealed one of Ashe's arteries was completely closed, another was 95 percent closed, and a third was closed 50 percent in two places. Ashe underwent a quadruple bypass operation, performed by Dr. John Hutchinson on December 13, 1979. A few months after the operation, Ashe was on the verge of making his return to professional tennis. However, during a family trip in Cairo, Egypt, he developed chest pains while running. Ashe stopped running and returned to see a physician and was accompanied by his close friend Douglas Stein. Stein urged Ashe to return to New York City so he could be close to his cardiologist, his surgeon and top-class medical facilities. In 1983, Ashe underwent a second round of heart surgery to correct the previous bypass surgery. After the surgery, Ashe became national campaign chairman for the American Heart Association.
    In his 1979 autobiography, Jack Kramer, the long-time tennis promoter and a world no. 1 player himself in the 1940s, ranked Ashe as one of the 21 best players of all time.
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  • 1977
    Age 33
    Andrew Young, who had performed the service for Ashe's wedding in 1977, officiated at his funeral.
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    On February 20, 1977, Ashe married Jeanne Moutoussamy, a photographer he met in October 1976 at a United Negro College Fund benefit.
    More Details Hide Details Andrew Young, the United States Ambassador to the United Nations, performed the wedding ceremony in the United Nations chapel, New York City. During the ceremony Ashe wore a cast on his left foot having had an operation on an injured heel ten days earlier.
    Ashe played for a few more years and won the Australian Open doubles with Tony Roche in January 1977, but a left foot heel injury requiring surgery a month later and subsequent long-term rehabilitation saw his world ranking drop to a lowly 257th before a remarkable comeback saw him rise back to 14th in the world again at the age of 35.
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  • 1975
    Age 31
    On July 5, 1975 in the first all-American Wimbledon final since 1947, Ashe, seeded sixth and just a few days short of his 32nd birthday, won Wimbledon at his ninth attempt, defeating the strong favourite and defending champion, Jimmy Connors.
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    In May 1975, Ashe beat Bjorn Borg to win the season-ending championship WCT Finals in Dallas, Texas.
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  • 1974
    Age 30
    Connors was suing the ATP, with Ashe as its president, for alleged restraint of trade after opposition from the ATP and French officials meant he was refused entry to the 1974 French Open as a contracted member of World Team Tennis (WTT).
    More Details Hide Details Just two days before the start of the Wimbledon tournament, it had been announced that Connors was now suing Ashe for $5 million for comments in a letter Ashe had written to ATP members in his role as president, criticizing Connors' insistence that Davis Cup captain Dennis Ralston should be fired and Connors' "unpatriotic" boycott of the competition which had started after Ralston left him out of the team against the West Indies in Jamaica in March 1972. On final day, Ashe pointedly and symbolically wore red, white and blue wristbands throughout the match and wore his U.S.A. emblazoned Davis Cup warm-up jacket when walking out onto Centre Court and during the award ceremony while receiving the trophy and winner's cheque for GBP £10,000 (1975 equivalent USD $23,000). Soon after the final, Connors dropped the libel suit.
    He reached the singles final again in 1974, losing in straight sets to Connors for the second consecutive year.
    More Details Hide Details Later, in 1977, Ashe addressed a small crowd of boycott supporters at the U.S Open and admitted that he had been wrong to participate in South Africa and once again supported the boycott of South African players after he had tried to purchase tickets for some young Africans for a tennis match in South Africa, and was told to use an "Africans only" counter. In the media, Ashe called for South Africa to be expelled from the professional tennis circuit and Davis Cup competition.
    He went on to become its elected president in 1974.
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  • TWENTIES
  • 1973
    Age 29
    In November 1973, with the South African government seeking to end their Olympic ban and re-join the Olympic movement, Ashe was finally granted a visa to enter the country for the first time to play in the South African Open.
    More Details Hide Details He lost in the final to Jimmy Connors, but won the doubles with partner Tom Okker. Despite boycotts against South African sport, Ashe believed that his presence could help break down stereotypes and that by competing and winning the tournament, it would stand as an example of the result of integration, and help bring about change in apartheid South Africa.
    In June 1973, as a result of an ATP boycott, Ashe was one of 13 seeded players and 81 players in total who withdrew from the Wimbledon tournament to much public criticism.
    More Details Hide Details The catalyst for the boycott was that Yugoslavian ATP member Niki Pilić had been suspended for nine months by his tennis federation after allegedly refusing to represent them in a Davis Cup tie against New Zealand in May, something Pilić denied. The ban was upheld by the ILTF though they reduced it to just one month. The ATP contested the ban but lost a lawsuit to force Pilić's participation at Wimbledon during the ban period. As a member of the ATP board, Ashe voted to boycott the tournament, a vote that was only narrowly passed when ATP chairman, Cliff Drysdale abstained. The reason for the boycott was to support Pilić as an ATP member, but the importance was that it proved the solidarity of the fledgling ATP, and showed the tennis associations that professional players could no longer be dictated to.
  • 1972
    Age 28
    In 1972, due to a dispute between the ILTF and the WCT, Ashe, as one of the 32 contracted WCT players, was barred from taking part in any ILTF Grand Prix tennis circuit tournaments from January to July.
    More Details Hide Details This ban meant Ashe was unable to play at the French Open and Wimbledon Grand Slam tournaments. In September, Ashe reached the final of the US Open for the second time. After leading his opponent, Ilie Năstase by 2 sets to 1 and with a break point to take a 4-1 lead in the fourth set, he eventually lost in five sets. The loss from such a winning position was the biggest disappointment of Ashe's professional tennis career. At the post-match award ceremony, irritated by some of Năstase's on-court antics during the game, Ashe praised Năstase as a tough opponent and 'colourful' player, then suggested, " and when he brushes up on some of his court manners, he is going to be even better". At this tournament, concerned that men's tennis professionals were not receiving winnings commensurate with the sport's growing popularity and to protect players from promoters and associations, Ashe supported the founding of the Association of Tennis Professionals.
  • 1971
    Age 27
    In March 1971, Ashe reached the final of the Australian Open again but lost in straight sets to Ken Rosewall.
    More Details Hide Details In June that year, Ashe won the French Open men's doubles with partner Marty Riessen.
  • 1970
    Age 26
    In January 1970, Ashe won his second Grand Slam singles title at the Australian Open.
    More Details Hide Details With the competition somewhat depleted by the absence of some world-class National Tennis League (NTL) professional players barred by their league from entering because the financial guarantees were deemed too low, Ashe defeated Dick Crealy in straight sets in the final to become the first non-Australian to win the title since 1959. In September 1970, shortly after helping the U.S Davis cup team defeat West Germany in the challenge round to win their third consecutive Davis Cup, Ashe signed a five-year contract with Lamar Hunt's World Championship Tennis.
  • 1969
    Age 25
    In September 1969, the U.S Davis Cup team retained the cup, beating Romania in the final challenge round, with Ashe winning both his singles matches.
    More Details Hide Details The same year, Ashe applied for a visa to play in the South African Open but was denied the visa by the South African government who enforced a strict apartheid policy of racial segregation. He continued to apply for visas in the following years and the country continued to deny him one. In protest, he used this example of discrimination to campaign for U.S. sanctions against South Africa and the expulsion of the nation from the International Lawn Tennis Federation (ILTF) but, in defense of the individual South African players, refused the call from activists to forfeit matches against them.
  • 1968
    Age 24
    In December 1968, Ashe helped the U.S team become Davis Cup champions after victory in the final in Adelaide against defending champions, Australia.
    More Details Hide Details His only loss in the 12 Davis Cup tournament singles matches he played that year, was in the last dead rubber game after the U.S team had already clinched victory. The season closed with Ashe the winner of 10 of 22 tournaments with a 72-10 win-loss match record.
    1968 was another groundbreaking year for Ashe.
    More Details Hide Details He won the United States Amateur Championships against Davis Cup Teammate Bob Lutz, and the first US Open of the open era, becoming the first black male to capture the title and the only player to have won both the amateur and open national championships in the same year. In order to maintain Davis Cup eligibility and have time away from army duty for important tournaments, Ashe was required to maintain his amateur status. Because of this, he could not accept the $14,000 first-prize money, which was instead given to runner-up Tom Okker, while Ashe received just $20 daily expenses for his historic triumph. His ability to compete in the championship (and avoid the Vietnam war) arose from his brother Johnnie's decision to serve an additional tour in Vietnam in Arthur's place.
  • 1966
    Age 22
    In 1966 and 1967, Ashe reached the final of the Australian Championship but lost on both occasions to Roy Emerson.
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  • 1965
    Age 21
    In 1965, ranked the number 3 player in the United States, Ashe won both the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) singles title and the doubles title (with Ian Crookenden of New Zealand), helping UCLA win the team NCAA tennis championship.
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  • TEENAGE
  • 1963
    Age 19
    In 1963 Ashe became the first black player ever selected for the United States Davis Cup team.
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    He became the first African-American to win the National Junior Indoor tennis title and was awarded a tennis scholarship to the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) in 1963.
    More Details Hide Details During his time at UCLA, he was coached by J.D. Morgan and practiced regularly with his sporting idol, Pancho Gonzales, who lived nearby and helped hone his game. Ashe was also a member of the ROTC which required him to join active military service after graduation in exchange for money for tuition. He was active in other things, joining the Upsilon chapter of the Kappa Alpha Psi fraternity on campus. After graduating with a bachelor's degree in business administration, Ashe joined the United States Army on August 4, 1966. Ashe completed his basic training in Washington and was later commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Adjutant General Corps. He was assigned to the United States Military Academy at West Point where he worked as a data processor. During his time at West Point, Ashe headed the academy's tennis program. He was promoted to 1st lieutenant on February 23, 1968 and was discharged from the Army in 1969.
  • 1960
    Age 16
    In December 1960 and again in 1963, Ashe featured in Sports Illustrated, appearing in their Faces in the Crowd segment.
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  • 1958
    Age 14
    In 1958, Ashe became the first African-American to play in the Maryland boys' championships.
    More Details Hide Details It was also his first integrated tennis competition. In 1960, precluded from playing Caucasian youths in segregated Richmond during the school year and unable to use the city's indoor courts which were closed to black players, Ashe accepted an offer from Richard Hudlin, a 62-year-old St. Louis teacher, tennis coach and friend of Dr. Johnson, to move to St. Louis and spend his senior year attending Sumner High School where he could compete more freely. Ashe lived with Hudlin and his family for the year, during which time Hudlin coached and encouraged him to develop the serve-and-volley game that Ashe's, now stronger, physique allowed. Ashe was able to practice at the National Guard Armory indoor courts and in 1961, after lobbying by Dr. Johnson, he was granted permission to compete in the previously segregated U.S. Interscholastic tournament and won it for the school.
  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1953
    Age 9
    Ashe was coached and mentored by Johnson at his tennis summer camp home in Lynchburg, Virginia from 1953 when Ashe was age 10, until 1960.
    More Details Hide Details Johnson helped fine-tune Ashe's game and taught him the importance of racial socialization through sportsmanship, etiquette and the composure that would later become an Ashe hallmark. He was told to return every ball that landed within two inches of a line and never to argue with an umpire's decision.
  • 1950
    Age 6
    Ashe requested that he be buried alongside his mother, Mattie, who died in 1950, in Woodland Cemetery in Richmond, Virginia.
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    In March 1950, Ashe's mother Mattie died from complications related to a toxemic pregnancy (now known as pre-eclampsia) at the age of 27.
    More Details Hide Details Ashe and his brother were raised by their father who worked as a handyman and salaried caretaker-Special Policeman for Richmond's recreation department. Ashe Sr. was a caring father and strict disciplinarian who encouraged Arthur to excel in both school and in sports, but forbade him to play American football, a popular game for many black children, due to his son's slight build, something that meant Arthur's childhood nicknames were "Skinny" or "Bones". The Ashes lived in the caretaker's cottage in the grounds of 18-acre Brookfield park, Richmond's largest blacks-only public playground, which had basketball courts, four tennis courts, a pool and three baseball diamonds. Ashe started playing tennis at 7 years of age and began practicing on the courts where his natural talent was spotted by Virginia Union University student and part-time Brookfield tennis instructor, Ron Charity, who as the best black tennis player in Richmond at the time, began to teach Ashe the basic strokes and encouraged him to enter local tournaments.
  • 1943
    Born
    Arthur Ashe was born in Richmond, Virginia, to Arthur Ashe Sr. and Mattie Cordell Cunningham Ashe on July 10, 1943.
    More Details Hide Details He had a brother, Johnnie, who was five years younger.
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