August Heinrich Petermann
German cartographer
August Heinrich Petermann
Augustus Heinrich Petermann was a German cartographer.
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Rezension von Dr. Theodor Kissel -
Google News - over 5 years
In kurzen Einzelporträts werden Männer wie etwa Alexander von Humboldt, der Grönlandforscher Alfred Wegener, der Geograph und Polarforscher August Petermann, der Afrikareisende Heinrich Barth, der Arzt, Geologe und Botaniker Franz Junghuhn,
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Kartografie für Fortgeschrittene - Die Berliner Literaturkritik
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Von einem Fehler und einem äußerst beharrlichen Wissenschaftler MÜNCHEN (BLK) – Im Juli 2011 ist beim Luchterhand Verlag „Wie August Petermann den Nordpol erfand“ erschienen. Der Titel ist ebenfalls als eBook erhältlich. Klappentext: Wie eine falsche
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Festwoche beendet - Neue Nordhäuser Zeitung
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Hierzu war es gelungen, den Schriftsteller und Wissenschaftshistoriker Philipp Felsch dafür zu begeistern, sein Buch „Wie August Petermann den Nordpol erfand“ vorzustellen. Nach dieser erfolgreichen Festwoche sowie der Zeugnisausgabe am 08.07. haben
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Gothas einzigartiger Kartenschatz schlummert noch im Depot - Thüringische Landeszeitung
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Mit seinem Mitarbeiter August Petermann ist es letztlich der Verlag Justus Perthes selbst gewesen, der aus den "weißen Flecken" ein Programm zur Entdeckung und Erforschung der Erde machte. Die Sammlungsleiterin stapelt mehrere Jahrbände der seit 1855
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Wooden ships and iron men? You bet! They had to be. Part II - Payson Roundup
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It seems that German geographer August Petermann believed in what he called the “Paleocrystic Sea,” saying that, “The central region of the Polar regions is more or less free from ice.” So they cast off and sailed north in July 1879
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Am Puls der geographischen Entdeckungen - Ostthüringer Zeitung
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Der Herausgeber der Zeitschrift, August Petermann, hatte auch weitgehend die Exklusivrechte der Veröffentlichung, da er viele Expeditionen selber finanziert hatte beziehungsweise für ein - wie wir heute sagen würden - gutes Sponsoring sorgte
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Pioniergeist und Unternehmungslust - Imre Josef Demhardt: "Aufbruch ins ... - Deutschlandradio
Google News - almost 6 years
die Karte", schrieb August Petermann, Gründer und Herausgeber der wichtigsten geografischen Zeitschrift "Petermanns Mitteilungen", 1866. Im 19. Jahrhundert war die Welt noch voller weißer Flecken. Weite Teile von Afrika, Südamerika, der Nord- und
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Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of August Heinrich Petermann
  • 1878
    Age 55
    He first showcased his colour contouring system at the Paris Exhibition of 1878; although it initially met with skepticism, it went on to become standard cartographical practice".
    More Details Hide Details However, he might have picked up this idea during his time in Gotha as the colour scheme was first introduced by Emil von Sydow (1812–1873) in 1838 when he developed a color methodology for landscape features using hachures, where green was depicted for lowlands and brown used for highlands. The white for the higher reaches might later have been used by Hermann Haack (1872–1966) for his Perthes’ wall maps. Several maps have been co-constructions of Petermann and Bartholomew.
  • 1873
    Age 50
    The route of the ‘Vega’ appeared on a Russian copy of Petermann’s 1873 map, which was reason enough for the editors to add it in their 1879 map.
    More Details Hide Details The map shows clearly to what degree the descriptive data of older explorations (i.e. Vasili Pronchishchev 'Prontschischtschew', 1735–36; Hariton Laptev 'Laptew', 1739–43; Semyon Čeluskin 'Tscheljuskin', 1735–43; Fyodor Minin and Dmitriy Sterlegov 'Sterlegow', 1740; and Alexander Theodor von Middendorff, 1843) could be trusted when drafting a map from many sources and trying to amalgamate them into a single image. The difference between the coastlines on the two maps sometimes can be as much as ½° latitude and 1° longitude. Looking at Cape Taimyr, the channel between it and the mainland is reduced from approximately 10 km to a few kilometres by the Swedish exploration! The only exception was the information derived from P.F. Anjou (1823), which was based on astronomical observations, and is the same in both maps. The article (translations from Swedish and Danish with a preamble by Behm) and map appeared four months after the ‘Vega’ had arrived in Irkutsk. Hassenstein drafted the new map, maybe using the older draft. The title was hammered out of the old copperplate and replaced by a new one, while Nordenskiöld’s data were engraved, and printed in red, making it look like an overlay on the old map. Because of the use of lighter background colors the newer map looks much fresher than the older one, though only six years lay between the two.
    Since the map was drafted on top of Petermann’s earlier map of Siberia, from 1873, I conclude that this might have been a way to honour Petermann.
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  • 1869
    Age 46
    In 1869 he published a map of the Arctic Ocean North of Wrangel Island with all exploration routes between 1648 and 1867 and a map with sea-temperatures in the Greenland Sea and the Norwegian Sea as observed by the German expedition.
    More Details Hide Details And again two maps of the German expedition in Ergänzungsheft 28. In 1874 he again published an overview map of the Arctic scale 1:16,000,000 now with all the routes from 1616 to the end of 1874, complemented with the new meteorological weather stations. Strangely enough the route of the 1868 German expedition is not engraved in the image. Petermann still believed, however, that Greenland stretched far into the Polar region. The text in the map reads: ‘Unerforscht, wahrscheinlich Land oder Inseln (Petermann’s Hypothese)’ probably land or islands (Petermann’s hypothesis). In the case of the polar regions Petermann’s point of view deviated from most contemporary views. While many, especially the Americans and British, saw a possible passage in the Northwest, where they expected to find a passage after rounding Greenland, Petermann thought this not a viable option. But this did not prevent him from publishing many reports and maps of the American and British explorations in this area, sometimes translated from the journal of the Royal Geographical Society and other geographical societies. Though he was right in hypothesizing that the warm Gulf Stream complemented the cold Labrador Stream and that the warm stream extended far north of Spitsbergen and Nova Zembla his thesis that it warmed the Arctic proved erroneous. Though he thought it to be a deep stream he still could not have imagined how deep it really was. On the other hand, he was wrong about the extension of Greenland.
  • 1865
    Age 42
    Since the first edition Friedrich von Stülpnagel had been mainly responsible for the drafting of the maps of Stieler-Handatlas. When Stülpnagel died in 1865 Petermann became responsible for the Stieler.
    More Details Hide Details He drafted some maps (e.g. Russland und Skandinavien, Süd-Polar Karte, Neu-Seeland, Australien, Süd-Ost Australien) for the 4th edition (1863–1867), which reached 83 maps. In the 5th edition (1868–1874) we can see the hand of the master clearer, as the maps become more uniform and the style of the 'Gotha School' becomes more distinct. Petermann was sometimes accused of being an ‘armchair’ geographer as he never traveled wide or experienced new discoveries with his own eyes, but the quality of the maps and geographic ideas he produced proves the accusation unfair. Some people are better at observing and describing circumstances and phenomena, others are better at interpretation of data. Petermann’s greatest accomplishment lay in the interpretation and evaluation of sometimes contradictory sources, and his great legacy is that he was able to develop this faculty in most of his pupils in such a fine way that geography at large has profited from it ever since. Should one criticize the journal under his direction for not being geographically innovative then one may come nearer to the truth. Lots of articles are of a descriptive physical nature, with lots of intimate details in the explorers’ colloquial style, and hardly any tries to find explanations for the physical phenomena. Most emphasis is laid on geomorphology and geology — old disciplines by then with their own technical language already — meteorology, botany and biology. Articles on anthropogeography usually reach no further than ethnographic descriptions of regions.
    He published the same map of the Arctic and Antarctic as in 1865, but now with Greenland stretching over the Arctic and ending in Wrangel Island close to the Bering Strait.
    More Details Hide Details It shows the possible route of the German expedition. The Antarctic map now uses only two colors to delimit the areas covered by James Cook and others. Later in that volume he published two maps of the route sailed by the German expedition. Unfortunately they discovered a finger of permanent pack ice stretching from the north to approximately 76°, which made progress further North impossible. Since we of course know this only by hindsight we can understand that Petermann was not daunted in his endeavors to reach the North Pole and demonstrate a possible passage to the Pacific Ocean, even when this expedition had partly failed.
    He actually started to push his interest in this subject in the 1865 issue of PGM and with the publication of supplement 16 (Ergänzungsband IV) in 1865.
    More Details Hide Details In the PGM-issue he recites the correspondence he has with the Royal Geographical Society (RGS) concerning the proposal of capt. Sherard Osborn (1822–1875) to send another English expedition to the North pole starting from Baffin Bay. In several articles he tries to persuade the RGS to support his plan to start the expedition from Spitsbergen and use steamships instead of sledges for transport. In one article he stresses his love for Arctic expeditions by reminiscing: "Who, like us, e.g. has attended the accounts of one capt. Inglefield Augustus Inglefield (1820–1894) during the session of the Royal Geographical Society of London on 22nd November 1852, would be persuaded to know that the natural beauty of the Arctic regions cannot be surpassed by any other in the world." Though the accompanying map shows his theory concerning an extended Greenland he doesn't write about this, but mainly about his errouneous theory concerning the behavior of the Gulf Stream. Supplement IV gives an overview of the knowledge of the area around Spitsbergen and the central Arctic. It contains articles by Petermann, R. Werner, N. Dunér and A.E. Nordenskiöld, Dr. Malmgrén, Barto von Löwenigh, and G. Jäger, and is accompanied by three maps. Petermann published this supplement issue to encourage people and institutes to support German efforts to explore the central Arctic. The first map, scale 1:40,000,000 covers both the Arctic and Antarctica, with the routes of the explorers from Cook to 1861.
  • 1862
    Age 39
    Though Petermanns name appears on hundreds of maps, Wagner suggests he stopped drafting maps himself after 1862.
    More Details Hide Details The report concerning the Nordenskiöld voyage to the Lena, and the maps of the United States and Australia, suggest this may not be true. Perhaps he no longer designed, constructed and drafted the maps, as he had with the Barth maps, but he most likely continued to play a role in the conception and design of the maps, especially those in his fields of interest. Petermann was very well aware that even topographic maps were not yet a true representation of reality (this is illustrated by the depiction of the Liparian Isles, which were not securely situated until Darondeau’s French survey in 1858), let alone medium- and small-scale maps of the interior of continents and the polar regions. One could still hardly speak of dense topographic, orographic and hydrological information. Though the maps in the Stieler looked dense with information they were mainly filled out with information where space in the image allowed, and the cartographers had little choice what to depict by the lack of known phenomena. The density of information did not indicate how thoroughly an area had been explored, for the cartographers selected their data and drafted the maps in such a way as to give a balanced image as possible. As Petermann put it in 1866:
  • 1860
    Age 37
    In 1860 Petermann decided that these should be listed in a more structured way, the latter temporarily as Geographischer Literatur Bericht für ****(1886–1909), maybe inspired by Kroner’s literature lists in the Zeitschrift für allgemeine Erdkunde of the ‘Gesellschaft für Erdkunde’.
    More Details Hide Details Books and maps would not merely be listed, but also reviewed, if they were part of the Perthes library. Unlike most listings it would also cover articles from the main journals, for these, he noted, were the primary sources reflecting the most recent developments in geography. This would keep the readers of PGM up to date. Other sections of the journal were: Geographische Nekrologie des Jahres **** (1858–1884), Geographie und Erforschung Polar-Regionen (nr. 51/1871-nr. 135/1878), Monatsbericht über Entdeckungsgeschichte und Kolonisation (1885), Kleinere Mitteilungen (1889–1939), Geographischer Anzeiger (1899–1902), Kartographischer Monatsbericht aus Justus Perthes' Geographischer Anstalt in Gotha (1908–1911), Militärkartographie (1909–1914), Staaten und Völker (1923), Neue Forschung im Felde (1935–1939), (Wehr- und) Militärgeographie (1935–1936), Kartographie (1941–1945).
  • 1857
    Age 34
    By using hachuring as a basis for his Karte des Österreichischen Kaiserstaates zur Übersicht der Dichtigkeit der Bevölkerung nach dem Census von 1857 (Map of the Austrian imperial state as an overview of the population density after the 1857 census, 1860) and the map Die Ausdehnung der Slaven in der Türkei und den angrenzenden Gebieten (Expansion of the Slavic populations in Turkey and adjacent territories, 1869) Petermann continued the representation of geological, climatological and ethnographical data that his teacher Heinrich Berghaus had begun two decades before.
    More Details Hide Details From the start, the journal contained small messages concerning developments in geography under the heading Geographische Notizen/Monatsbericht (1855–.). Some of these were concerned with recently published literature, mainly book citations.
    In 1857 the President of the Royal Geographical Society, Sir Roderick Murchison, praised PGM for its fast reporting of diverse explorations, and spoke against the jealousy of those in his own Society who felt that exploration supported primarily by the British should first be published in Britain: he thought the Perthes Institute enriched the scientific geographic discourse.
    More Details Hide Details Since he was not appointed head of the Perthes establishment Petermann could only guide the other skills available. Fortunately he could call on cartographers and engravers who had developed their skills through long experience with men like Adolf Stieler, Stülpnagel, Heinrich Berghaus, Emil von Sydow, etc., as well as new cartographers like Carl Vogel and Hermann Berghaus. According to Hermann Wagner it was not felt wise to have any of these employees appointed as head of the establishment. Instead the firm was led by Adolf Müller, not a cartographer, but an economic manager. The cartographers Petermann trained included Bruno Hassenstein (1839–1902), Hermann Habenicht (1844–1917, who from 1897 onwards trained Hermann Haack, the 20th-century editor of PGM), Ernst Debes (1840–1923. He could have come to rival Carl Vogel, but in 1868 he left the Gotha Institute to co-found his own firm, Heinrich Wagner & Debes, which published one of the six famous families of German reference atlases E. Debes neuer Handatlas, later called Grosser Columbus Weltatlas), Carl Barich, Arnim Welcker (1840–1859), Ludwig Friederichsen (who worked on the Stieler and PGM from 1859 to 1863, and later founded the geographical society of Hamburg and became very active in German colonial politics.) in the 1850s, and Fritz Hanemann (1847–1877), Christian Peip (1843–1922), Bruno Domann and Otto Koffmahn (1851–1916) in the 1860s. They soon learned to produce maps as good as their teacher’s, and eventually even better.
  • 1856
    Age 33
    In 1856 Petermann had married Clara Leslie and had two daughters with her. They were divorced in 1875.
    More Details Hide Details A year later he married for the second time. As time wore on he seemed to have suffered more and more from family problems. It is also supposed that for many years he suffered from manic-depressive moods and he seemed to have always kept a revolver in close proximity.
  • 1853
    Age 30
    "From the early 1850s Petermann maintained private and business contacts with the two Gotha publishers Wilhelm and Bernhardt Perthes, and in June 1853 he actually spent a short time in Gotha."
    More Details Hide Details Financial difficulties and several other factors prompted him to accept the Perthes’ offer of work in 1854. Early in his German career here Petermann was appointed first professor (1854) and later honorary doctor (1855) of the University of Göttingen by the Duke of Gotha. Bernhardt Perthes hired him with the prospect of playing an important role in the establishment of his geographical institute. At the same time his friend Henry Lange also started to work with Perthes. When he was refused a position equal to Petermann he left Perthes and started to work for Brockhaus in Leipzig. When Petermann went to the Gotha Institute part of the original plan was that he would revive the Geographisches Jahrbuch (Geographical Yearbook), which Heinrich Berghaus had edited from 1850 to 1852. At the suggestion of the manager Adolf Müller (1820–1880) it was decided instead to publish the monthly Mittheilungen aus Justus Perthes Geographischer Anstalt über wichtige neue Erforschungen auf dem Gesamtgebiet der Geographie von Dr. A. Petermann (PGM) (Communications from the Justus Perthes Geographical Institute concerning important new studies in the whole field of geography, by Dr. A. Petermann). These were to be published in ‘casual issues’. Their relation to several of the Perthes atlases was plainly expounded in the preface to the first issue of 1855:
  • 1852
    Age 29
    In 1852 and 1853 Petermann published some maps on cholera in Britain, explaining that the map, better than tables, can show the progress and victim density of the disease, following the example set by Heinrich Berghaus in his Physikalischer Atlas, Band II, Abt.
    More Details Hide Details VIII, no. 2 (1847). These were later followed by Keith Johnston in the second edition of The physical atlas of natural phenomena (1856). See also: (1855–2004)
  • 1851
    Age 28
    It is no surprise to see that his sphere of interest in ‘current’ geography, was only sharpened when paired with his updating of Stieler’s Hand-Atlas. In stressing the geographic nature of cartography, he showed himself more a Humboldtian than a follower of Ritter’s political-historical school. M. Linke et al. wrote in 1986: "There seems to be no doubt that Petermann’s work contributed to the high standards of British cartography during these years. T.W. Freeman has noted that ‘Fine maps had been produced in the 1851 Census by August Heinrich Petermann during his long stay in Britain (1845–54) with the Johnston map firm in Edinburgh and later in London, but since his departure the standard has declined’ ".
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  • 1850
    Age 27
    When he was 28 in 1850 he was elected under-Secretary.
    More Details Hide Details In 1868 he was awarded with the prestigious 'Founders medal' of the RGS. Queen Victoria, at the suggestion of Robert Bunsen, appointed him 'physical geographer-royal'.
    London, 1828–1921), and in 1850 founded his own establishment: The Geographical Establishment, Engraving, Lithographic and Printing Office.
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  • 1848
    Age 25
    From 1848 onwards he published amongst others things and the following articles and maps with English publishers or in English language journals:
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  • 1847
    Age 24
    In 1847, he became a member of the RGS.
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    In 1847, Petermann moved to London with the intention of furthering his geographical studies and then returning to Germany.
    More Details Hide Details Soon, however, he decided to follow a professional career there as the environment he moved into seemed to be favorable for his prospects. In London, he worked as a reporter for a London periodical (Athenaeum, journal of literature, science and the fine arts.
  • 1845
    Age 22
    August Petermann gained commercial insight during his years in the cartography business in Edinburgh and London from 1845 to 1854.
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    In April 1845 he followed Lange, who received him in his house in Edinburgh and acquainted him with the friends he had made.
    More Details Hide Details Together they made a tour through the Grampians, applying what they had learned by using barometers for height measurements and taking geological and botanical samples. Meanwhile, they also worked on the Johnston’s Physical atlas (Physical geography, illustrating in a series of original designs, the elementary facts of geology, hydrology, meteorology and natural history etc.) and several other cartographic publications. During his time in Edinburgh he may have come into contact with the publisher G.H. Swanston, for whom he constructed several maps for The Royal Illustrated Atlas, Of Modern Geography, 1st edition published in 27 parts 1854–62. and republished probably in 1872. He also may have met in Edinburgh with John Bartholomew Jr. (1831–1893), who created many maps in the same atlas. John Bartholomew became Petermann’s student in Gotha from 1855 till he was recalled to his father’s firm in 1856. The German school of cartography was pre-eminent, and four generations of Bartholomews widened their knowledge by studying with the German masters. John George’s son Ian studied in Leipzig (1907–8) with Oswald Winkel. His grandson John Christopher carried on the tradition, studying with Eduard Imhof, the great Swiss cartographer, in Berne and Zurich in 1960, and his son John Eric followed in 1977 with Imhof’s pupil, Ernst Spiess. "Bartholomew is best known for the development of colour contouring (or hypsometric tints), the system of representing altitudes on a graduated colour scale, with areas of high altitude in shades of brown and areas of low altitude in shades of green.
  • 1839
    Age 16
    Besides, we may take Poggendorff seriously when he sees Petermann as ‘private secretary and librarian of H.K.W. Berghaus’ in the years 1839–45, so we can assume that Petermann was at least quite up to date on many affairs to do with geography and cartography, for Berghaus had large collections of maps, books and notes to draw on.
    More Details Hide Details During and after their training, students were obliged to take part in most of the school’s enterprises. In the years 1839–1848 the school produced maps for Stieler’s school atlas, and Berghaus’s Physikalischer Atlas, school atlases, the Atlas von Asien, the Prussian atlas, and the maritime atlas.
    Petermann started in y.lpotsdam at 7 August 1839.
    More Details Hide Details The education with Berghaus could be called scientifically cartographic, comprising mathematical geography (map projection and grids), physical geography (meteorology, hydrology and geology) and political geography (knowledge of borders and administratpive division of European states especially). Physical training was more aimed at surveying, drafting and engraving. Berghaus’s pupils learned only the rudiments of surveying, even less than he himself had learned: their work in this area can be seen in the plan of Potsdam (Neüster Plan von der Königlichen Residenzstadt Potsdam / nach trigonometrischen Vermessungen, so wie geo- und hydrometrischen Aufnahmen ausgearbeitet in der Geographischen Kunstschule zu Potsdam unter der Leitung ihres Direktors, des Professors Dr. Heinrich Berghaus. 1845). They were not topographers and only used topography as published in the large-scale maps of that era as a general basis for their later, more generalized works. They were taught more to draft and engrave middle-scale geographic maps of states, continents etc., or their parts (e.g. the map of upper- and middle-Italy in 1847 for Stielers Handatlas, which was based on Attilio Zuccagni-Orlandini's 1844 topographic map in nearly 100 sheets), small-scale generalized school maps, and especially applied geography and cartography as shown in their collaboration on the Physikalischer Atlas and the maritime atlas. During their study lithography, though not cutting as fine a portrayal as copper engraving, was on the rise because it was much cheaper. Though some experiments were made by Berghaus, e.g. for geological maps, by mixing copper engraving for the line- and other features and lithography for coloured polygons, there was no technology which could replace the exquisite expression copper engravings could reach.
  • 1822
    Born on April 18, 1822.
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