Baruch Spinoza

Dutch Philosopher
Born Nov 24, 1632

Baruch de Spinoza and later Benedict de Spinoza (November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch Jewish philosopher. Revealing considerable scientific aptitude, the breadth and importance of Spinoza's work was not fully realized until years after his death. By laying the groundwork for the 18th century Enlightenment and modern biblical criticism, he came to be considered one of the great rationalists of 17th-century philosophy.… Read More

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Learn about the memorable moments in the evolution of Baruch Spinoza.


1632 Birth Born on November 24, 1632.


1653 20 Years Old In 1653, at age 20, Spinoza began studying Latin with Francis van den Enden (Franciscus van den Enden), a notorious free thinker, former Jesuit, and radical democrat who likely introduced Spinoza to scholastic and modern philosophy, including that of Descartes. (A decade later, in the early 1660s, Van den Enden was considered to be a Cartesian and atheist, and his books were put on the Catholic Index of Banned Books.)
Spinoza's father, Miguel, died in 1654 when Spinoza was 21. … Read More
1656 23 Years Old …  Either for financial or other reasons, he had in any case effectively stopped contributing to the synagogue by March 1656. … Read More
1660 27 Years Old 1 More Event
…  He spent a brief time in or near the village of Ouderkerk aan de Amstel, but returned soon afterwards to Amsterdam and lived there quietly for several years, giving private philosophy lessons and grinding lenses, before leaving the city in 1660 or 1661. … Read More


1663 30 Years Old In 1663, he returned briefly to Amsterdam, where he finished and published Descartes' "Principles of Philosophy" (the only work published in his lifetime under his own name), and then moved the same year to Voorburg.
1664 31 Years Old Spinoza engaged in correspondence from December 1664 to June 1665 with Willem van Blijenbergh, an amateur Calvinist theologian, who questioned Spinoza on the definition of evil. … Read More
1669 36 Years Old …  Spinoza and Serrarius maintained their relationship until Serrarius' death in 1669. … Read More
1670 37 Years Old 1 More Event
In Voorburg, Spinoza continued work on the Ethics and corresponded with scientists, philosophers, and theologians throughout Europe. He also wrote and published his Theological Political Treatise in 1670, in defence of secular and constitutional government, and in support of Jan de Witt, the Grand Pensionary of the Netherlands, against the Stadholder, the Prince of Orange. … Read More


1676 43 Years Old 1 More Event
In 1676, Spinoza met with Leibniz at The Hague for a discussion of his principal philosophical work, Ethics, which had been completed in 1676. … Read More
1677 44 Years Old Died on February 21, 1677.
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