Baruch Spinoza
Dutch philosopher
Baruch Spinoza
Baruch de Spinoza and later Benedict de Spinoza (November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch Jewish philosopher. Revealing considerable scientific aptitude, the breadth and importance of Spinoza's work was not fully realized until years after his death. By laying the groundwork for the 18th century Enlightenment and modern biblical criticism, he came to be considered one of the great rationalists of 17th-century philosophy.
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Spinoza Kama-sutra - Le Monde
Google News - over 5 years
On signalera malgré tout, parmi les épisodes oubliés, la vive passion que Baruch Spinoza, encore jeune, éprouva, dit-on, pour Clara Maria. Elle, plus jeune encore, lui donnait des cours de latin, quand Van den Ende, son père, en était empêché
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Carmelo Arden Quin et Spinoza : « de more geometrico (...) - Art Côte d'Azur
Google News - over 5 years
Dans la suite de la séance du 7 février, Arden Quin expliquera que sa rencontre avec Baruch Spinoza aura toute sa vie nourri son champ de réflexion, comme si son goût pour l'art abstrait s'était dialectiquement conforté de la philosophie,
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Bento's Sketchbook - Morning Star Online
Google News - over 5 years
Baruch Spinoza - also known as Benedict or Bento de Spinoza - was one of the most radical and attractive of the great 17th-century philosophers. Born into the Jewish community in Amsterdam, as a young man he was excommunicated from the synagogue for
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El aborto, un debate pendiente - Diario La Página El Salvador
Google News - over 5 years
Al respecto vale recordar a Baruch Spinoza quien escribió: si el hombre viniera obligado por la naturaleza al derecho divino o si este fuese derecho natural, no tendría sentido que Dios hubiese hecho una alianza con el hombre mediante un pacto y un
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An Interesting Exchange With A Jewish Anti Zionist - MWC News
Google News - over 5 years
-Baruch Spinoza Daniel Cohen (fictitious name) is deeply admired by many. He is a humanist, an anti Zionist and he is also a man of great integrity. A week ago, Daniel decided to challenge my views, and launched a courageous debate
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Adicciones y amores: por una cabeza - ElTiempo.com
Google News - over 5 years
El filósofo Baruch Spinoza se refiere a la intuición como la capacidad de tener una visión de las cosas que va "más allá de los sentidos y la razón, no en su dimensión temporal sino a la luz de la eternidad". Es de esta intuición, característica de los
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La expresión que atraviesa - Lanacion.com (Argentina)
Google News - over 5 years
Siguiendo la definición dinámica de cuerpo de Baruch Spinoza, el cuerpo tiene gran cantidad de partes extensivas y por eso es afectado de múltiples maneras. Una afección es afecto, las afecciones son percibidas por sus efectos y ellas completan la idea
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La felicidad de Spinoza - Qué.es
Google News - over 5 years
Baruch Spinoza aceptaba sin dramatismos el sufrimiento y su último acto, la muerte. Uno de sus discípulos contemporáneos, el neurobiólogo y médico Antonio Damasio se resiste a aceptar el dolor sin más y le molesta la resignación del filósofo judío,
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alla ricerca di un fantasma - La Stampa
Google News - over 5 years
Alla fine, il Tractatus venne attribuito al filosofo Baruch Spinoza; era un'accusa strampalata, anche se è vero che dalla sua cerchia uscì il testo che venne poi stampato come tale e dunque materializzò un'antica chimera. Leggendolo oggi, ma l'effetto
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Ditta Dante & Figli: Via dalla pazza folla - Paperblog
Google News - over 5 years
Jacopo Alighieri presenta suo padre come un antesignano di Baruch Spinoza. O meglio, il pensiero di Spinoza è il frutto maturo di un processo cominciato con la filosofia e teologia tardo-medievali. Il perfetto è colui che si identifica / si annienta
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St. John's College offers 'Life of the Mind' series - Baltimore Sun
Google News - over 5 years
"It's all a matter of promoting interest and promoting conversation," said Cohen, who probed the works of philosopher Baruch Spinoza and Greek mathematician Euclid in a lecture about the starting points in mathematical and philosophical thinking
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A New Read on Jewish Life - Tablet Magazine
Google News - over 5 years
“I'm probably not shocking you to say that if it's a Jewish organization, everybody's fighting all the time,” jokes Steven Smith, a Jewish professor of political theory and the author of a book on Baruch Spinoza, who last year was appointed to co-chair
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'Ex nihilo nihil fi' - la estrella
Google News - over 5 years
Encontramos en nuestra aliada enciclopedia Wikipedia, detalles sobre la existencia de severas críticas sobre concepto analizado, como una forma ideológica individualista de filósofos como: Baruch Spinoza, Arthur Schopenhauer, Karl Marx o Friedrich
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'Ontolojik sorun' yetmez, agnostisizmi, fenomenolojiyi anti-klerikalizmi de ... - Vatan
Google News - over 5 years
David Malet Armstrong, Alain Badiou, Gustav Bergmann, Patricia Churchland, Paul Churchland, Gilles Deleuze, René Descartes, Jean Gebser, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Friedrich Nietzsche, Bertrand Russell, Jean-Paul Sartre, Barry Smith, Baruch Spinoza
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Es macht klug, und zwar auf Dauer - derStandard.at
Google News - over 5 years
"Freude ist der Übergang des Geistes in einen perfekteren Zustand", schrieb Baruch Spinoza. Die Neurowissenschaft gibt ihm recht. Wie und warum die guten Gefühle entstehen, ist von der Evolution vorgegeben. Doch je nach Kultur, Lebensgeschichte und
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Gente 'tóxica', chismosa y manipuladora, puede acabar con su negocio - ElTiempo.com
Google News - over 5 years
Los 'tóxicos' son los dueños poco afortunados de eso que el filósofo neerlandés Baruch Spinoza calificó alguna vez de pasiones tristes. Es decir, son los que están atenazados por la envidia, el odio, la venganza, la violencia, la mediocridad,
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'Bloomsday' tour celebrates Jewish protagonist of 'Ulysses' - Jerusalem Post
Google News - over 5 years
At the same time he is very conscious of distinct Jewish thinkers like Baruch Spinoza, Mendelsohn – the composer and philosopher – and Karl Marx.” Throughout the novel, Bloom's Jewish identity is discussed repeatedly, sometimes despite his best efforts
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âLâambigua evidenza. Lâidentità ebraica tra razza e nazioneâ - Rinascita.eu - Rinascita
Google News - over 5 years
Esemplare al riguardo la riportata secentesca maledizione degli Anziani contro Baruch Spinoza (cfr.pag.106) “sia maledetto di giorno e maledetto di notte; maledetto quando si corica e maledetto quando si leva; maledetto quando esce e maledetto quando
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Baruch Spinoza
    FORTIES
  • 1677
    Age 44
    Died on February 21, 1677.
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  • 1676
    Age 43
    Spinoza's health began to fail in 1676, and he died on 20 February 1677 at the age of 44.
    More Details Hide Details His premature death was said to be due to lung illness, possibly silicosis as a result of breathing in glass dust from the lenses that he ground. Later, a shrine was made of his home in The Hague.
    In 1676, Spinoza met with Leibniz at The Hague for a discussion of his principal philosophical work, Ethics, which had been completed in 1676.
    More Details Hide Details This meeting was described in Matthew Stewart's The Courtier and the Heretic.
  • THIRTIES
  • 1670
    Age 37
    In 1670, Spinoza moved to The Hague where he lived on a small pension from Jan de Witt and a small annuity from the brother of his dead friend, Simon de Vries.
    More Details Hide Details He worked on the Ethics, wrote an unfinished Hebrew grammar, began his Political Treatise, wrote two scientific essays ("On the Rainbow" and "On the Calculation of Chances"), and began a Dutch translation of the Bible (which he later destroyed). Spinoza chose for his device the Latin word "caute" ("cautiously"), inscribed beneath a rose, itself a symbol of secrecy. "For, having chosen to write in a language that was so widely intelligible, he was compelled to hide what he had written." Spinoza was offered the chair of philosophy at the University of Heidelberg, but he refused it, perhaps because of the possibility that it might in some way curb his freedom of thought.
    In Voorburg, Spinoza continued work on the Ethics and corresponded with scientists, philosophers, and theologians throughout Europe. He also wrote and published his Theological Political Treatise in 1670, in defence of secular and constitutional government, and in support of Jan de Witt, the Grand Pensionary of the Netherlands, against the Stadholder, the Prince of Orange.
    More Details Hide Details Leibniz visited Spinoza and claimed that Spinoza's life was in danger when supporters of the Prince of Orange murdered de Witt in 1672. While published anonymously, the work did not long remain so, and de Witt's enemies characterized it as "forged in Hell by a renegade Jew and the Devil, and issued with the knowledge of Jan de Witt." It was condemned in 1673 by the Synod of the Reformed Church and formally banned in 1674. Spinoza earned a modest living from lens-grinding and instrument making, yet he was involved in important optical investigations of the day while living in Voorburg, through correspondence and friendships with scientist Christiaan Huygens and mathematician Johannes Hudde, including debate over microscope design with Huygens, favouring small objectives and collaborating on calculations for a prospective 40 ft telescope which would have been one of the largest in Europe at the time. The quality of Spinoza's lenses was much praised by Christiaan Huygens, among others. In fact, his technique and instruments were so esteemed that Constantijn Huygens ground a "clear and bright" 42 ft. telescope lens in 1687 from one of Spinoza's grinding dishes, ten years after his death. The exact type of lenses that Spinoza made are not known, but very likely included lenses for both the microscope and telescope. He was said by anatomist Theodor Kerckring to have produced an "excellent" microscope, the quality of which was the foundation of Kerckring's anatomy claims.
  • 1669
    Age 36
    Spinoza and Serrarius maintained their relationship until Serrarius' death in 1669.
    More Details Hide Details By the beginning of the 1660s, Spinoza's name became more widely known, and eventually Gottfried Leibniz and Henry Oldenburg paid him visits, as stated in Matthew Stewart's The Courtier and the Heretic. Spinoza corresponded with Oldenburg for the rest of his short life. The writings of René Descartes have been described as "Spinoza's starting point." Spinoza's first publication was his geometric exposition (proofs using the geometric method on the model of Euclid with definitions, axioms, etc.) of Descartes's Parts I and II of Principles of Philosophy (1663). Spinoza has been associated with Leibniz and Descartes as "rationalists" in contrast to "empiricists".
  • 1664
    Age 31
    Spinoza engaged in correspondence from December 1664 to June 1665 with Willem van Blijenbergh, an amateur Calvinist theologian, who questioned Spinoza on the definition of evil.
    More Details Hide Details Later in 1665, Spinoza notified Oldenburg that he had started to work on a new book, the Theologico-Political Treatise, published in 1670. Leibniz disagreed harshly with Spinoza in his own manuscript "Refutation of Spinoza," but he is also known to have met with Spinoza on at least one occasion (as mentioned above), and his own work bears some striking resemblances to specific important parts of Spinoza's philosophy (see: Monadology). When the public reactions to the anonymously published Theologico-Political Treatise were extremely unfavourable to his brand of Cartesianism, Spinoza was compelled to abstain from publishing more of his works. Wary and independent, he wore a signet ring which he used to mark his letters and which was engraved with a rose and the word "caute" (Latin for "cautiously"). The Ethics and all other works, apart from the Descartes' Principles of Philosophy and the Theologico-Political Treatise, were published after his death in the Opera Posthuma, edited by his friends in secrecy to avoid confiscation and destruction of manuscripts. The Ethics contains many still-unresolved obscurities and is written with a forbidding mathematical structure modelled on Euclid's geometry and has been described as a "superbly cryptic masterwork."
  • 1663
    Age 30
    In 1663, he returned briefly to Amsterdam, where he finished and published Descartes' "Principles of Philosophy" (the only work published in his lifetime under his own name), and then moved the same year to Voorburg.
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  • TWENTIES
  • 1660
    Age 27
    Spinoza moved around 1660 or 1661 from Amsterdam to Rijnsburg, (near Leiden), the headquarters of the Collegiants.
    More Details Hide Details In Rijnsburg, he began work on his Descartes' "Principles of Philosophy" as well as on his masterpiece, the Ethics.
    He spent a brief time in or near the village of Ouderkerk aan de Amstel, but returned soon afterwards to Amsterdam and lived there quietly for several years, giving private philosophy lessons and grinding lenses, before leaving the city in 1660 or 1661.
    More Details Hide Details During this time in Amsterdam, Spinoza wrote his Short Treatise on God, Man, and His Well-Being, "of which two Dutch translations survive, discovered about 1810."
  • 1656
    Age 23
    Either for financial or other reasons, he had in any case effectively stopped contributing to the synagogue by March 1656.
    More Details Hide Details He had also committed the "monstrous deed," contrary to the regulations of the synagogue and the views of some rabbinical authorities (including Maimonides), of filing suit in a civil court rather than with the synagogue authorities—to renounce his father's heritage, no less. Upon being notified of the issuance of the censure, he is reported to have said: "Very well; this does not force me to do anything that I would not have done of my own accord, had I not been afraid of a scandal." Thus, unlike most of the censure issued routinely by the Amsterdam congregation to discipline its members, the censure issued against Spinoza did not lead to repentance and so was never withdrawn. After the censure, Spinoza is said to have addressed an "Apology" (defence), written in Spanish, to the elders of the synagogue, "in which he defended his views as orthodox, and condemned the rabbis for accusing him of 'horrible practices and other enormities' merely because he had neglected ceremonial observances." This "Apology" does not survive, but some of its contents may later have been included in his Theological-Political Treatise. For example, he cited a series of cryptic statements by medieval biblical commentator Abraham ibn Ezra intimating that some apparently anachronistic passages of the Pentateuch (i.e., "the Canaanite was then in the land," Genesis 12:6, which ibn Ezra called a "mystery" and exhorted those "who understand it keep silent") were not of Mosaic authorship as proof that his own views had valid historical precedent.
  • 1654
    Age 21
    In addition, after having made substantial contributions to the Talmud Torah synagogue in 1654 and 1655, he reduced his December 1655 contribution and his March 1656 pledge to nominal amounts (and the March 1656 pledge was never paid).
    More Details Hide Details Spinoza was eventually able to relinquish responsibility for the business and its debts to his younger brother, Gabriel, and devote himself chiefly to the study of philosophy, especially the system expounded by Descartes, and to optics. On 27 July 1656, the Talmud Torah congregation of Amsterdam issued a writ of cherem (Hebrew:, a kind of ban, shunning, ostracism, expulsion, or excommunication) against the 23-year-old Spinoza. The following document translates the official record of the censure: The Lords of the ma'amad, having long known of the evil opinions and acts of Baruch de Espinoza, have endeavoured by various means and promises, to turn him from his evil ways. But having failed to make him mend his wicked ways, and, on the contrary, daily receiving more and more serious information about the abominable heresies which he practised and taught and about his monstrous deeds, and having for this numerous trustworthy witnesses who have deposed and born witness to this effect in the presence of the said Espinoza, they became convinced of the truth of the matter; and after all of this has been investigated in the presence of the honourable chachamin sages, they have decided, with their consent, that the said Espinoza should be excommunicated and expelled from the people of Israel. By the decree of the angels, and by the command of the holy men, we excommunicate, expel, curse and damn Baruch de Espinoza, with the consent of God, Blessed be He, and with the consent of all the Holy Congregation, in front of these holy Scrolls with the six-hundred-and-thirteen precepts which are written therein, with the excommunication with which Joshua banned Jericho, with the curse with which Elisha cursed the boys, and with all the curses which are written in the Book of the Law.
    After his father's death in 1654, Spinoza and his younger brother Gabriel (Abraham). ran the family importing business.
    More Details Hide Details The business ran into serious financial difficulties, however, perhaps as a result of the First Anglo-Dutch War. In March 1656, Spinoza filed suit with the Amsterdam municipal authorities to be declared an orphan in order to escape his father's business debts and so that he could inherit his mother's estate (which at first was incorporated into his father's estate) without it being subject to his father's creditors.
    Spinoza's father, Miguel, died in 1654 when Spinoza was 21.
    More Details Hide Details He duly recited Kaddish, the Jewish prayer of mourning, for eleven months as required by Jewish law. When his sister Rebekah disputed his inheritance, he took her to court to establish his claim, won his case, but then renounced his claim in her favour. Spinoza adopted the Latin name Benedictus de Spinoza, began boarding with Van den Enden, and began teaching in his school. Following an anecdote in an early biography by Johannes Corelus, he is said to have fallen in love with his teacher's daughter, Clara, but she rejected him for a richer student. (This story has been discounted on the basis that Clara Maria van den Enden was born in 1643 and would have been no more than about 18 years old when Spinoza left Amsterdam. In 1671 she married Dirck Kerckring.) During this period Spinoza also became acquainted with the Collegiants, an anti-clerical sect of Remonstrants with tendencies towards rationalism, and with the Mennonites who had existed for a century but were close to the Remonstrants. Many of his friends belonged to dissident Christian groups which met regularly as discussion groups and which typically rejected the authority of established churches as well as traditional dogmas.
  • 1653
    Age 20
    In 1653, at age 20, Spinoza began studying Latin with Francis van den Enden (Franciscus van den Enden), a notorious free thinker, former Jesuit, and radical democrat who likely introduced Spinoza to scholastic and modern philosophy, including that of Descartes. (A decade later, in the early 1660s, Van den Enden was considered to be a Cartesian and atheist, and his books were put on the Catholic Index of Banned Books.)
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  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1632
    Born
    Born on November 24, 1632.
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