Bettino Craxi
Italian politician
Bettino Craxi
Benedetto "Bettino" Craxi was an Italian politician, head of the Italian Socialist Party from 1976 to 1993, the first socialist President of the Council of Ministers of Italy from 1983 to 1987.
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Bettino Craxi's personal information overview.
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Corruption in northern Italy: A plague on all their houses
The Economist - over 4 years
ITALIANS in their millions are abstaining from democracy. The turnout in last month’s Sicilian regional election was below 50%. And those who do vote are looking in ever-growing numbers to protest groups (in Sicily, one founded by a comedian and blogger, Beppe Grillo, came top).To understand why, consider Lombardy, the region of Italy’s financial capital, Milan. The city was once Italy’s “moral capital” too—before the premierships of Bettino Craxi, who died an exiled fugitive from justice, and of Silvio Berlusconi, another native Milanese. But the sober and conscientious Mario Monti, Italy’s current prime minister, is from Lombardy. And the region’s people still see themselves as more industrious and upright than southerners. The Northern League stresses Lombardy’s supposedly Celtic heritage. Others point to links with the Teutonic world, including a stint under the Austrian empire.Yet since its regional election in 2010, Lombardy’s politics has seen a moral collapse. The last straw wa ...
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The Economist article
Silvio Berlusconi convicted in Italy of tax fraud
Fox News - over 4 years
Just two days after announcing he won't run in spring elections, former Italian Premier Silvio Berlusconi was convicted of tax fraud and sentenced to four years in prison Friday in a verdict that could see him barred from public office for five years. Berlusconi, after dominating Italian politics for nearly two decades, has seen his power weakening in the last year as a sex scandal tarnished his image and he was forced to resign as premier after failing to convince financial markets that he could come up with convincing reforms to shield Italy from Europe's debt woes. In the latest blow, the 76-year-old billionaire media mogul received the stiffest sentence among the four co-defendants convicted in a scheme that involved inflating the price his media empire paid for TV rights to U.S. movies and pocketing the difference. And the sentence was more than the three years and eight months sought by prosecutors. The court, which began hearing th ...
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Fox News article
Roma Ladrona e la politica del dito medio - Paperblog
Google News - over 5 years
L'uomo della "Milano da bere", Bettino Craxi, se la cavò con l'esilio. Questa era la "Roma ladrona": una classe dirigente che a Roma si insediava per i propri affari, non sempre nazionali. All'epoca, Umberto Bossi dichiarava di avercelo duro
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Google News article
MANOVRA BIS: 30 ANNI DI SPESA PUBBLICA SEMPRE IN CRESCITA - Agenzia di Stampa Asca
Google News - over 5 years
Da 157 a 249 miliardi di euro il costo dello Stato sotto il pentapartito di Bettino Craxi. Una dinamica che fa impressione. In appena 7 anni la spesa pubblica triplica. Dal 1984 si adottano provvedimenti restrittivi della spesa previdenziale
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Google News article
Il Ponte sullo Spettro di Messina - Il Fatto Quotidiano
Google News - over 5 years
Nel 1985 è Bettino Craxi ad annunciarne la prossima realizzazione. Un testimone che l'attuale presidente del Consiglio non poteva non raccogliere… E infatti pochi giorni fa la notizia ufficiale che, tuttavia, il premier Berlusconi ha preferito non
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Google News article
Arrivederci, Berlusconi? - Vanity Fair
Google News - over 5 years
“We're friends with everyone and have no ax to grind,” he told journalists, noting that, big-time capitalist though he was, he had hired Stefania Craxi—daughter of the Socialist prime minister Bettino Craxi—as a reporter for one of his non-networks
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Google News article
Why an Italian bailout might not work in the financial crisis - Alaska Dispatch
Google News - over 5 years
Under the socialist government of Bettino Craxi (1983-87), for example, public workers could retire as early as 35. After a series of corruption scandals, Craxi left the country to avoid prosecution and died in exile in 2000. Since then, governments of
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Google News article
Today in History - Aug. 4 - mysask.com (press release)
Google News - over 5 years
In 1983, Bettino Craxi took office as Italy's first socialist prime minister. In 1983, in the "Fowl Ball" incident, New York Yankee outfielder Dave Winfield was charged by Toronto police after killing a seagull with a thrown baseball
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A spaghetti mess in the rice bowl - Asia Times Online
Google News - over 5 years
Back then, elections were held according to proportional representation, so the end of the top tier people like former premiers Giulio Andreotti or Bettino Craxi, opened the gates to their lieutenants, such Romano Prodi and Giuliano Amato who were free
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Google News article
Den Absprung verpasst - derStandard.at
Google News - over 5 years
Bald wurde auch Sozialistenchef Bettino Craxi der Boden unter den Füßen zu heiß: Der Mentor und Trauzeuge von Berlusconi setzte sich nach Tunesien ab. Der Medientycoon blieb alleine zurück, musste seine Felle retten. Und da machte Berlusconi einen
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Chi ha paura di Dsk - L'Espresso
Google News - over 5 years
Per gli irriducibili sostenitori, Dominique Strauss-Khan sarebbe un Edmond Dantès (tra l'altro il nom de plume usato da Bettino Craxi da Hammamet e che non gli portò bene) sul punto di tornare in Francia, vendicarsi dei nemici, riprendere la corsa
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Google News article
SCOMPARSA MANCA: CICCHITTO RICORDA L'AMICO SU "IL FOGLIO" - AgenParl - Agenzia Parlamentare
Google News - over 5 years
Ecco il testo integrale: "Enrico Manca fu potenzialmente l'alternativa politica a Bettino Craxi nel PSI. La passione per la politica fu la ragione della sua vita fin da giovanissimo. Egli entrò in politica militando nel PSDI, poi seguì Matteo Matteotti
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Google News article
MANOVRA: BINDI, DI CHI E' PATERNITA' PROVVEDIMENTO? - Agenzia di Stampa Asca
Google News - over 5 years
''La parabola ventennale di Berlusconi - dice ancora la Bindi - si sta concludendo sotto il segno dell'uso improprio del potere pubblico: era iniziata con un decreto legge varato dall'allora presidente del consiglio Bettino Craxi per salvare l'impero
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Google News article
“Hammamet”: presentazione a Caltagirone dell libro di Perrotta che rilegge ... - informazione.it (Comunicati Stampa)
Google News - over 5 years
Mineo, 01/07/2011 (informazione.it - comunicati stampa) A poco più di 11 anni dalla scomparsa di Bettino Craxi, la casa editrice Sikeliana, con il patrocinio del comune di Caltagirone, presenta il libro di Massimiliano Perrotta dal titolo “Hammamet”
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Google News article
Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Bettino Craxi
    LATE_ADULTHOOD
  • 2000
    Age 65
    He died on 19 January 2000, at the age of 65, from complications of diabetes.
    More Details Hide Details All three appeals by Craxi to Strasbourg Court complained that his defense was not able to refute in court the accusations made by various defendants of related crimes, in violation of the adversarial principle proclaimed in article 6 paragraph 3 letter d of the European Convention of Human Rights. By the way, just once the European Court ruled in his favour, in a case of wiretapped conversations illegally made public.
  • FIFTIES
  • 1994
    Age 59
    Craxi escaped the laws he had once contributed to make, by fleeing to Hammamet, Tunisia, in 1994, and remained a fugitive there, protected by Ben Ali's government.
    More Details Hide Details He repeatedly declared himself innocent, but never returned to Italy where he had been sentenced to 27 years in jail because of his corruption crimes (of these, 9 years and 8 months were upheld on appeal).
    In May 1994 he fled to Tunis in order to escape jail.
    More Details Hide Details His political career ended in less than two years. Italy's entire political class, including people like Andreotti and Forlani, was to follow suit soon. The CAF (the Craxi-Andreotti-Forlani axis), which had made a pact to revive the Pentapartito (an alliance of five parties: DC, PSI, Italian Republican Party, Italian Liberal Party, Italian Democratic Socialist Party) of the 1980s and apply it to the 1990s, was doomed to be crushed by the popular vote as well as by the judges. The set of anti-corruption investigations carried out by the Milan judges came to be collectively called Mani pulite (clean hands). No party was spared, but in some parties corruption had become more endemic than elsewhere (either because of more opportunity or internal ethics). To this day, some people (especially those who were close to Craxi) argue that some parties (such as the Italian Communist Party) were left untouched, while the leaders of then ruling coalition (and in particular Bettino Craxi) were wiped off the political map.
  • 1993
    Age 58
    In December 1993, after his prosecution was finally authorised, Craxi was called to testify alongside Democrazia Cristiana party secretary Arnaldo Forlani before Justice Antonio Di Pietro.
    More Details Hide Details Questions were asked about the so-called ENIMONT 'super-bribe' which the PSI and DC had jointly received and democratically shared. Forlani evasively asked what a bribe was while Craxi, after admitting to the charges brought against himself and other parties, stated that the bribes were "the cost of politics." Craxi, noting that the legal process had accelerated in his case, claimed that his prosecution was politically motivated.
  • 1992
    Age 57
    Craxi received his first prosecution notice in December 1992.
    More Details Hide Details More followed in January and February, at which point the Court of Milan explicitly asked Parliament to authorise Craxi's prosecution for bribery and corruption (at the time, Italian MPs were immune from prosecution unless authorised by Parliament). The authorisation was denied on 29 April 1993 after Craxi gave an emotional speech. However, upon returning to his Roman residence at the Raphael Hotel, he was met by a large crowd of protestors who pelted him with coins. The protestors intoned: "Bettino! Do you want even these?!".
    In July 1992, Craxi finally realised the situation was serious and that he himself was going to be hit by the unfolding scandal.
    More Details Hide Details He made an appeal before the Chamber of Deputies in which he claimed that everyone knew of the widespread irreguralities in the public financing of Italian parties, accused the deputies of hypocrisy and cowardice, and called for all MPs to protect the Socialists from prosecution as a show of solidarity. However, his call was ignored.
  • 1987
    Age 52
    He also played a role in the 1987 seizure of power in Tunisia by Zine el Abidine Ben Ali.
    More Details Hide Details
    The Italian Socialist Party reached its post-war apex when it increased its share of votes in the general election of 1987.
    More Details Hide Details However, the Italian Socialist Party never outgrew the much larger Italian Communist Party, whose highly charismatic leader, Enrico Berlinguer, was a fierce adversary of Craxi's policies through the years. The main dynamic of Italian post-war politics was to find a way to keep the Italian Communist Party out of power. This led to the constant formation of political alliances between parties keen on keeping the Communists at bay. Things were further complicated by the fact that many parties had internal currents that would have welcomed the Communists in the governing coalition, in particular, within Christian Democracy, the largest party in Italy from 1945 until the end of the First Republic. During Craxi's tenure as Prime Minister, Italy became the fifth largest industrial nation and gained entry into the G7 Group of most industrialised nations. However, inflation was often in the double digits. Against trade union resistance, the Craxi government reacted by abolishing wage-price indexation (a mechanism known as scala mobile or "escalator"), under which wages had been increased automatically in line with inflation. Abolishing the escalator system did help reduce inflation, which was also falling in other major countries, but in the long term it inevitably increased industrial action as workers had to bargain for better salaries. In any event, the victory of the "No" campaign in the referendum called by the Italian Communist Party was a major victory for Craxi.
  • 1985
    Age 50
    Internationally, Craxi is perhaps best remembered for an incident in October 1985, when he refused the request of US President Ronald Reagan to extradite the hijackers of the cruise ship Achille Lauro.
    More Details Hide Details After protracted negotiations, the hijackers were given safe passage to Egypt by plane. Three United States Navy F-14's forced the plane down to the United States Naval Air Facility (NAF) of Sigonella. According to the version of political circles in Washington, Craxi first gave the United States Forces permission to detain the terrorists, but he later reneged on the deal. He ordered Italian troops to surround the US Forces protecting the plane. This move was supposedly dictated both by security concerns about terrorists targeting Italy if the United States had had it their way and by the Italian tradition of diplomacy with the Arab world. Craxi's decisive character may have been relevant in this resolution. Though the Americans demanded that the Italian authorities extradite Abu Abbas of the PLO, Craxi stood firm on the grounds that the crime had been perpetrated on Italian soil, over which the Italian Republic had sole jurisdiction. Craxi rejected the US extradition order and let Abu Abbas – chief of the hijackers, present on the plane – flee to Yugoslavia; the four hijackers were later found guilty, and sentenced to prison terms for hijacking and the murder of a Jewish American citizen, Leon Klinghoffer. Abbas was later also convicted in Italy in absentia and eventually died of "natural causes", shortly after being taken prisoner by American forces in the aftermath of the 2003 invasion of Iraq. This episode earned Craxi an article in The Economist titled "Europe's strong man" and a standing ovation in the Senate of the Republic, which included his Communist opponents.
  • FORTIES
  • 1976
    Age 41
    A native of Milan, Craxi was precocious and ascended to many levels of public office at an early age. In 1976, he was elected to the vacant position of chairman of the party, ending years of factional fighting within the PSI.
    More Details Hide Details Ironically, the "old guard" saw him as short-lived leader, allowing each faction time to regroup. However, he was able to consolidate power and implement his policies. In particular, he sought and managed to distance the party from the Communists, bringing it into an alliance with Christian Democracy and other centrist parties, while maintaining a leftist and reformist profile. Craxi led the second longest-lived government of Italy during the republican era (after the 2nd Silvio Berlusconi ministry) and had strong influence in Italian politics throughout the 1980s; for a time, he was a close ally of two key figures of Christian Democracy, Giulio Andreotti and Arnaldo Forlani, in a loose cross-party alliance often dubbed CAF (from the first letter of the surname Craxi-Andreotti-Forlani). Craxi had a firm grasp on a party previously troubled by factionalism, and tried to distance it from the Communists and to bring it closer to Christian Democrats and other parties; his objective was to create an Italian version of European reformist socialist parties, like the German SPD or the French Socialist Party.
  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1934
    Born
    Born on February 24, 1934.
    More Details Hide Details
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