Carlos Menem
President of the Argentina
Carlos Menem
Carlos Saúl Menem is an Argentine politician who was President of Argentina from 1989 to 1999. He is currently an Argentine National Senator for La Rioja Province.
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Carlos Menem's personal information overview.
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News
News abour Carlos Menem from around the web
Argentine ex-presidents asked to testify in Menem's son case
Yahoo News - 9 months
BUENOS AIRES, Argentina (AP) — A court on Wednesday asked six former Argentine presidents to testify in the investigation into the 1995 death of the son of ex-President Carlos Menem.
Article Link:
Yahoo News article
Ex-Argentine leader tells court son was killed by Hezbollah
Yahoo News - 10 months
BUENOS AIRES, Argentina (AP) — Former Argentine President Carlos Menem said Friday he believes his son was killed by the Lebanon-based militant group Hezbollah, which prosecutors also suspect was behind two 1990s bombings in Buenos Aires.
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Yahoo News article
Argentina:  A Case Study of Israel’s Zionist-Wall Street Destabilization Campaign
Intifada - almost 2 years
Rescue workers search for survivors and victims in the rubble left after a powerful car bomb destroyed the Buenos Aires headquarters of the Argentine Israeli Mutual Association (AMIA), killing 85 people.REUTERS/Enrique Marcarian/Files      Israeli attempted to sidetrack the Argentine investigation, by involving some of its powerful Wall Street assets and influential pro-Israel lobbies (the Anti-Defamation League, AIPAC among others).  Their purpose was to fabricate ‘evidence’ in order to implicate Iran in the crime and to manipulate their influential assets in Argentina, especially in this case, chief prosecutor Nisman and many of the leaders of DAIA, to accuse the Argentine government of complicity in an ‘Iranian cover-up’.     James Petras Introduction             A recent article by Jorge Elbaum, the former executive director of DAIA (Delegation for Argentine Jewish Associations), the principle Argentine Jewish umbrella groups, published in the Buenos Aires dai ...
Article Link:
Intifada article
Tribunal dismisses case against ex-Argentine President Carlos Menem for 1995 explosion
Fox News - about 3 years
A federal tribunal in Argentina has ruled prosecutors cannot proceed with a case alleging former President Carlos Menem was involved in an explosion at a military weapons factory that destroyed much of the town of Rio Tercero in 1995.
Article Link:
Fox News article
Argentine ex-president Menem back on trial at 83
Yahoo News - over 3 years
Argentina's ex-president Carlos Menem was back in court for a new trial Monday, this time for allegedly falsifying his personal tax returns, the Supreme Court announced.
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Yahoo News article
Menem: 7 years jail for arms smuggling
CNN - over 3 years
An Argentine court has sentenced former President Carlos Menem to seven years in prison for his role in illegally smuggling weapons to Ecuador and Croatia.
Article Link:
CNN article
Argentine ex-President Menem could face 7 years in prison for arms smuggling
Yahoo News - over 3 years
BUENOS AIRES (Reuters) - Former Argentine President Carlos Menem received a seven-year prison sentence for arms smuggling to Croatia and Ecuador in the 1990s, but he will not be jailed unless his fellow senators strip him of immunity, a court said on Thursday. Menem, now a frail 82-year-old senator, was found guilty in March of being "co-author of the offense of aggravated contraband" in an appeals court decision that overturned a lower court's acquittal two years before. He can appeal the ruling to the Supreme Court. ...
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Yahoo News article
Argentine ex-economy minister Martinez de Hoz dies
Fox News - almost 4 years
Former economy minister Jose Alfredo Martinez de Hoz has died at age 87 while awaiting sentencing for human rights abuses during the military dictatorship. The state news agency Telam said the exact cause of his death Saturday was not immediately announced. Martinez de la Hoz was Argentina's economy minister from 1976-1981 under military coup leader Gen. Jorge Rafael Videla. After the dictatorship ended, Martinez de la Hoz was tried for rights abuses. He benefited from a 1990 pardon by then-President Carlos Menem, but the charges were restored after the Supreme Court ruled in 2006 that the pardon was unconstitutional. Specifically, Martinez de la Hoz was accused of being among those responsible for the kidnapping and extortion of a prominent businessman and his son, something he long denied.
Article Link:
Fox News article
Former President Guilty of Trafficking
Huffington Post - almost 4 years
BUENOS AIRES, Argentina -- Former Argentine President Carlos Menem and 11 others were found guilty by an appeals court on Friday of smuggling weapons to Ecuador and Croatia in violation of international embargoes in the 1990s. Menem, now 82 and enjoying immunity as an Argentine senator, had been acquitted at trial in 2011, but the appellate court said much of the evidence had been mistakenly dismissed, and that there is no logical way the weapons could have been smuggled without Menem's direct participation and approval. Menem acknowledged signing secret decrees to export weapons to Venezuela and Panama, but said he had no idea that the tons of rifles and ammunition made in Argentina would end up in Ecuador and Croatia, countries subject to international embargoes at the time. The appeals court called his defense "incomprehensible," given voluminous evidence that customs procedures weren't followed amid pressure from the presidency. The court found that Menem's ...
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Huffington Post article
Mariana Rodriguez Pareja: Argentina: Sparks Around Alleged 'New Year's Celebration' at Former Torture Center
Huffington Post - about 4 years
Scandal broke a recently in Argentina, when Justice Minister Alak was accused of having hosted an "end-of-the-year" barbecue at the premises of the former clandestine detention center Escuela de Mecánica de la Armada (ESMA) -- currently the Museum of the Memory. Part of the opposition and several human rights organizations condemned the celebration: some did it with a high degree of opportunism, while others took the opportunity to make more substantial complaints about the current government. The ESMA is a former navy school that turned into the biggest clandestine detention centre during the military dictatorship (1976-1983), in which it is estimated that more than 5,000 people were arbitrarily detained, tortured and 'disappeared' at this facility. Fewer than 200 of these are believed to have survived. Many of those detained at these premises were thrown into the nearby Río de la Plata from airplanes, as a part of the infamous Death Flights. Nowadays, the ESMA serves as a ...
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Huffington Post article
Elliot vs Argentina is a domestic Argentine issue
Reuters.com - over 4 years
If you want to follow all the ins and outs of Elliott vs Argentina in the mainstream press, you’ll soon find something very interesting. It’s a US case, in a US court, which is very likely to have profound consequences for both US markets in general and for one of America’s most diplomatically important laws, the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act. But to a first approximation, the US press simply hasn’t noticed. Most US outlets have carried a single dry and dutiful report, buried on an inside page, somewhere; the NYT didn’t even manage that, relying instead on a wire report from the AP in Buenos Aires. The WSJ has not been much better, although its report is notable for getting notoriously reclusive fund manager David Martinez* on the record — a sign that if they put their mind to it, US journalists could really add some value here. By contrast, the FT has been all over the story, in detail, from the very beginning, out of London and Buenos Aires. Alphaville’s Joseph Cotterill has c ...
Article Link:
Reuters.com article
阿根廷:基什内尔国有化YPF石油公司激怒了帝国主义
China Worker - almost 5 years
西班牙政府、雷普索尔公司(Repsol)、欧盟领导人、拉美国家的总统们和其他人纷纷抗议 托尼•索努瓦(Tony Saunois),工国委(CWI) 阿根廷庇隆主义总统宣布51%的YPF股份将收归国有的计划,在阿根廷已经赢得了群众的支持,并且被视为对雷普索尔(Repsol)跨国公司的打击。 西班牙工业部长何塞•曼努埃尔•苏利亚(José Manuel Soria )称之为“对西班牙的敌对行为,会导致后果”。(西班牙首相)拉霍伊(Rajoy)斥责这是“不计后果的敌对行为”,这将破坏两国间的“友好氛围”。英国《金融时报》也响应了这种情绪。其社论头条为“野蛮的经济抢劫”,威胁称阿根廷将可能会被“终止20国集团的席位”并警告基什内尔“不应让她忘记怎样的行动就有怎样的后果”(《金融时报》2012年4月18日) 智利邪恶的新自由主义总统皮涅拉(Pinera)和墨西哥总统卡尔德隆(Calderon)同样加入了该阵营批评基什内尔反帝国主义公司的行为。甚至玻利维亚总统莫拉莱斯(Evo Morales)也有些懦弱地表示这是阿根廷和西班牙两国的双边问题,而他的政府和雷普索尔公司关系良好。他自己的政府曾受到来自巴西的类似指责,当时它采取类似的方法以对抗巴西跨国公司——巴西国家石油公司(Petrobras )。 国有化YPF公司股份是一项意义非凡的进展,其产生的重要影响远远超出阿根廷一国本身。这是对基什内尔的国家干预的恶意攻击的背景。国际上的统治阶级担心在当前不断恶化的世界经济危机中,这会为其他政府开先例。“民粹主义的警报再次响起......”是莫伊塞斯•纳伊姆(Moisés Naim )在2012年4月19日《金融时报》上发表的文章的标题。当世界资本主义经济危机加剧,阿根廷的这些发展可能在其他国家发生。它们这些措施将意味着一个新时代的到来。 尽管委内瑞拉的查韦斯在过去采取的类似行为(国有化法国道达尔(Total),英国石油(BP)和美国雪佛龙(Chevron))同样遭致尖锐的敌视和反对,但并没有达到基什内尔最近的干预所引起的国际性的反映。 现在世界资本主义的全球形势远比查韦斯对那些公司进行干预的时候要严重得多。其他政府可能出于群众的压力或者试图保护他们自己的利益而被迫进行干预乃至国有化经济部门的前景使统治阶级感到恐慌。 统治阶级的新政策? 基什 ...
Article Link:
China Worker article
YPF in the world, Ivan Briscoe
Open Democracy - almost 5 years
The sudden expropriation of Argentina’s YPF’s oil firm has stirred alarm across Spain, the EU and international business. But the galloping radicalization of economic policy led by a group of young officials in Buenos Aires is grounded in lessons drawn from the global crisis and the errors of European austerity. The results are uncertain, but the reasons are resounding. Fifteen minutes was the time allotted for company executives to pack their bags and leave. By the next morning, their email accounts and mobile phones had been eliminated. Whatever else is said in the world’s financial press over Argentina’s supposedly colossal error in expropriating 51 percent of the national oil company YPF, all of it from the hands of the Spanish owner Repsol, there is no doubt that the seizure was conducted in the most ruthlessly efficient way conceivable. It was a hit and a heist, staged for the public and the world. From th ...
Article Link:
Open Democracy article
Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Carlos Menem
    LATE_ADULTHOOD
  • 2015
    Age 84
    On December 1, 2015, Menem was also found guilty of embezzlement, and sentenced four and half years to prison.
    More Details Hide Details Domingo Cavallo, his economy minister, and Raúl Granillo Ocampo, Menem's former minister of justice, also received prison sentences of more than three years for participating in the scheme, and were ordered to repay hundreds of thousands of pesos’ worth of illegal bonuses. In his initial times, Menem sported an image similar to the old caudillos, such as Facundo Quiroga and Chacho Peñaloza. He also groomed his sideburns in a similar style. His presidential inauguration was attended by several gauchos. Contrary to Peronist tradition, Carlos Menem did not prepare huge rallies in the Plaza de Mayo to address the people from the balcony of the Casa Rosada. Instead of that, he took full advantage of mass communication media, such as television.
  • 2013
    Age 82
    Following an Appeals Court ruling that found Menem guilty of aggravated smuggling, he was sentenced to seven years in prison on June 13, 2013, for his role in illegally smuggling weapons to Ecuador and Croatia; his position as senator earned him immunity from incarceration, and his advanced age (82) afforded him the possibility of house arrest.
    More Details Hide Details His minister of defense during the weapons sales, Oscar Camilión, was concurrently sentenced to 5 and a half years. In December 2008, the German multinational Siemens agreed to pay an $800 million fine to the United States government, and approximately €700 million to the German government, to settle allegations of bribery. The settlement revealed that Menem had received about US$2 million in bribes from Siemens in exchange for awarding the national ID card and passport production contract to Siemens; Menem denied the charges but nonetheless agreed to pay the fine.
    He was declared innocent of those charges in 2013.
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  • 2009
    Age 78
    At the end of 2009 he announced that he intended to run for the presidency again in the 2011 elections. but ran for a new term as senator instead.
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  • 2008
    Age 77
    In August 2008, the BBC reported that Menem was under investigation for his role in the 1995 Río Tercero explosion, which is alleged to have been part of the weapons scandal involving Croatia and Ecuador.
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  • 2007
    Age 76
    Menem ran for Governor of La Rioja in August 2007, but was defeated.
    More Details Hide Details He finished in third place with about 22% of the vote. This was viewed as a catastrophic defeat, signaling the end of his political dominance in La Rioja. It was the first time in 30 years that Menem had lost an election. Following this defeat in his home province, he withdrew his candidacy for president.
  • 2005
    Age 74
    In the October 23, 2005 elections, Menem won the minority seat in the Senate representing his province of birth.
    More Details Hide Details The two seats allocated to the majority were won by President Kirchner's faction, locally led by Ángel Maza.
    In 2005, the press reported that he was trying to form an alliance with his former minister of economy Cavallo to fight in the parliamentary elections.
    More Details Hide Details Menem said that there had been only preliminary conversations and an alliance did not result.
    He was elected senator for La Rioja in 2005.
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  • 2004
    Age 73
    In June 2004 Menem announced that he had founded a new faction within the PJ, called "People's Peronism."
    More Details Hide Details He announced his intention to run in the 2007 election.
  • 2003
    Age 72
    Menem ran in 2003 and won the greatest number of votes, 24%, in the first round of the April 27, 2003 presidential election; but votes were split among numerous parties. 45% is required for election (or 40% if the margin of victory is 10 or more percentage points).
    More Details Hide Details A second-round run-off vote between Menem and second-place finisher, and fellow Peronist, Néstor Kirchner, who had received 22%, was scheduled for May 18. By that time, Menem had become very unpopular. Polls predicted that he faced almost certain defeat by Kirchner in the runoff. Most polls showed Kirchner taking at least 60 percent of the vote, and at least one poll showed Menem losing by as many as 50 points. To avoid a humiliating electoral defeat, Menem withdrew his candidacy on May 14, effectively handing the presidency to Kirchner. Ángel Maza, the elected governor of La Rioja, was allied with Menem, and had campaigned for him. However, weak provincial finances forced Maza to switch his support to Kirchner, which weakened Menem's influence even further.
    Menem ran for the presidency again in 2003, but unsure of winning against Néstor Kirchner, he resigned.
    More Details Hide Details
  • 2001
    Age 70
    On June 7, 2001, Menem was arrested over a weapons export scandal.
    More Details Hide Details It was based on exports to Ecuador and Croatia in 1991 and 1996. He was held under house arrest until November. He appeared before a judge in late August 2002 and denied all charges. Menem and his second wife Cecilia Bolocco, who had had a child since their marriage in 2001, moved to Chile. Argentine judicial authorities repeatedly requested Menem's extradition to face embezzlement charges. This request was rejected by the Chilean Supreme Court as under Chilean law, people cannot be extradited for questioning. On December 22, 2004, after the arrest warrants were cancelled, Menem returned with his family to Argentina. He still faced charges of embezzlement and failing to declare illegal funds in a Swiss bank.
  • 1999
    Age 68
    The Court finally held Hezbollah responsible for the attack in May 1999. The Argentine Israelite Mutual Association suffered a terrorist attack with a car bomb on July 18, 1994, which killed eighty-five people.
    More Details Hide Details It was the most destructive terrorist attack in the history of Latin America. The attack was universally condemned and 155,000 people manifested their concern in a demonstration at the Congressional plaza; but Menem did not attend. The legal case stayed unresolved during the remainder of Menem's presidency. Menem had suggested, in the first press conference, that former Carapintada leaders may be responsible of the attack, but this idea was rejected by the minister of defense several hours later. The CIA office in Buenos Aires initially considered it a joint Iranian-Syrian attack, but some days later considered it just an Iranian attack. Menem and Mossad also preferred this line of investigation. As a result of the attack, the Jewish community in Argentina had increased influence over Argentine politics. Years later, the prosecutor Alberto Nisman charged Menem with covering up a local connection to the attack, as the local terrorists may have been distant Syrian relatives of the Menem family. However, Menem was never tried for this suspected cover up.
  • 1997
    Age 66
    The 1997 Asian financial crisis and the 1998 Russian financial crisis also affected the country with consequences that lasted longer than the Tequilla Crisis and started a depression.
    More Details Hide Details Menem began his presidency assuming a non-confrontational approach, and appointing people from the conservative opposition, and business people to his cabinet. To prevent successful legal cases against the projected privatizations, the Supreme Court's numbers were increased from five to nine judges; the new judges ruled in support of Menem and usually had the majority. Other institutions that restrained or limited executive power were controlled as well. When Congress resisted some of his proposals, he used the Necessity and Urgency Decree as an alternative to send bills to it. He even considered it feasible to dissolve Congress and rule by decree, but this step was never implemented. In addition, he developed a bon vivant lifestyle, taking advantage of his authority. For instance, he made a journey from Buenos Aires to Pinamar driving a Ferrari Testarossa in less than two hours, violating speed limits. He divorced his wife Zulema Yoma and expanded the Quinta de Olivos presidential residence with a golf course, a small zoo, servants, barber, and even a buffoon.
    A new economic crisis began, and the opposing parties formed a political coalition that won the 1997 midterm elections and the 1999 presidential election.
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  • 1995
    Age 64
    Duhalde made a similar amendment to the constitution of the Buenos Aires province, in order to be re-elected in 1995.
    More Details Hide Details Menem won the elections with more than 50% of the vote, followed by José Octavio Bordón, and Carlos Álvarez. The UCR finished third in the elections for the first time. Growing unemployment increased popular resistance against Menem after his re-election. There were several riots and demonstrations in the provinces, unions opposed the economic policies, and the opposing parties organized the first cacerolazos. Estanislao Esteban Karlic replaced Antonio Quarracino as the head of the Argentine Episcopal Conference, which led to a growing opposition to Menem from the Church. The teachers' unions established a "white tent" at the Congressional plaza as a form of protest. The first piqueteros operated in Cutral Có, and this protest method was soon imitated in the rest of the country. His authority in the PJ was also held in doubt, as he was unable to run for another re-election and the party sought a candidate for the 1999 elections. This led to a fierce rivalry with Duhalde, the most likely candidate. Menem attempted to undermine his chances, and proposed a new amendment to the constitution allowing him to run for an unlimited number of re-elections. He also started a judicial case, claiming that his inability to run for a third term was a proscription. Several scandals erupted, such as the scandal over Argentine arms sales to Ecuador and Croatia, the Río Tercero explosion that may have destroyed evidence, the murder of the journalist José Luis Cabezas, and the suicide of Alfredo Yabrán, who may have ordered it.
  • 1994
    Age 63
    The death of a conscript soldier in 1994, victim of abuses by his superiors, led to the abolition of conscription in the country. The following year, Balza voiced the first institutional self-criticism of the armed forces during the Dirty War, saying that obedience did not justify the actions committed in those years. The Israeli embassy suffered a terrorist attack on March 17, 1992.
    More Details Hide Details It was perceived as a consequence of Argentina's involvement in the Gulf War. Although Hezbollah claimed responsibility for it, the Supreme Court investigated several other hypotheses. The Court wrote a report in 1996 suggesting that it could have been the explosion of an arms cache stored in the basement. Another hypothesis was that the attack could have been performed by Jewish extremists, in order to cast blame on Muslims and thwart the peace negotiations.
  • 1993
    Age 62
    The victory in the 1993 elections strengthened his proposal, which was approved by the Senate.
    More Details Hide Details Menem called for a non-binding referendum on the proposal, to increase pressure on the radical deputies. He also sent a bill to the Congress to modify the majority requirements. Alfonsín met with Menem and agreed to support the proposal in exchange for amendments that would place limits on presidential power. This negotiation is known as the Pact of Olivos. The capital city of Buenos Aires would be allowed to elect its own chief of government. Presidential elections would use a system of ballotage, and the president could only be re-elected once. The electoral college was abolished, replaced by direct elections. The provinces would be allowed to elect a third senator; two for the majority party and one for the first minority. The Council of Magistrates of the Nation would have the power to propose new judges, and the Necessity and Urgency Decrees would have a reduced scope.
  • 1991
    Age 60
    Antonio Cafiero, a rival of Menem in the PJ, was unable to amend the constitution of the Buenos Aires province to run for a re-election. Duhalde stepped down from the vice presidency and became the new governor in the 1991 elections, turning the province into a powerful bastion.
    More Details Hide Details
    His fourth minister of economy, Domingo Cavallo, was appointed in 1991.
    More Details Hide Details He deepened the neoliberal reforms. The Convertibility plan was sanctioned by the Congress, setting a one-to-one fixed exchange rate between the United States dollar and the new Argentine peso, which replaced the Austral. The law also limited public expenditures, but this was frequently ignored. There was increased free trade to reduce inflation, and high taxes on sales and earnings to reduce the deficit caused by it. Initially, the plan was a success: the capital flights ended, interest and inflation rates were lowered, and economic activity increased. The money from privatizations allowed Argentina to repurchase many of the Brady Bonds issued during the crisis. The privatizations of electricity, water, and gas were more successful than previous ones. YPF, the national oil refinery, was privatized as well, but the state kept a good portion of the shares. The project to privatize the pension funds was resisted in Congress, and was approved as a mixed system that allowed both public and private options for workers. The national state also signed a fiscal pact with the provinces, so that they reduced their local deficits as well. Buenos Aires Province was helped with a fund that gave the governor a million pesos daily. Although the Convertibility plan had positive consequences in the short term, it caused problems that surfaced later. Large numbers of employees of privatized state enterprises were fired, and unemployment grew to over 10%.
  • FIFTIES
  • 1990
    Age 59
    Menem's government re-established relations with the United Kingdom, suspended since the Falklands War, after Margaret Thatcher left office in 1990.
    More Details Hide Details The discussions on the Falkland Islands sovereignty dispute were temporarily given a lower priority, and the focus shifted to discussions of fishing rights. He also settled all remaining border issues with Chile. The Lago del Desierto dispute had an international arbitration, favourable to Argentina. The only exception was the dispute over the Southern Patagonian Ice Field, which is still open. In 1991 Menem became the first head of state of Argentina to make a diplomatic visit to Israel. He proposed to mediate between Israel and Syria in their negotiations over the Golan Heights. The diplomatic relations were damaged by the lack of results in the investigations over the two terrorist attacks.
    The swiftgate scandal broke out in 1990, as American investors were damaged by a case of corruption, and asked for assistance from the United States' Ambassador Terence Todman.
    More Details Hide Details Most of the ministers resigned as a result of it. Cavallo was reassigned as minister of economy, and his successful economic plan turned him into a prominent figure in Menem's cabinet. Cavallo brought a number of independent economists to the cabinet, and Menem supported him by replacing Peronist politicians. Both teams complemented each other. Both Menem and Cavallo tried to be recognized as the designer of the convertibility plan.
  • 1989
    Age 58
    The opposition from the UCR was minimal, as the party was still discredited by the 1989 crisis.
    More Details Hide Details With such political influence, Menem began his proposal to amend the constitution to allow a re-election. The party did not have the required super majority in the Congress to call for it. The PJ was divided, as other politicians intended to replace Menem in 1995, or negotiate their support. The UCR was divided as well, as Alfonsín opposed the proposal, but governors Angeloz and Massaccesi were open for negotiations.
    He defeated the Buenos Aires governor Antonio Cafiero in the primary elections for the 1989 presidential elections, which he won.
    More Details Hide Details Hyperinflation forced outgoing president Raúl Alfonsín to resign early, shortening the presidential transition. Menem supported the Washington Consensus, and tackled inflation with the Convertibility plan in 1991. The plan was complemented by a series of privatizations, and was a success. Argentina re-established diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom, suspended since the 1982 Falklands War, and developed special relations with the United States. The country suffered two terrorist attacks. The Peronist victory in the 1993 midterm elections allowed him to force Alfonsín to sign the Pact of Olivos for the 1994 amendment of the Argentine Constitution. This amendment allowed Menem to run for re-election in 1995, which he won.
  • 1987
    Age 56
    His party got control of the provincial legislature, and he was re-elected in 1987 with 63% of the vote.
    More Details Hide Details The PJ was divided in two factions, the conservatives that still supported the political doctrines of Juan and Isabel Perón, and those who proposed a renovation of the party. The internal disputes ceased in 1987. Menem, with his prominent victory in his district, was one of the leading figures of the party, and disputed its leadership. Antonio Cafiero, who had been elected governor of Buenos Aires Province, led the renewal of the PJ, and was considered their most likely candidate for the presidency. Menem, on the other hand, was seen as a populist leader. Using a big tent approach, he got support from several unrelated political figures. As a result, he defeated Cafiero in the primary elections. He sought alliances with Bunge and Born, union leaders, former members of Montoneros, and the AAA, people from the church, "Carapintadas", etc. He promised a "revolution of production" and huge wage increases; but it was not clear exactly which policies he was proposing. The rival candidate, Eduardo Angeloz, tried to point out the mistakes made by Menem and Alfonsín. Jacques de Mahieu, a French ideologue of the Peronist movement (and former Vichy collaborator), was photographed campaigning for Menem.
  • 1985
    Age 54
    The military leaders of the National Reorganization Process, convicted in the 1985 Trial of the Juntas, received presidential pardons, despite popular opposition to them.
    More Details Hide Details This was an old request of the Carapintadas in previous years. However, Menem did not apply their proposed changes to the military. The colonel, Mohamed Alí Seineldín, who was also pardoned, started a new mutiny, killing two military men. Unlike the mutinies that took place during the presidency of Alfonsín, the military fully obeyed Menem's orders for a forceful repression. Seineldín was utterly defeated, and sentenced to life imprisonment. This was the last military mutiny in Argentina. The president effected drastic cuts to the military budget, and privatized military factories. Menem appointed Lt. Gen. Martín Balza, who had performed well during the repression of Seineldín's mutiny, as the Army's General Chief of Staff (head of the military hierarchy).
  • 1983
    Age 52
    Military rule ended in 1983, and the radical Raúl Alfonsín was elected president.
    More Details Hide Details Menem run for governor again, and was elected by a clear margin. The province benefited from tax regulations established by the military, which allowed increased industrial growth.
  • FORTIES
  • 1978
    Age 47
    He was released on July 29, 1978, on the condition that he live in a city outside his home province without leaving it.
    More Details Hide Details He settled in Mar del Plata. Menem met Admiral Eduardo Massera, who intended to run for president, and had public meetings with personalities such as Carlos Monzón, Susana Giménez, and Alberto Olmedo. As a result, he was forced to reside in another city, Tandil. He had to report daily to Chief of Police Hugo Zamora. This forced residence was lifted in February 1980. He returned to Buenos Aires, and then to La Rioja. He resumed his political activities, despite the prohibition, and was detained again. His new forced residence was in Las Lomitas, in Formosa Province. He was one of the last politicians to be released from prison by the National Reorganization Process.
  • 1976
    Age 45
    He was deposed during the 1976 Argentine coup d'état that deposed the president Isabel Martínez de Perón.
    More Details Hide Details He was accused of corruption, and having links with the guerrillas of the Dirty War. He was detained on March 25, kept for a week at a local regiment, and then moved to a temporary prison at the ship "33 Orientales" in Buenos Aires. He was detained alongside former ministers Antonio Cafiero, Jorge Taiana, Miguel Unamuno, José Deheza, and Pedro Arrighi, the unionists Jorge Triaca, Diego Ibáñez, and Lorenzo Miguel, the diplomat Jorge Vázquez, the journalist Osvaldo Papaleo, and the former president Raúl Lastiri. He shared a cell with Pedro Eladio Vázquez, Juan Perón's personal physician. During this time he helped the chaplain Lorenzo Lavalle, despite being a Muslim. In July he was sent to Magdalena, to a permanent prison. His wife Zulema visited him every week, but rejected his conversion to Christianity. His mother died during the time he was a prisoner, and dictator Jorge Rafael Videla denied his request to attend her funeral.
    He was deposed and detained during the 1976 Argentine coup d'état, and was elected governor again in 1983.
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  • 1973
    Age 42
    Menem was elected governor in 1973, when the proscription over Peronism was lifted.
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    He was elected president of its La Rioja Province chapter in 1973.
    More Details Hide Details In that capacity, he was included in the flight to Spain that brought Perón back to Argentina after his long exile. According to the Peronist politician Juan Manuel Abal Medina, Menem played no special part in the event.
    Born in Anillaco, he became a Peronist during a visit to Buenos Aires. He led the party in his home province of La Rioja, and was elected governor in 1973.
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  • TWENTIES
  • 1955
    Age 24
    After President Juan Perón's overthrow in 1955, Menem was briefly incarcerated.
    More Details Hide Details He later joined the successor to the Peronist Party, the Justicialist Party (Partido Justicialista) (PJ).
  • 1951
    Age 20
    He visited Buenos Aires in 1951 with the team, and met the president Juan Perón and his wife Eva Perón.
    More Details Hide Details This influenced Menem to become a Peronist. He studied law at the National University of Córdoba, graduating in 1955.
  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1930
    Born
    Carlos Saúl Menem was born in 1930 in Anillaco, a small town in the mountainous north of La Rioja Province, Argentina.
    More Details Hide Details His parents, Saúl Menem and Mohibe Akil, were Syrian nationals from Yabroud who had emigrated to Argentina. He attended elementary and high school in La Rioja, and joined a basketball team during his university studies.
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