David Miller
63 Mayor of Toronto
David Miller
David Raymond Miller is a Canadian politician. He was the 63rd Mayor of Toronto and the second since the 1998 amalgamation. He was elected to the position in 2003 for a three-year term and re-elected in 2006 for a four-year term. He entered politics as a member of the New Democratic Party, although his mayoral campaign and terms in office were without any formal party affiliation. He did not renew his party membership in 2007.
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News
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Iowa Pipeline Leaks 140,000 Gallons Of Fuel In Largest U.S. Diesel Spill Since 2010
Huffington Post - 24 days
Magellan Midstream Partners LP (MMP.N) said on Thursday its refined products pipeline in Worth County, Iowa, remained shut after spilling about 3,300 barrels of diesel. The spill, equivalent to nearly 140,000 gallons of fuel, is the largest diesel spill in the U.S. since 2010, federal authorities confirmed to the Associated Press. Magellan said it expects to begin pipeline repairs later on Thursday but did not have an estimate on when pipeline operations will resume on the damaged segment of its system. “We do not expect this incident to disrupt supply of gasoline, diesel and other refined petroleum products in the region,” Magellan said in an emailed statement. The spill comes as pipeline safety has become a hot-button issue in the United States. Protesters and environmental activists rallied for months against plans to route the Dakota Access pipeline beneath a lake near the Standing Rock Sioux reservation, saying it threatened water resources and sacred Native American ...
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Huffington Post article
Thailand tourist murders: amnesty seeks torture claims probe after two convicted - Daily Mail
Google News - about 1 year
Daily Mail Thailand tourist murders: amnesty seeks torture claims probe after two convicted Daily Mail Amnesty International has called for a full investigation into claims that two Burmese migrants convicted of murdering two British backpackers in Thailand were tortured. The family of victim David Miller described the long-awaited verdict, delivered at ... Thailand British tourist murders: Myanmar men handed death penaltyThe Australian (blog) Burmese migrants accused of murdering on Thai island are found GUILTYDaily Mail all 779 news articles »
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Google News article
NASA Spinoff 2016 Highlights Space Technologies Used in Daily Life on Earth
Yahoo News - about 1 year
WASHINGTON, Dec. 16, 2015 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- NASA technology is all around us, turning trash into oil, saving women from a deadly complication of childbirth, and putting the bubbles in beer. "Technology transfer is the agency's oldest continuously operated mission, but our work is ongoing and of continuing significance," said NASA Chief Technologist David Miller.
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Yahoo News article
Here's Why Academics Should Write for the Public
Huffington Post - about 1 year
Jonathan Wai, Duke University and David Miller, Northwestern University There's been much discussion about the needless complexity of academic writing. In a widely read article in The Chronicle of Higher Education last year, Steven Pinker, professor of psychology at Harvard and author of several acclaimed books including The Sense of Style, analyzed why academic writing is "turgid, soggy, wooden, bloated, clumsy, obscure, unpleasant to read, and impossible to understand." More recently, Jeff Camhi, professor emeritus of biology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, discovered how much academic authors struggle when trying to write for a lay audience. He suggested writing programs should "develop a night course in creative nonfiction writing, specifically for professors." We think learning to write creative nonfiction isn't a bad idea. But we disagree with Camhi's suggestion that academics need a night course for this. We propose something simpler: academics just need ...
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Huffington Post article
Here's why academics should write for the public
The Huffington Post - about 1 year
Jonathan Wai, Duke University and David Miller, Northwestern University There's been much discussion about the needless complexity of academic writing. In a widely read article in The Chronicle of Higher Education last year, Steven Pinker, professor of psychology at Harvard and author of several acclaimed books including The Sense of Style, analyzed why academic writing is "turgid, soggy, wooden, bloated, clumsy, obscure, unpleasant to read, and impossible to understand." More recently, Jeff Camhi, professor emeritus of biology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, discovered how much academic authors struggle when trying to write for a lay audience. He suggested writing programs should "develop a night course in creative nonfiction writing, specifically for professors." We think learning to write creative nonfiction isn't a bad idea. But we disagree with Camhi's suggestion that academics need a night course for this. We propose something simpler: academics just need ...
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The Huffington Post article
Mayors Take On Crucial Roles Fighting Climate Change
Huffington Post - about 1 year
As the world considers how to respond to our changing climate, mayors have become even more critical in not only driving a global discussion but leading their cities toward more sustainable futures. The vast majority of cities are located in coastal regions, putting their inhabitants at greater risks from rising sea levels and hurricanes. Urban residents look to mayors not just to respond to natural disasters but to increase the resilience of cities by implementing climate adaptation plans. When the United Nations Climate Change Conference convenes in Paris on Nov. 30, a group of American mayors will be in attendance, representing 100 city leaders from across the United States who have committed to reducing emissions, tracking progress and preparing for the impact a changing climate will have on communities. “Supporting a global climate agreement is critically important for cities around the world,” Ralph Becker, mayor of Salt Lake City and president of the National League of ...
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Huffington Post article
(VIDEO) AOL Touts Creative Advertising Delivered in Real-Time
Huffington Post - over 1 year
Data will drive the effective customization of advertising and will measure its impact, says David Miller, VP for Ad Management, in explaining the value of the recently introduced ONE by AOL for Advertisers.  The creative process will happen in real-time, he notes. You can find this post on Beet.TV. -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website.
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Huffington Post article
David Miller dreams of playing Test cricket for South Africa
Yahoo News - almost 2 years
David Miller dreams of playing Tests for South Africa
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Yahoo News article
Thomas G. Prigge
Hometown Source - almost 2 years
Thomas G. Prigge, 50, of Cambridge, MN, formerly of Bemidji, passed away on April 12, 2015 at his home in Cambridge. Tom was born in Rochester, MN to Kenneth and Dorothy Prigge on July 28, 1964. He went to school in Owatonna, MN and then Bemidji, MN. Tom graduated from Bemidji High School in 1982. He worked hard from a very early age. He worked in the restaurant business with Perkin's, Hardee's and Burger King and became a manager, which eventually brought him to Arizona. Later, he came back to Bemidji and began a career with Henry's Foods (or the "Treat Job" as Hannah called it then). He met Karen Gutterud at the Henry's Food Show in September of 1994. They were engaged in December and married the following year. Tom and Karen had two daughters, Hannah and Haley. Tom was very proud of his girls and even though he wanted to teach them to work for whatever they wanted, he loved bringing things home that he thought they would like. Tom loved camping and boating with Karen and ...
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Hometown Source article
California Proposal Could Roll Back Wage Increases For Tens Of Thousands
Huffington Post - almost 2 years
This story originally appeared on Capital & Main. Capital & Main has confirmed that a proposed California law could upend existing minimum wage laws across the state, potentially rolling back wage increases for tens of thousands of people. If passed, the legislation could invalidate wage hikes approved by voters in some of the state’s largest cities, including San Francisco and Oakland. Assembly Bill 669 is backed by the California Restaurant Association (CRA) and is being championed by Assemblyman Tom Daly, a Democrat from the Orange County city of Anaheim. The legislation’s target is tipped workers – under Daly’s proposal, the minimum wage for workers who receive tips would be capped at $9 if their total hourly compensation, meaning base wage and tips, is $15 an hour or more. If, for example, an Oakland waitress earns that city’s current minimum wage of $12.25 an hour, and additionally makes $3 in hourly tips, her pay will be adjusted downward to $9 an hour plus her $3 ...
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Huffington Post article
Pakistan v South Africa: Cricket World Cup – live!
Guardian (UK) - almost 2 years
Live updates from the Group B match at Eden Park, Auckland Ali Martin: ten talking points from the third week Dileep Premachandran: MS Dhoni calmly steers India on to cruise control Email nick.miller@theguardian.com or tweet @NickMiller79 6.39am GMT 11th over: South Africa 67-3 (Rossouw 0, De Villiers 0) - South Africa require another 165 runs to win Here’s AB, and Riaz greets him with a cracking shortish one that acts as a cricketing version of smelling salts, at least letting the new man know he’s awake. No runs though, and a second wicket maiden in a row has given Pakistan a sniff. 6.36am GMT Now then. Wahab Riaz is the new bowler, and he strikes first up as Amla tries a late cut that is a little too late, arriving only in time to nick one through to the keeper who takes a brilliant one-handed catch down to his right. There’s a brief moment where the umpires check it carried, even though it very clearly had. Makes it interesting, at least. 6.34am GMT 10th over: Sou ...
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Guardian (UK) article
ImageWorks Corporation/AFP – The Leader in Veterinary Digital Dental Imaging, Acquired
California News Wire - about 3 years
DENVER, Colo., Feb. 4, 2014 (SEND2PRESS NEWSWIRE) — Blackstone Holdings, LLC (Denver, Colo.) has acquired the veterinary division of ImageWorks Corporation/AFP (Elmsford, N.Y.). The new company will operate as ImageWorks Veterinary. Continuing the “Made in the USA” tradition, all operations and manufacturing have been relocated to Colorado. AFP was the first company to introduce digital dental imaging to the animal health industry in 2004. ImageWorks Veterinary will continue manufacturing the same trustworthy and easy-to-use products, including the EVA Vet™ digital dental sensor. The new company will have improved focus on world-class customer service, guaranteed product availability and innovation with the introduction of the NewTom 5G VET™, 3D Imaging System™. The revolutionary NewTom 5G VET, 3D Imaging System™ delivers to veterinarians 360 degrees of high resolution advanced diagnostic information. “Unlike CT and MRI imaging systems, the NewTom 5G VET has a smaller footprint ...
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California News Wire article
U.S. 'impotent' on Syria conflict
CNN - about 3 years
Aaron David Miller says the U.S. can't bring an end to the fighting through military means
Article Link:
CNN article
Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of David Miller
    FIFTIES
  • 2012
    Age 53
    He has also announced a plan to build more than 1,000 kilometres of bike lanes by 2012.
    More Details Hide Details After assuming office, Miller became involved in the long-standing and polarizing debates over Toronto's police budget, the city's largest single expenditure. The city had previously approved several large increases for the police during Mel Lastman's tenure as mayor. The force's 2004 request was for $691.4 million, an increase of $57 million from the previous year. Municipal budget chief David Soknacki initially requested that the police cut $14.2 million from their request, a figure which police chief Julian Fantino argued would jeopardize essential services. After a lengthy and sometimes heated debate, the council voted 40-5 on April 21, 2004 to approve a police budget of $679.1 million. Police spending has increased by $117 million under Miller's administration, and 450 new officers have been put on the streets. In November 2006, Miller stood with Prime Minister Stephen Harper and Premier Dalton McGuinty to announce tougher bail conditions for persons accused of gun crimes. Miller and McGuinty both support Harper's plan for a "reverse-onus" provision, in which persons accused of gun crimes will be required to demonstrate why they should not be held in custody before a trial. Harper has rejected Miller's call for a ban on handguns.
  • 2011
    Age 52
    In 2011, he joined NYU Poly as a faculty member.
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    He subsequently served as an advisor on urban issues at the World Bank from 2011 to 2013.
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  • 2010
    Age 51
    In early October 2010, Miller gave his endorsement to Deputy Mayor Joe Pantalone, who claimed that he was “no clone of David Miller”, but whose platform largely continued the status quo with Miller's policies, in contrast to the other mayoral candidates who advocated sweeping changes.
    More Details Hide Details Pantalone was lagging considerably behind Councillor Rob Ford and former Ontario Deputy Premier George Smitherman in polls, and Smitherman dismissed Miller’s support of Pantalone saying “If voters wanted the status quo, David Miller would still be in this race.” Miller has accused Ford and Smitherman of wanting to "tear down Toronto”, and suggested that Smitherman posed the greater danger as mayor. Late in the campaign, Smitherman left a voice-mail with Miller to ask Pantalone to withdraw from the race but Miller never returned the call. (Back in the 2003 mayoral election, Smitherman had worked for the campaign of Barbara Hall, which tried to persuade Miller to drop out of the race.) Ford was elected mayor with 47.1% of the vote, while Smitherman and Pantalone finished second and third, with 35.6% and 11.7%, respectively. Following his term as mayor, Miller rejoined the law firm of Aird & Berlis LLP where he specializes in international business and sustainability. He splits his time between Toronto and Brooklyn, New York where he accepted a three-year appointment at the Polytechnic Institute of New York University as Future of Cities Global Fellow and will teach courses on finding technological solutions to urban problems.
    A similar number also preferred that the proposals to be debated in the 2010 municipal election before being implemented, as Miller did not mention new taxes during the 2006 campaign.
    More Details Hide Details On July 16, council voted 23-22 to defer debating the measures until after the October 2007 provincial election. Miller denied that it was a personal defeat, while Councillor Case Ootes, who led the opposition to the measures, described it as a "wake-up call" to Miller that residents wanted spending curbed. In the aftermath, Miller immediately proposed several drastic service cuts with the stated intention of saving $100 million from the operating budget. These measures included closing the Sheppard Subway line, cancelling underused bus routes, and scrapping renovations and extra staff to the mayor's office. Miller argued that these were the only responsible steps that Toronto could take to prevent a financial crisis. This drew criticism from several councillors and columnists, with provincial Finance Minister Greg Sorbara attacking the cuts as "quick, perhaps poorly thought out decisions". While they acknowledged the city was faced with a significant budget crisis, they described Miller's announcements as a political ploy, citing his initial move to go to the media instead of calling special session to discuss the cuts, with Brian Ashton suggesting that Miller was punishing councillors that did not support the new taxes.
  • 2009
    Age 50
    On September 25, 2009 Miller announced that he would not seek a third term as mayor in the 2010 election, citing family reasons.
    More Details Hide Details An Ipsos Reid poll earlier that month revealed that almost 8 in 10 Torontonians wanted Miller replaced as mayor, over dissatisfaction at his handling of the 39-day municipal strike. Many of Miller's supporters had defected to other potential candidates, likely to be former Ontario Progressive Conservative leader John Tory or Deputy Premier George Smitherman.
    After declining poll numbers, Miller announced on September 25, 2009 that he would not seek a third term as mayor in the 2010 election, citing family reasons.
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  • FORTIES
  • 2007
    Age 48
    In early May 2007, mayors from Canada's 22 largest cities gave their unanimous support to the one-cent plan.
    More Details Hide Details Mississauga mayor Hazel McCallion initially expressed pessimism over Miller's 'One-cent now' campaign, stating that "I can assure you our citizens Mississauga can’t point out to us where there’s a lot of waste. Toronto, unfortunately, has that situation, in which their citizens are saying it, as well as their board of trade has been saying it and even their own councillors are saying it". Denzil Minnan-Wong compared the two mayors, saying "Hazel McCallion runs a tight ship. David Miller’s ship has leaks all over the place,” and some commentators suggested that Toronto would have a difficult time making a credible case to the federal government for funding. She unveiled her own plan known as 'Cities Now!' to get federal funding for municipal infrastructure. However, McCallion's proposal did not receive support during a meeting with fifteen regional mayors, and she agreed to support Miller's campaign.
  • 2006
    Age 47
    In late October 2006, Miller proposed that Toronto's 200,000 landed immigrants be permitted to vote in municipal elections.
    More Details Hide Details Pitfield later indicated her support for the proposal, and Provincial Municipal Affairs Minister John Gerretsen indicated his willingness to examine it after the election. Miller consistently led Jane Pitfield in public opinion polls during the campaign, usually by significant margins. Stephen LeDrew, a late entry in the contest, failed to provide a credible challenge. Miller defeated Pitfield 57% to 32% on election day, winning 42 of the city's 44 wards. He used his victory speech to make Toronto's case for a greater share of federal and provincial tax revenues.
    In his campaign platform, released November 1, 2006, Miller promised 4,000 units of affordable housing, a mandatory lobbyist registry, and a further expansion of the green bin program into apartments and condominiums.
    More Details Hide Details He said that he would negotiate with the federal and provincial governments for a share of the Goods and Services Tax and Provincial Sales Tax, noting that a GST/PST transfer of only one cent would increase Toronto's annual revenues by $450 million. Miller also called for a National Transit Strategy to fund public transit in Canada's largest cities.
    Miller outlined his waterfront renewal plan in October 2006, highlighted by of new public spaces and parks from Scarborough to Etobicoke.
    More Details Hide Details While making this announcement, he described the Toronto Port Authority as "a rogue agency that is not accountable to anyone" and renewed his criticism of the expanding island airport. His environmental strategy outlines a four-year neighbourhood beautification program in each of Toronto's neighbourhoods. Miller called for more dedicated bus lines and increased light rapid transit, with a corresponding de-emphasis on subway construction. He has also called for a Universal Transit Pass (or "U-pass"), to encourage transit use among college and university students. He promised to continue to limit tax increases to the rate of inflation, and announced $13 million to improve community safety in thirteen troubled neighbourhoods.
    Miller reassembled his first mayoral campaign team for his 2006 re-election bid.
    More Details Hide Details John Laschinger and Peter Donolo returned in prominent roles, joined by new figures such as Ralph Lean and John Ronson as fundraisers, Dan Tisch as communications chair, and other prominent supporters such as Patrick Gossage, Jane Pepino and Michael Lewis, the brother of Stephen Lewis. David Crombie and former Ontario Premier David Peterson were named as honorary co-chairs. Miller highlighted safety issues at his campaign launch, and criticized the federal Conservative government's plans to cancel the national gun registry. He received a qualified endorsement from the Toronto Star newspaper shortly before election day. Miller's primary opponent was councillor Jane Pitfield. Pitfield criticized city spending, and described Miller the "Billion Dollar Man" for overseeing spending increases of $1.3 billion since 2003. Miller responded that Toronto's share was only $275 million, with the remainder coming from the provincial and federal governments. He later described most of the spending as "new investment we've secured from provincial and federal government to meet the needs of our city in public transit, in housing, or the 58 new child care centres that we've opened in Toronto this month alone, in Toronto's poorest neighbourhoods".
    Miller tried to create a mandatory lobbyist registry in September 2006, but council voted to refer the matter for further study.
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    Miller strongly supported the McGuinty government's 2006 budget, which included an immediate $200 million boost for Toronto.
    More Details Hide Details Miller later criticized the McGuinty government's 2007 budget. He supported the province's anti-poverty initiatives, but also argued that it was refusing to "pay its bills", and said that Toronto's budgetary problems were the result of $500 million in social service costs mandated by the provincial government. During a later discussion, provincial Finance Minister Greg Sorbara declined to help the city to fix its $71 million shortfall, saying that "he doesn't have a mandate to fix this". Miller has since moved to have the city sue the province over the shortfall. Miller appointed David Mullan as Toronto's first Integrity Commissioner in July 2004. In the same month, he brought forward a motion calling for council to ban corporate and union donations to municipal candidates. He later introduced a comprehensive plan to restructure Toronto's bureaucracy, highlighted by the elimination of three $200,000 a year positions. In making the changes, Miller described Toronto's existing bureaucracy as "incomprehensible to Torontonians" and in need of reform. The package passed council by a vote of 33-9.
    Despite ideological differences, Miller commended Stephen Harper, who was elected as Martin's successor in 2006, for taking urban issues seriously.
    More Details Hide Details Miller supported the appointment of Lawrence Cannon as Minister for Communities in February 2006, and tried without success to persuade the Harper government against eliminating Canada's national child-care plan. He expressed mixed views about the Harper government's first budget, noting that it allowed Toronto to construct 1,000 units of affordable housing while also expressing concern about cuts to child-care spaces. In early March 2007, the Harper government introduced a $1.5 billion plan to assist Toronto's public transit system and expand provincial highways. Miller welcomed the new revenue, saying that it was a step in the direction of permanent funding. Miller later described Harper's 2007 budget as a "step backwards", criticizing its lack of revenues for long-term transit funding and permanent infrastructure. Globe and Mail columnist John Barber, however, has noted that this was not echoed by other city mayors and described the One Cent Campaign as "wishful thinking". With Dalton McGuinty's 2007 provincial budget also being similarly dismissive of Miller's demands, Barber suggested that the city could realistically solve its problems by making use of its new taxing powers.
    According to one report, Churley briefly mused challenging him for mayor in 2006 before deciding not to do so.
    More Details Hide Details Miller supported Paul Martin's call for a total ban on handguns, and urged Martin to bring forward tougher bail conditions on persons accused of gun crimes.
    Miller reiterated his opposition to trash incineration in the 2006 mayoral campaign.
    More Details Hide Details The final legal hurdle to the Green Lane purchase was resolved in March 2007, and the deal was signed in early April. Miller convened a summit on affordable housing in late February 2004, bringing in representatives from all three levels of government. As the summit was formally convened, he secured $24 million in funding from the provincial government to construct more than 900 units of housing for low-to-middle income earners. Council voted later in the year to approve $13.6 million for new housing projects, amounting to 312 new homes. Miller's housing advisor, Sean Goetz-Gadon, argued in 2004 that Toronto could accommodate 10,000 subsidized housing units for both the homeless and those at risk of becoming homeless. Miller brought forward a series of measures to provide shelter and warmth for Toronto's homeless population during the winter months in 2004, including a decision to set up an emergency centre before Christmas. The shelter had 80 beds, and provided reference services. During the previous Lastman administration, the city had responded to specific emergencies rather than determining a strategy in advance.
    He also introduced a new "Building A Great City website in 2006, allowing Torontonians to follow the development of key issues on city council.
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    In June 2006, he led council in approving a measure to permit the mayor to appoint heads of committees.
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    Miller was profiled in the April 2006 edition of Vanity Fair magazine, which praised his environmental record.
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    In February 2006, the Toronto Police Services Board unanimously supported a policy to have officers refrain from asking witnesses and victims of crime about their immigration status.
    More Details Hide Details The purpose of this policy change was to ensure that illegal immigrants will not be intimidated from reporting serious crimes to the police. Both Miller and Blair supported the policy. Miller and Blair also opposed efforts by the Guardian Angels vigilante group to establish a base in Toronto. Their opposition failed to stop the Angels, who have since initiated patrols in the city.
    Miller clashed with Toronto Board of Trade President and CEO Glen Grunwald at a February 2006 budgetary consultation meeting, after Grunwald presented a number of policy measures designed to solve Toronto's budget shortfall.
    More Details Hide Details Grunwald's recommendations included reducing spending on non-priority items, increasing user fees, privatizing some services and implementing the auditor general's 800 suggestions. Miller criticized the suggestions as "poorly researched", and said that the Board of Trade presentation "didn't befit the role they have as city builders." In January 2006, there were media reports that Toronto was facing a $532 million shortfall on its operating budget. To promote cost-cutting, Miller and Soknacki encouraged the city to adopt a "zero-based budgeting" approach, wherein all city departments begin with zero authorized funds and are required to defend all proposed expenditures. The city later announced a hiring freeze. Early fears of significant tax increases were allayed by significant provincial investment in the city. Led by Miller, council passed a $7.6 billion operating budget by a vote of 27-17, again holding residential tax increases to 3% and business tax increases to 1%. The budget contained new money to hire police officers and bus drivers.
  • 2005
    Age 46
    Initially skeptical about the "strong-mayor system", where the mayor holds increased powers relative to other councillors, Miller endorsed a 2005 panel report which gave the mayor additional powers and created a formal city executive.
    More Details Hide Details He argued that Toronto needed to restructure itself before getting new powers from the province. Council endorsed the reforms in December 2005. In May 2006, the provincial government passed legislation to extend municipal terms from three years to four. Miller supported the change, saying that municipal leaders need longer terms of office to carry out their mandate.
    In 2005, he wrote that the City of Toronto Act will "give the city freedom and flexibility to deliver services creatively and effectively", and that it "will essentially be Toronto's constitution".
    More Details Hide Details The act was formally proclaimed on January 1, 2007. Soon after, Toronto used its new powers to delegate local matters to community councils, and announced plans for a Lobbying Control Framework. Recently, Miller has used the Act to justify the $600,000 cost of hiring new staff for his office, saying that his position has increased responsibilities.
    Under Miller's direction, Toronto withdrew from the AMO in 2005.
    More Details Hide Details Miller had criticized the provincial government's previous authority over Toronto as constitutionally outdated and a barrier to economic growth, noting that simple changes like parking levies and tax-free transit passes needed approval from the provincial government. He gave his full support to the McGuinty government's City of Toronto Act, which grants a variety of new powers to the city.
    A poll taken by Ipsos-Reid in October 2005 showed that the mayor, council, police and judges all received low to middling grades from the Toronto public in their handling of increased gang activity.
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    Monte Solberg of the Conservative Party met with Miller in June 2005, and told Miller that the Conservative Party would honour existing agreements for waterfront renewal if elected.
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    In 2005, when federal Social Development Minister Ken Dryden was planning a national childcare strategy, Miller spoke in favour of a system based around public delivery.
    More Details Hide Details Miller endorsed only two candidates in the 2006 federal election: Liberal John Godfrey and New Democrat Peggy Nash. Unsuccessful NDP candidate and former provincial MPP Marilyn Churley blamed Miller for withholding support from other New Democrats.
    In June 2005, Miller welcomed a federal commitment to provide $1.9 billion to Ontario municipalities over five years from federal gas tax revenues.
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    He was a prominent supporter of the Martin government's 2005 budget, and argued against bringing down the minority Liberal government to force a summer election.
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    In late 2005, Miller helped convince the city to invest $9.8 million in a new soccer-specific stadium at Exhibition Place, which was later named BMO Field.
    More Details Hide Details In March 2006, he helped introduce an "historic" Wi-Fi network to Toronto. Miller welcomed the arrival of Paul Martin's Government in late 2003, claiming that Martin was the first Canadian Prime Minister to directly address municipal issues. He endorsed the Martin government's "New Deal for Cities" plan in February 2004, and supported Martin's pledge to waive the Goods and Services Tax for cities.
    He introduced "Toronto Unlimited" as Toronto's new promotional slogan in the summer of 2005.
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    Toronto also received $500,000 from the federal government for cultural spending in 2005, and Miller led Toronto in hosting a year-long festival of the arts in 2006.
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    He was himself designated as the board's chair, and convened its first meeting in February 2005.
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    In May 2005, Miller's administration presided over the approval of 6,500 new units of housing on brownfield land near the Don River.
    More Details Hide Details The project, originally called Ataratiri, had been delayed for 17 years. Two months later, Miller led council in creating a new committee to fast-track the approval of affordable housing. In February 2006, Miller began a comprehensive housing renewal project in Toronto's Regent Park area. In January 2007, Miller criticized an Ontario Municipal Board decision which allowed a high-rise project on Queen Street West. The area is known for art galleries and low-rent studios, and Miller has argued that high-rise construction will compromise the city's creative sector. He later introduced a motion directing staff to "pursue all available options" against the OMB's decision. The motion was passed by a vote of 33-11 in February 2007. The provincial government of Dalton McGuinty announced in February 2007 that it would make $392 million available for affordable housing. Toronto is expected to receive the largest share of the revenue.
    In early 2005, Miller helped steer a motion through council which banned the homeless from sleeping in Nathan Phillips Square.
    More Details Hide Details He said that the plan was intended as a "nudge" to push people in the direction of finding shelters, and added that no one would be arrested. The initiative entitled Streets to Homes also called for the creation of 1,000 new affordable housing units per year, and the creation of another emergency shelter. By December 2005, the city had helped 533 homeless find permanent apartments.
    Miller described James's accusation as "categorically false", acknowledging that the city received a conditional proposal in 2005 but denying that any formal offer was made or that a price was negotiated.
    More Details Hide Details He added that a deal would have been impossible, as the province had not granted its approval at the time. Green Lane has upheld Miller's version of events. This controversy notwithstanding, James has written in support of the Green Lane purchase. The deal was completed in December 2006, with Toronto paying $220 million for the site.
    In 2005, Miller led the city in renewing its contract with Republic for five years.
    More Details Hide Details In 2006, Miller spearheaded a decision for the City of Toronto to purchase Green Lane Environmental Ltd., a large landfill area near St. Thomas in southwestern Ontario. It is believed that this purchase will solve Toronto's waste disposal problems for several years, as the city explores other options for the future. Council voted 26-12 to accept the plan. This was criticized by London Mayor Anne Marie DeCicco-Best and provincial Minister of Colleges and Universities Chris Bentley, as they received no notice of the deal, but they conceded that they could do little to block it. On September 21, 2006, Toronto Star columnist Royson James suggested that the city had received a better offer for the Green Lane site one year earlier, and failed to act on it.
    In early 2005, he and Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley made a joint address to the Great Lakes Congressional Breakfast in Washington, D.C. Miller was the first Canadian mayor to address the meeting.
    More Details Hide Details A municipal "litter audit" in September 2006 found that the city was 40% cleaner from the previous year. The survey chose 298 random sites throughout the city, and measured the amount of litter in each area. The City of Toronto is introducing a 9% water rate increase for 2007, with similar increases expected for the foreseeable future. Miller's administration argues that the money is needed to fix aging water and sewer pipes. In March 2007, Miller unveiled a plan to reduce the city's greenhouse gas emissions by 30% by 2020, and by 80% in 2050 (based on a 1990 baseline). Miller has argued that the plan is viable, and is based on similar initiatives in the European Union. When Miller was elected mayor, Toronto's garbage had for several years been shipped to Carleton Farms Landfill in Michigan, USA, through a contract with the firm Republic Services. This arrangement was strongly criticized by politicians in both Michigan and Ontario, citing the undesirability and accidents of trucks passing through. Opponents argued that it would not be sustainable in the long term, with US politicians lobbying to close off the border to garbage exports, while the Southwestern Ontario Trash coalition of cities voiced concerns that they would be forced to bear Toronto's garbage in the event of a border closure. Some politicians, including John Tory and Dalton McGuinty, supported the option of local trash incineration as it would reduce dependence on landfill space.
    In late 2005, Miller endorsed a policy which shifted a portion of Toronto's property tax burden from businesses and commercial operators to homeowners.
    More Details Hide Details Acknowledging that this was a difficult decision, he argued that it was necessary to prevent an exodus of jobs from the city. The decision was endorsed by the Toronto Industry Network. Toronto's capital budget for 2006 was $1.3 billion, and was targeted toward such items as road repairs, police stations and recreation centres.
    Miller engaged in a scaled-back consultation process prior to delivering his second budget in 2005.
    More Details Hide Details Following months of difficult negotiations, the city passed a balanced budget by taking $19.8 million from its reserve funds. Soknacki acknowledged that this was a difficult decision, and Miller's administration argued that the provincial government had increased Toronto's budgetary difficulties by not providing $72.3 million for provincially mandated social programs. During the late stages of negotiations, provincial Municipal Affairs Minister John Gerretsen suggested that the city could make up for its budgetary shortfall by raising property taxes above 3%. Miller rejected this advice. The total operating budget for the year was $7.1 billion, with residential property tax increases again held to 3% and business and industry property tax increases held to 1.5%. Increased funds were provided to policing, transit, parks and social programs. Miller and Soknacki argued that it was the best possible budget under the circumstances, although it was criticized by several right-wing councillors.
    In October 2005, Miller announced $70 million in waterfront investments over five years, dedicated toward new boardwalks, promenades, public places and related attractions.
    More Details Hide Details HtO, Toronto's first urban beach, was started in late 2005. Following his election, Miller appointed conservative councillor David Soknacki as Toronto's budget chief. Although Miller and Soknacki are from different ideological backgrounds, they were political allies in managing the city's finances. Toronto's budget shortfall when Miller assumed office was $344 million. There was a general agreement among local politicians and political analysts that the city needed to increase its residential property tax base. Miller promised to hold such increases to 3% per year. Miller's first budget was passed by city council in late April 2004, by a vote of 29-10. The city eliminated its previous shortfall while increasing spending by 6%, and keeping residential property taxes increases at 3% and business and industrial property taxes to 1.5% The city's total operating budget for the year was $6.7 billion.
    In April 2005, Miller encouraged council to begin work on a bid to host the Expo 2015 world fair.
    More Details Hide Details He argued that the event would assist the city's plans for waterfront renewal, and would "show Toronto to the world". Council voted 37-2 to launch a bid in May 2006. The bid collapsed in November 2006, when the federal, provincial and municipal governments failed to reach agreement on who would cover potential losses. Miller refused to blame either level of government for the failed bid, although councillor Brian Ashton argued that the province was mostly to blame. Miller and former TWRC chair Robert Fung criticized the provincial government's plan to build a large power plant in Toronto's waterfront area, and urged the province to build a smaller facility in its place. Then Ontario Premier Dalton McGuinty argued that the plant would be necessary to meet Toronto's energy needs.
    After a series of gang-related shootings in summer 2005, Miller argued that lax American gun laws were creating unsafe conditions in Toronto.
    More Details Hide Details He noted that half the firearms in Toronto originated in America. The mayor also announced that most of a $4.3 million police budget surplus would go toward hiring 150 new officers. He had previously opposed hiring large numbers of new officers when campaigning for mayor, at a time when gang-related shootings in the city were fewer and less pronounced. Some journalists noted similarities between Miller's revised policy and that proposed by John Tory in 2003. Miller also called upon Toronto's business leaders to target street crime by providing jobs for unemployed youth; one year later, he was able to report increased hirings in both the public and private sectors. Some councillors, including Michael Thompson, suggested that Miller waited too long before reacting to reports of increased violence.
    Miller indicated that he would take a seat on the Police Services Board halfway through his first term, and replaced Ootes during the city's mid-term shuffle of positions in May 2005.
    More Details Hide Details Deputy Mayor Joe Pantalone indicated that Ootes was replaced because his right-wing policy views were inconsistent with the aims of Miller's administration. In February 2004, Miller introduced an anti-crime package highlighted by increased community outreach programs and job opportunities for at-risk youth. He also appointed Ontario Chief Justice Roy McMurtry to head a panel on gun-related crime in the city. Fantino described Miller's plan as "holistic", and gave it his support. Some councillors expressed concern that the measures would not be effective against serious criminals, and Etobicoke councillor Doug Holyday suggested that Miller should instead lobby the federal government for tougher laws. Nonetheless, council unanimously approved Miller's plan on 1 March 2004.
    In an effort to move beyond previous hostilities, Miller awarded Fantino with the Key to the City on April 14, 2005.
    More Details Hide Details During the ceremony, Miller described Fantino as "a man of integrity who has done tremendous work to help keep Toronto safe."
    In March 2005, Miller asked of the Police Services Board that he be granted a participatory role in the selection of the next police chief.
    More Details Hide Details He argued that he could provide "a voice that represents all Torontonians rather than that of a particular stakeholder", and said that he would recuse himself from formal deliberations and the final decision. Board member Case Ootes responded that the mayor's request amounted to political interference, and said there was "some contradiction" between the request and Miller's earlier refusal to engage in public debate over Fantino's removal. The Board turned down Miller's request. By way of compromise, he was allowed to see the board's shortlist of candidates and propose interview questions for applicants. Fantino was succeeded on a temporary basis by Mike Boyd, a retired deputy chief who had worked closely with Miller when the latter was still a councillor. In April 2005, the board chose Bill Blair as Fantino's permanent replacement. There was some media speculation that the mayor's office would have preferred Boyd for the position, though Miller denied this.
    In early 2005, Miller argued that Fantino's replacement as Chief of Police should revamp the city's scheduling practices.
    More Details Hide Details He argued that the existing system was designed for the convenience of officers living outside of Toronto, and should be revised to permit more officers on the streets during important periods. The following month, he unexpectedly sided with the Toronto Police Association against the Toronto Police Services Board in opposing mandatory drug testing for officers.
    With Miller's permission, the TTC approved a small fare increase in early 2005.
    More Details Hide Details The price of adult tickets and tokens was increased by ten cents, while adult cash fare was increased 25 cents. The TTC mitigated this change by introducing a weekly $30 pass that could be transferred among several users. TTC chair Howard Moscoe said that the rise was unfortunate, but argued that it was "basically an inflationary increase". Miller endorsed the creation of a streetcar right-of-way along St. Clair Avenue, a six-lane arterial road within the city, in accordance with the recommendations of the TTC ridership plan. The right-of-way project passed council by a vote of 36-7 in September 2004, but triggered some local opposition. Supporters argue that the project will make public transit more efficient, and set an important precedent for public transit expansion. Opponents, especially in the Dufferin Street business community, have criticized the plan on the grounds that it will reduce customer parking during rush hour. Other opponents, including the Canadian Automobile Association have argued that the right-of-way will increase automobile congestion, since the proposal bans left turns and may divert traffic to neighbourhood streets. Supporters have questioned this latter claim, pointing to the success of a previous right-of-way implemented on Spadina Avenue. Former Toronto mayor John Sewell, a long-standing supporter of public transit, has emerged as a vocal opponent of the right-of-way plan.
    Miller welcomed this investment, but later criticized the McGuinty government for including a planned cash bailout in early 2005 as part of its larger grant, rather than as a separate cash investment.
    More Details Hide Details Miller's first TTC operating budget in 2004 was $219 million.
    Miller's first term as mayor focused on issues such as waterfront renewal, public transit and municipal reform. He also shifted toward a focus on community safety issues following an increase in gun violence during 2005.
    More Details Hide Details Many of Miller's initiatives did not come to fruition within his first few years as mayor. Supporters pointed out they were centred on long-term development goals, while detractors criticized the pace of change. Soon after his election, Miller led the council to reverse its support for the Toronto City Centre Airport Bridge. He argued that the bridge was detrimental to the regional environment, was unwanted by most local residents, and stood in the way of a more comprehensive renewal of the waterfront economy. Supporters of the bridge argued that it would make airline service more efficient, and provide a financial benefit. The vote, held on December 3, 2003, was 32-12 in favour of withdrawal. Afterwards, the federal government announced that it would withdraw its support for the project. There were subsequent threats of legal action against the City by the Toronto Port Authority (TPA) and developer Robert Deluce, but these were settled in 2005 when the federal government agreed to pay $35 million in compensation.
  • 2004
    Age 45
    In early 2004, Miller re-introduced an hour-long call-in television show called The Mayor on CablePulse 24.
    More Details Hide Details A staff member at the station commented on the difference between the Miller's show and that of his predecessor: "with Miller you receive answers to questions. Lastman's show was just a circus." In the same year, filmmaker Andrew Munger released In Campaign: The Making of A Candidate as a behind-the-scenes look at Miller's 2003 campaign.
    In April 2004, a small number of Toronto officers were charged with aiding figures connected to the Hells Angels biker gang.
    More Details Hide Details Shortly thereafter, Miller was overheard saying "Is your police force in jail? Mine is." in a private aside to the Lord Mayor of London, who was in Toronto to announce a new partnership between the cities. Miller explained that he made the comment in order to introduce the scandal to his guest, following an awkward press scrum which the Lord Mayor walked away from after several questions about the local controversy. He later apologized, saying "the allegations are serious and I shouldn't have referred to them with humour". After the mayor's initial comment, Fantino was quoted on the CablePulse 24 program The Chief as saying, "I feel like someone has driven a stake through my heart". He later accepted Miller's apology.
    Miller convened a meeting of Canada's major urban mayors in January 2004, and argued at the summit that Canadian cities needed enhanced powers of governance to deal with a variety modern challenges.
    More Details Hide Details In September of the same year, Miller hosted a meeting of ten major city Canadian mayors, examining the issue of federal gas tax revenues. In February 2004, Miller called for greater coordination between all three levels of government in overseeing patterns of immigration within Canada. In early 2005, the City of Toronto earmarked up to $5 million to assist about 2,000 refugees who were expected to arrive from tsunami-ravaged areas of Southeast Asia. Miller did not support any party in the 2004 federal election, endorsing four individual candidates: New Democrats Peggy Nash and Olivia Chow, and Liberals John Godfrey and Borys Wrzesnewskyj.
  • 2003
    Age 44
    He first led a city-wide poll on 22 October 2003, scoring 31% support against 29% for Hall and 23% for John Tory.
    More Details Hide Details Hall's support continued to dissipate, and she fell to a distant third. The final stage of the campaign was between Miller and Tory, who each had a base of solid support; Miller among urban residents and progressives, while Tory was backed by the suburbs and conservatives. Days before the vote, prominent Hall supporters Bob Rae and Kyle Rae acknowledged that she could not win, and encouraged her supporters to vote for Miller over Tory. Miller defeated Tory 43% to 38% (Hall was third with 9%), and appointed Jane Jacobs and former Toronto Mayor David Crombie to chair his transition team. Miller's election campaign was based on two key issues: stopping the bridge to the Island airport and cleaning up city hall. His first promise was quickly met, while the second is more complex and has only partially been fulfilled.
    Miller's polling numbers stalled around 12-13% for most of 2003, but increased in October when front-runner Hall suddenly lost much of her support.
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    At the start of the campaign in early 2003, Barbara Hall led by a wide margin, with John Nunziata a distant second, while Miller and Tory initially had support in single digits.
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    The bridge became a major issue when he ran for mayor during the 2003 campaign.
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    A former politician, Miller was the 63rd Mayor of Toronto from 2003 to 2010.
    More Details Hide Details He entered politics as a member of the New Democratic Party, although his mayoral campaign and terms in office were without any formal party affiliation. He did not renew his party membership in 2007.
  • 2002
    Age 43
    During Miller's tenure, Toronto has also expanded its Green Bin recycling program, a composting project designed to reduce the amount of waste that Toronto ships to landfills. The project was initiated in Etobicoke in 2002, and the other areas of Toronto have been added since Miller's election as mayor.
    More Details Hide Details Green Bin became city-wide in October 2005 when North York was included in the program. In marking the achievement, Miller described Toronto as "a North American leader in recycling and composting programs". Toronto currently recycles and composts 40% of the garbage collected by the city; it plans to increase this figure to 60% in 2010, and 100% in 2012.
    Mayor Mel Lastman and Miller had an adversarial relationship on council. This was exemplified during a May 2002 debate when Lastman yelled at Miller, "You will never be mayor of this city because you say stupid and dumb things!" Miller later remarked that the exchange was what encouraged him to run for mayor.
    More Details Hide Details Despite being council opponents, Lastman attended the funeral for Miller's mother. Miller later became the most prominent opponent of Lastman's plan to build a $22 million bridge to the Toronto Island Airport. Supporters of the bridge argued that it would eliminate one of the world's shortest ferry rides, make airline service more efficient, and provide a financial benefit to the city. Miller argued that the bridge would prevent the city from revitalizing its waterfront, and asserted that the proposed deal put the interests of developers and lobbyists ahead of the public.
    In April 2002, the Toronto Environmental Alliance awarded him an "A" grade for his work on the TTC.
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    Miller's plans to run for mayor were well-known around city hall in 2002, and there was little surprise when he formally declared his candidacy in January 2003.
    More Details Hide Details His earliest supporters included councillors Howard Moscoe, Sandra Bussin, Irene Jones and Anne Johnston and urban planner Jane Jacobs. He was later endorsed by councillors Olivia Chow, Joe Pantalone and Brian Ashton, public figures such as June Callwood, Judy Rebick, Margaret Atwood, Michael Ondaatje and Michele Landsberg, American environmental activist Robert F. Kennedy Jr., the Canadian Union of Public Employees and the Toronto Professional Fire Fighters Association. The Toronto Star newspaper, journalist Royson James and councillors Raymond Cho and Michael Walker also endorsed Miller near the end of the campaign. Miller's campaign organization was diverse. As well as support from many New Democrats and social activists, his top campaign strategists included veteran Conservative John Laschinger and Liberal Peter Donolo. Architect Jack Diamond was also a co-chair of his campaign. Miller used a broom as a prop in this campaign, symbolizing his commitment to cleaning up Toronto both literally, in terms of litter, and metaphorically, arguing that there were shady deals at City Hall. He pledged to cancel the airport bridge, appoint a municipal ethics commissioner, and promote public transit by fully implementing the TTC's ridership growth plan. He supported a police request to hire thirty-two new officers, and opposed rival candidate John Tory's plans for trash incineration in favour of continuing garbage shipments to Michigan.
  • 2001
    Age 42
    He was also a leading voice in exposing Toronto's MFP computer leasing scandal in 2001 and 2002, bringing to light several questionable lobbying practices at city hall.
    More Details Hide Details As chair of the city's working group on immigrant and refugee issues, Miller introduced a mentorship program making it easier for recent immigrants to gain work experience in Toronto. Miller was given an A+ grade and named the best councillor by Toronto Life magazine in November 2000 for his work on council.
    Miller won the unanimous support of his colleagues in July 2001 for a motion requesting that the federal government approve the transfer of gasoline-tax revenues to Toronto's public transit system.
    More Details Hide Details He later suggested that Toronto's building revenues could be put toward priority spending rather than being stored in reserve accounts, arguing that the city's real estate boom would allow council to defer transit hikes and provide programs for children and the homeless.
    In 2001, he expressed concern that the WheelTrans bus service for the disabled might be contracted out to the private sector.
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  • 2000
    Age 41
    Following electoral redistribution, Miller was re-elected in 2000 over fellow councillor Bill Saundercook in Ward 13, Parkdale-High Park.
    More Details Hide Details He was re-appointed to the TTC and sought election as its chair, but was passed over in favour of Brian Ashton.
    Miller became known as an advocate for waterfront parklands during his time on council. He supported several aspects of a 2000 report from Robert Fung of the Toronto Waterfront Task Force, while criticizing the proposal to sell parkland near Exhibition Place for private development.
    More Details Hide Details He also opposed plans to construct a condominium near Toronto's High Park within his ward, instead supporting the construction of affordable housing for low-income residents. Toronto's existing Keele Valley Landfill would reach capacity by 2002. Miller strongly opposed a plan by Toronto Mayor Mel Lastman to ship the city's garbage to the Adams Mine in Northern Ontario, while was ultimately voted down by council. The city instead sent its trash to Carleton Farms Landfill.
    Both Miller and his wife claimed that they had received threatening telephone calls during the 2000 municipal election, after the police union listed his home telephone number in a campaign advertisement.
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  • 1999
    Age 40
    Miller issued a formal apology on behalf of the TTC in June 1999, following complaints about a subway advertisement by the Toronto police union that some believed depicted Hispanics as criminals.
    More Details Hide Details The following year, he argued that the union's controversial "Operation True Blue" telemarketing campaign was creating a climate of intimidation for Toronto residents.
  • THIRTIES
  • 1997
    Age 38
    Miller was elected to the new City of Toronto council in the 1997, winning one of the two seats in Ward 19, High Park.
    More Details Hide Details He was appointed to the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) after the election, and became a prominent ally of TTC chair Howard Moscoe. He was also appointed to lead a twelve-member committee that studied the transition to amalgamated municipal services, and successfully advocated that Toronto City Hall rather than Metro Hall to be the permanent seat of the new government. Miller later served on a three-member committee that recommended changes to the municipal ward boundaries.
  • 1996
    Age 37
    He campaigned for the Legislative Assembly of Ontario in 1996, running as the NDP candidate in York South to succeed outgoing party leader Bob Rae.
    More Details Hide Details He was narrowly defeated by Liberal Party candidate Gerard Kennedy.
  • 1995
    Age 36
    He spoke against Metro's decision to cut $3 million from its staffing budget in early 1995, arguing that the resulting hardship for laid-off workers during a national recession would be "unconscionable".
    More Details Hide Details The provincial government of Mike Harris amalgamated several surrounding municipalities into the City of Toronto in 1997, with the stated intention of eliminating duplication of services and increasing efficiency. Miller argued that the decision to eliminate six local councils and establish a "megacity" was carried out without public approval. He proposed an alternate plan to fold the six local councils into the existing Metro council, but this received little support.
  • 1994
    Age 35
    Miller campaigned for the Metro Toronto Council a second time in 1994, and was elected for the High Park ward over former Member of Parliament Andrew Witer and future cabinet minister Tony Clement.
    More Details Hide Details Following the election, he was appointed to the Metro Planning and Transportation Committee, the Metro Anti-racism Committee, and the Board of Governors for Exhibition Place.
    He married fellow lawyer Jill Arthur in 1994, and the pair have two children.
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  • 1993
    Age 34
    Miller was subsequently the NDP's candidate for Parkdale—High Park in the 1993 Canadian federal election, and finished fourth against Liberal incumbent Jesse Flis.
    More Details Hide Details He did not renew his membership in the NDP when it expired in 2007, stating that he did not want to be seen as partisan when dealing with the provincial and federal governments.
  • 1991
    Age 32
    He first campaigned for the Metropolitan Toronto council in 1991, arguing that Toronto needed to improve its public transit system to establish itself as a world-class city.
    More Details Hide Details He lost to incumbent councillor Derwyn Shea.
  • TWENTIES
  • 1985
    Age 26
    Miller joined the New Democratic Party (NDP) in 1985.
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    He represented Toronto Islands residents in a 1985 arbitration case while an articling student, and later described this experience as his introduction to municipal politics.
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  • 1984
    Age 25
    He earned a Bachelor of Laws degree from the University of Toronto Faculty of Law in 1984 and became a partner at the prominent Toronto law firm of Aird & Berlis LLP, specializing in employment, immigration law and shareholder rights.
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  • 1981
    Age 22
    Miller completed a four-year undergraduate degree at Harvard University, graduating summa cum laude in Economics in 1981.
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  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1967
    Age 8
    Miller spent his earliest years in England before moving to Canada with his mother in 1967.
    More Details Hide Details He attended Lakefield College School on a scholarship at the time Prince Andrew was a student there.
  • 1960
    Age 1
    Miller was born in San Francisco, California. His American father, Joe Miller, died of cancer in 1960, and his English mother Joan returned with her son to Thriplow, south of Cambridge.
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  • 1958
    Born
    Born on December 26, 1958.
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