Enver Hoxha
Albanian politician and general
Enver Hoxha
Enver Hoxha was the Communist leader of Albania from 1944 until his death in 1985, as the First Secretary of the Party of Labour of Albania. He was chairman of the Democratic Front of Albania and commander-in-chief of the armed forces from 1944 until his death. He served as Prime Minister of Albania from 1944 to 1954 and at various times served as foreign minister and defence minister as well.
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Enver Hoxha's personal information overview.
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Drawing the dictator - Sydney Morning Herald (blog)
Google News - over 5 years
Our world pages were graced with pen-and-ink caricatures of the leading dictators of the time such as Augusto Pinochet (Chile), Enver Hoxha (Albania) and Manuel Noriga (Panama). And, of course there was and still is Muammar Gaddafi
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Agnosticismo militante - Intereconomía
Google News - over 5 years
Esta gente, entre los que hay, según las fotos de prensa, más de un cincuentón ocioso y cabreado que habría sido feliz en la Albania de Enver Hoxha, parece que está de acuerdo con la excelencia de la uniformidad, con la superioridad del gris sobre
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Ein Pyramidenzwist - derStandard.at
Google News - over 5 years
Die Pyramide, 1988, drei Jahre nach dem Tod von Diktator Enver Hoxha von seinem Schwiegersohn Klement Kolaneci als Museum für Hoxha gebaut, soll nun abgerissen werden und einem neuen Parlament weichen - den Wettbewerb hat Coop Himmelb(l)au gewonnen
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¿Chávez forever? - TalCualDigital.com
Google News - over 5 years
Figuras como Stalin en Rusia, Mao en China, Enver Hoxha en Albania y Tito en Yugoeslavia, del mismo modo que Hitler en Alemania, Mussolini en Italia, y Franco en España, dejaron en sus pueblos, durante el siglo XX, huellas imborrables de lo que
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Alexei Sayle: How Stalin stole my childhood - The Guardian
Google News - over 5 years
On The Young Ones, at the Comedy Store and in his own series Stuff, all those tirades about Thatcher, Oxbridge and Enver Hoxha rang not just funny, but insurrectionist. Now we know why. Sayle – according to his new memoir, Stalin Ate My Homework – was
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Tourism in Albania 2011: Record Numbers Crossing the Border - Suite101.com
Google News - over 5 years
Given its isolated status, even within the old Communist regime under the regime of Enver Hoxha, Albania remains somewhat of an unknown for travellers, even in the modern era. "Foreigners are always curious and a little wary when they visit initially,"
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Albania, tradition of multiculturalism and interfaith - Southeast European Times
Google News - over 5 years
Remembering life as it was under the communist regime, Xhidiku told SETimes he felt "like an animal" when the government of Enver Hoxha forbade religious practices in Albania. "Imagine, I used to go to the mosque with my uncle; he was a hoxha,
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Wrangle growing over Tirana's pyramid - Southeast European Times
Google News - over 5 years
Those calling for its replacement are apprehensive of its one-time role as a museum honouring the late Stalinist dictator Enver Hoxha. "We cannot keep in place a building that holds the ghost of the dictator," Democratic Party MP Enkelejd Alibeaj said
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FRUGAL TRAVELER; On the Albanian Riviera, a Frugal Paradise
NYTimes - over 5 years
Just past the tiny village of Ilias, on the two-lane highway that weaves through the Ceraunian Mountains, a sign pointing down a narrow road indicated a monastery about two kilometers on. ''Why not?'' I thought, putting on the turn signal of my rental car. I had no agenda other than to seek out adventure along the very affordable 80-mile stretch of
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Manchester international festival: A return to Sarajevo - The Guardian
Google News - over 5 years
Kamerić lived through the siege in her late teens, while Sala (born in 1974) grew up under Albanian communism, once making a film about his mother's enthusiastic support for the Enver Hoxha regime. The two artists recreate daily life in Sarajevo
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<B>V V:</B> A guided tour of communism - Business Standard
Google News - over 5 years
Enver Hoxha&#39;s Albania was, by all accounts, the most closed and isolated place in the communist world. Ms Drakulic uses Edgar Allan Poe&#39;s poem The Raven (1845) as the peg to hang her story on the sinister happenings in this inhospitable land between
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On the Albanian Riviera, a Frugal Paradise - New York Times (blog)
Google News - over 5 years
Seth Kugel for The New York TimesBunkers along the coast put in place by Enver Hoxha, the isolationist leader of cold-war-era Albania. Near the beach were a number of mushroom-shaped bunkers that the isolationist dictator Enver Hoxha, who died in 1985,
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Facebook initiative: No Boiko Borissov Day - updated - Sofia Echo
Google News - over 5 years
The message also addresses all media outlets in Bulgaria, saying that they should abstain from the Albanian model of news reporting &quot;Good evening, Enver Hoxha&quot;, a reference to the longstanding leader of Albania from the end of World War 2 until his
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Albania's 'second greatest living writer' was a hoax, but does it really matter? - The Guardian
Google News - over 5 years
The Stalinist regime of Enver Hoxha was no place for free spirits, and Kajane could count himself lucky that his satirical drama Neser Perdite (Tomorrow, Every Day) earned him no more than a ban from the ministry of culture
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Enver Hoxha
    LATE_ADULTHOOD
  • 1985
    Age 76
    On 9 April 1985, he was struck by a massive ventricular fibrillation.
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    During Hoxha's rule, "there were six institutions for political prisoners and fourteen labour camps where political prisoners and common criminals worked together. It has been estimated that there were approximately 32,000 people imprisoned in Albania in 1985."
    More Details Hide Details Article 47 of the Albanian Criminal Code stated that to "escape outside the state, as well as refusal to return to the Fatherland by a person who has been sent to serve or has been permitted temporarily to go outside the state" was an act of treason, a crime punishable by a minimum sentence of ten years or even death. The Albanian government went to great lengths to prevent defection by fleeing the country: An electrically-wired metal fence stands 600 meters to one kilometer from the actual border. Anyone touching the fence not only risks electrocution, but also sets off alarm bells and lights which alert guards stationed at approximately one-kilometer intervals along the fence. Two meters of soil on either side of the fence are cleared in order to check for footprints of escapees and infiltrators. The area between the fence and the actual border is seeded with booby traps such as coils of wire, noise makers consisting of thin pieces of metal strips on top of two wooden slats with stones in a tin container which rattle if stepped on, and flares that are triggered by contact, thus illuminating would-be escapees during the night.
  • 1982
    Age 73
    Banda Mustafaj was a group of four Albanian emigres, led by Xhevdet Mustafa, who wanted to assassinate Enver Hoxha in 1982.
    More Details Hide Details The plan failed and two of its members were killed and another one was arrested. It marked the only real effort to kill Hoxha.
  • 1981
    Age 72
    Prime Minister Mehmet Shehu, the second-most powerful man in Albania and Hoxha's closest comrade-in-arms for 40 years, was reported to have committed suicide in December 1981.
    More Details Hide Details He was subsequently condemned as a "traitor" to Albania, and was also accused of operating in the service of multiple intelligence agencies. It is generally believed that he was either killed or shot himself during a power struggle or over differing foreign policy matters with Hoxha. Hoxha also wrote a large assortment of books during this period, resulting in over 65 volumes of collected works, condensed into six volumes of selected works.
  • 1976
    Age 67
    A new Constitution was decided upon by the Seventh Congress of the Albanian Party of Labour on 1–7 November 1976.
    More Details Hide Details According to Hoxha, "The old Constitution was the Constitution of the building of the foundations of socialism, whereas the new Constitution will be the Constitution of the complete construction of a socialist society." Self-reliance was now stressed more than ever. Citizens were encouraged to train in the use of weapons, and this activity was also taught in schools. This was to encourage the creation of quick partisans. Borrowing and foreign investment were banned under Article 26 of the Constitution, which read: "The granting of concessions to, and the creation of foreign economic and financial companies and other institutions or ones formed jointly with bourgeois and revisionist capitalist monopolies and states as well as obtaining credits from them are prohibited in the People's Socialist Republic of Albania." Hoxha said of borrowing money and allowing investment from other countries: No country whatsoever, big or small, can build socialism by taking credits and aid from the bourgeoisie and the revisionists or by integrating its economy into the world system of capitalist economies. Any such linking of the economy of a socialist country with the economy of bourgeois or revisionist countries opens the doors to the actions of the economic laws of capitalism and the degeneration of the socialist order. This is the road of betrayal and the restoration of capitalism, which the revisionist cliques have pursued and are pursuing.
    Following Mao's death on 9 September 1976, Hoxha (who attended Mao's funeral in Beijing) remained optimistic about Sino-Albanian relations, but in August 1977, Hua Guofeng, the new leader of China, stated that Mao's Three Worlds Theory would become official foreign policy.
    More Details Hide Details Hoxha viewed this as a way for China to justify having the U.S. as the "secondary enemy" while viewing the Soviet Union as the main one, thus allowing China to trade with the U.S. " the Chinese plan of the 'third world' is a major diabolical plan, with the aim that China should become another superpower, precisely by placing itself at the head of the 'third world' and 'non-aligned world.'" From 30 August to 7 September 1977, Tito visited Beijing and was welcomed by the Chinese leadership. At this point, the Albanian Party of Labour had declared that China was now a revisionist state akin to the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia, and that Albania was the only Marxist–Leninist state on earth. Hoxha stated: The Chinese leaders are acting like the leaders of a 'great state.' They think, 'The Albanians fell out with the Soviet Union because they had us, and if they fall with us, too, they will go back to the Soviets,' therefore they say, 'Either with us or the Soviets, it is all the same, the Albanians are done for.' But to hell with them! We shall fight against all this trash, because we are Albanian Marxist–Leninists and on our correct course we shall always triumph!
  • 1973
    Age 64
    Hoxha suffered a heart attack in 1973 from which he never fully recovered.
    More Details Hide Details In increasingly precarious health from the late 1970s onward, he turned most state functions over to Ramiz Alia. In his final days he was bound to a wheelchair and suffering from diabetes, which had developed in 1948, and cerebral ischemia, from which he had suffered since 1983.
    By 1973, Hoxha wrote in his diary Reflections on China that the Chinese leaders:
    More Details Hide Details have cut off their contacts with us, and the contacts which they maintain are merely formal diplomatic ones. Albania is no longer the 'faithful, special friend' They are maintaining the economic agreements though with delays, but it is quite obvious that their 'initial ardor' has died. In response, trade with COMECON (although trade with the Soviet Union was still blocked) and Yugoslavia grew. Trade with Third World nations was $0.5 million in 1973, but $8.3 million in 1974. Trade rose from .1% to 1.6%.
  • 1971
    Age 62
    The result was a 1971 message from the Chinese leadership stating that Albania could not depend on an indefinite flow of further Chinese aid and in 1972 Albania was advised to "curb its expectations about further Chinese contributions to its economic development."
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  • FIFTIES
  • 1968
    Age 59
    China entered into a four-year period of relative diplomatic isolation following the Cultural Revolution and at this point relations between China and Albania reached their zenith. On 20 August 1968, the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia was condemned by Albania, as was the Brezhnev doctrine. Albania then officially withdrew from the Warsaw Pact on 5 September. Relations with China began to deteriorate on 15 July 1971, when United States President Richard Nixon agreed to visit China to meet with Zhou Enlai.
    More Details Hide Details Hoxha felt betrayed and the government was in a state of shock. On 6 August a letter was sent from the Central Committee of the Albanian Party of Labour to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, calling Nixon a "frenzied anti-Communist." The letter stated: We trust you will understand the reason for the delay in our reply. This was because your decision came as a surprise to us and was taken without any preliminary consultation between us on this question, so that we would be able to express and thrash out our opinions. This, we think, could have been useful, because preliminary consultations, between close friends, determined co-fighters against imperialism and revisionism, are useful and necessary, and especially so, when steps which, in our opinion, have a major international effect and repercussion are taken. Considering the Communist Party of China as a sister party and our closest co-fighter, we have never hidden our views from it. That is why on this major problem which you put before us, we inform you that we consider your decision to receive Nixon in Beijing as incorrect and undesirable, and we do not approve or support it. It will also be our opinion that Nixon's announced visit to China will not be understood or approved of by the peoples, the revolutionaries and the communists of different countries.
  • 1966
    Age 57
    Mao made a speech on 3 November 1966 which claimed that Albania was the only Marxist-Leninist state in Europe and that "an attack on Albania will have to reckon with great People's China.
    More Details Hide Details If the U.S. imperialists, the modern Soviet revisionists or any of their lackeys dare to touch Albania in the slightest, nothing lies ahead for them but a complete, shameful and memorable defeat." Likewise, Hoxha stated that "You may rest assured, comrades, that come what may in the world at large, our two parties and our two peoples will certainly remain together. They will fight together and they will win together."
  • 1964
    Age 55
    On 9 January, "The 1964 Sino-Albanian Joint Statement" was signed in Tirana.
    More Details Hide Details The statement said of relations between socialist countries: Both and China hold that the relations between socialist countries are international relations of a new type. Relations between socialist countries, big or small, economically more developed or less developed, must be based on the principles of complete equality, respect for territorial sovereignty and independence, and non-interference in each other's internal affairs, and must also be based on the principles of mutual assistance in accordance with proletarian internationalism. It is necessary to oppose great-nation chauvinism and national egoism in relations between socialist countries. It is absolutely impermissible to impose the will of one country upon another, or to impair the independence, sovereignty and interests of the people, of a fraternal country on the pretext of 'aid' or 'international division of labour.' Like Albania, China defended the "purity" of Marxism by attacking both US imperialism as well as "Soviet and Yugoslav revisionism", both equally as part of a "dual adversary" theory. Yugoslavia was viewed as a "special detachment of U.S. imperialism" and a "saboteur against world revolution." These views however began to change in China, which was one of the major issues Albania had with the alliance. Also unlike Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, the Sino-Albanian alliance lacked " an organizational structure for regular consultations and policy coordination, and was characterized by an informal relationship conducted on an ad hoc basis."
    Zhou Enlai visited Albania in January 1964.
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  • 1961
    Age 52
    On 7 November 1961, Hoxha made a speech in which he called Khrushchev a "revisionist, an anti-Marxist and a defeatist."
    More Details Hide Details Hoxha portrayed Stalin as the last Communist leader of the Soviet Union and began to stress Albania's independence. By 11 November, the USSR and every other Warsaw Pact nation broke relations with Albania. Albania was unofficially excluded (by not being invited) from both the Warsaw Pact and Comecon. The Soviet Union also attempted to claim control of the Vlorë port due to a lease agreement; the Albanian Party then passed a law prohibiting any other nation from owning an Albanian port through lease or otherwise. As Hoxha's leadership continued he took on an increasingly theoretical stance. He wrote criticisms based both on current events at the time and on theory; most notably his condemnations of Maoism post-1978. A major achievement under Hoxha was the advancement of women's rights. Albania had been one of the most, if not the most, patriarchal countries in Europe. The Code of Lekë, which regulated the status of women, states, "A woman is known as a sack, made to endure as long as she lives in her husband's house." Women were not allowed to inherit anything from their parents, and discrimination was even made in the case of the murder of a pregnant woman:
  • FORTIES
  • 1955
    Age 46
    Relations with China improved, as evidenced by Chinese aid to Albania being 4.2% in 1955 before the visit, and rising to 21.6% in 1957.
    More Details Hide Details In an effort to keep Albania in the Soviet sphere, increased aid was given but the Albanian leadership continued to move closer towards China. Relations with the Soviet Union remained at the same level until 1960, when Khrushchev met with Sophocles Venizelos, a left-wing Greek politician. Khrushchev sympathized with the concept of an autonomous Greek North Epirus and hoped to use Greek claims to keep the Albanian leadership in line with Soviet interests. Hoxha reacted by only sending Hysni Kapo, a member of the Albanian Political Bureau, to the Third Congress of the Romanian Communist Party in Bucharest, an event that heads of state were normally expected to attend. As relations between the two countries continued to deteriorate in the course of the meeting, Khrushchev said: Especially shameless was the behavior of that agent of Mao Zedong, Enver Hoxha. He bared his fangs at us even more menacingly than the Chinese themselves. After his speech, Comrade Dolores Ibárruri Spanish Communist, an old revolutionary and a devoted worker in the Communist movement, got up indignantly and said, very much to the point, that Hoxha was like a dog who bites the hand that feeds it.
  • 1950
    Age 41
    Guerrilla units entered Albania in 1950 and 1952, but they were killed or captured by Albanian security forces.
    More Details Hide Details Kim Philby, a Soviet double agent working as a liaison officer between the British intelligence service and the United States Central Intelligence Agency, had leaked details of the infiltration plan to Moscow, and the security breach claimed the lives of about 300 infiltrators.
  • 1949
    Age 40
    Albania was admitted to the Comecon on 22 February 1949 and remained important both as a way to pressure Yugoslavia and to serve as a pro-Soviet force in the Adriatic Sea.
    More Details Hide Details A submarine base was built on the island of Sazan near Vlorë, posing a possible threat to the United States Sixth Fleet. Relations remained close until the death of Stalin on 5 March 1953. His death was met with 14 days of national mourning in Albania—more than in the Soviet Union. Hoxha assembled the entire population in the capital's largest square featuring a statue of Stalin, requested that they kneel, and made them take a two-thousand word oath of "eternal fidelity" and "gratitude" to their "beloved father" and "great liberator" to whom the people owed "everything." Under Nikita Khrushchev, Stalin's successor, aid was reduced and Albania was encouraged to adopt Khrushchev's specialization policy. Under this policy, Albania would develop its agricultural output in order to supply the Soviet Union and other Warsaw Pact nations while these nations would be developing specific resource outputs of their own, which would in theory strengthen the Warsaw Pact by greatly reducing the lack of certain resources that many of the nations faced. However, this also meant that Albanian industrial development, which was stressed heavily by Hoxha, would have to be significantly reduced.
  • THIRTIES
  • 1948
    Age 39
    After the break with Yugoslavia, Hoxha aligned himself with the Soviet Union, for which he had a great admiration. From 1948 to 1960, $200 million in Soviet aid was given to Albania for technical and infrastructural expansion.
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  • 1946
    Age 37
    Hoxha alleged that Tito had made it his goal to get Albania into Yugoslavia, firstly by creating the Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Aid in 1946.
    More Details Hide Details In time, Albania began to feel that the treaty was heavily slanted towards Yugoslav interests, much like the Italian agreements with Albania under Zog that made the nation dependent upon Italy. The first issue was that the Albanian lek became revalued in terms of the Yugoslav dinar as a customs union was formed and Albania's economic plan was decided more by Yugoslavia. Albanian economists H. Banja and V. Toçi stated that the relationship between Albania and Yugoslavia during this period was exploitative and that it constituted attempts by Yugoslavia to make the Albanian economy an "appendage" to the Yugoslav economy. Hoxha then began to accuse Yugoslavia of misconduct: We Albania were expected to produce for the Yugoslavs all the raw materials which they needed. These raw materials were to be exported to the metropolitan Yugoslavia to be processed there in Yugoslav factories. The same applied to the production of cotton and other industrial crops, as well as oil, bitumen, asphalt, chrome, etc. Yugoslavia would supply its 'colony', Albania, with exorbitantly priced consumer goods, including even items such as needles and thread, and would provide us with petrol and oil, as well as glass for the lamps in which we burn the fuel extracted from our subsoil, processed in Yugoslavia and sold to us at high prices... The aim of the Yugoslavs was, therefore, to prevent our country from developing either its industry or its working class, and to make it forever dependent on Yugoslavia.
    On 11 January 1946, Zog was officially deposed and Albania was proclaimed the People's Republic of Albania (renamed the People's Socialist Republic of Albania in 1976).
    More Details Hide Details As First Secretary, Hoxha was de facto head of state and the most powerful man in the country. Albanians celebrate their independence day on 28 November (which is the date on which they declared their independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1912), while in the former People's Socialist Republic of Albania the national day was 29 November, the day the country was liberated from the Italians. Both days are currently national holidays. The sacrifices of our people were very great. Out of a population of one million, 28,000 were killed, 12,600 wounded, 10,000 were made political prisoners in Italy and Germany, and 35,000 made to do forced labour, of ground; all the communications, all the ports, mines and electric power installations were destroyed, our agriculture and livestock were plundered, and our entire national economy was wrecked. Enver Hoxha
  • 1945
    Age 36
    The Democratic Front, dominated by the Albanian Communist Party, succeeded the National Liberation Front in August 1945 and the first elections in post-war Albania were held on 2 December.
    More Details Hide Details The Front was the only legal political organisation allowed to stand in the elections, and the government reported that 93% of Albanians voted for it.
  • 1944
    Age 35
    After liberation on 29 November 1944, several Albanian partisan divisions crossed the border into German-occupied Yugoslavia, where they fought alongside Tito's partisans and the Soviet Red Army in a joint campaign which succeeded in driving out the last pockets of German resistance.
    More Details Hide Details Marshal Tito, during a Yugoslavian conference in later years, thanked Hoxha for the assistance that the Albanian partisans had given during the War for National Liberation (Lufta Nacionalçlirimtare).
    On 22 October 1944, the Committee became the Democratic Government of Albania after a meeting in Berat and Hoxha was chosen as interim Prime Minister.
    More Details Hide Details Tribunals were set up to try alleged war criminals who were designated "enemies of the people" and were presided over by Koçi Xoxe.
  • 1943
    Age 34
    Within Albania, repeated attempts were made during the war to remedy the communications difficulties which faced partisan groups. In August 1943, a secret meeting was held in Mukje between the anti-communist Balli Kombëtar (National Front) and the Communist Party of Albania.
    More Details Hide Details The result of this was an agreement to: To encourage the Balli Kombëtar to sign, the Greater Albania sections that included Kosovo (part of Yugoslavia) and Çamëria (part of Greece) were made part of the Agreement. A problem developed when the Yugoslav Communists disagreed with the goal of a Greater Albania and asked the Communists in Albania to withdraw their agreement. According to Hoxha, Josip Broz Tito had agreed that "Kosovo was Albanian" but that Serbian opposition made transfer an unwise option. After the Albanian Communists repudiated the Greater Albania agreement, the Balli Kombëtar condemned the Communists, who in turn accused the Balli Kombëtar of siding with the Italians. The Balli Kombëtar, however, lacked support from the people. After judging the Communists as an immediate threat, the Balli Kombëtar sided with the Germans, fatally damaging its image among those fighting the Fascists. The Communists quickly added to their ranks many of those disillusioned with the Balli Kombëtar and took center stage in the fight for liberation.
    On 10 July 1943, the Albanian partisan groups were organised in regular units of companies, battalions and brigades and named the Albanian National Liberation Army.
    More Details Hide Details The organization received military support from the British intelligence service, SOE. The General Headquarters was created with Spiro Moisiu as the commander and Hoxha as political commissar. Communist partisans in Yugoslavia had a much more practical role, helping to plan attacks and exchanging supplies, but communication between them and the Albanians was limited and letters would often arrive late, sometimes well after a plan had been agreed upon by the National Liberation Army without consultation from the Yugoslav partisans.
  • 1942
    Age 33
    After the September 1942 Conference at Pezë, the National Liberation Front was founded with the purpose of uniting the anti-Fascist Albanians, regardless of ideology or class. By March 1943, the first National Conference of the Communist Party elected Hoxha formally as First Secretary.
    More Details Hide Details During World War II, the Soviet Union's role was negligible.
    In July 1942, Hoxha wrote "Call to the Albanian Peasantry," issued in the name of the Communist Party of Albania.
    More Details Hide Details The call sought to enlist support in Albania for the war against the fascists. The peasants were encouraged to hoard their grain and refuse to pay taxes or livestock levies brought by the government.
    From 8 to 11 April 1942, the First Consultative Meeting of Activists of the Communist Party of Albania was held in Tirana.
    More Details Hide Details Enver Hoxha delivered the main report on 8 April 1942.
  • 1941
    Age 32
    On 8 November 1941, the Communist Party of Albania (later renamed the Albanian Party of Labour in 1948) was founded.
    More Details Hide Details Hoxha was chosen from the "Korca group" as a Muslim representative by the two Yugoslav envoys as one of the seven members of the provisional Central Committee.
  • 1939
    Age 30
    On 7 April 1939, Albania was invaded by Fascist Italy.
    More Details Hide Details The Italians established a puppet government in Albania under Mustafa Merlika-Kruja. Hoxha was dismissed from his teaching post following the invasion for refusing to join the Albanian Fascist Party. He opened a tobacco shop in Tirana called Flora where a small communist group soon started gathering. Eventually the government closed it.
  • TWENTIES
  • 1936
    Age 27
    He returned to Albania in 1936 and taught grammar school in the French Lyceum of Korçë.
    More Details Hide Details His extensive education left him fluent in French with a working knowledge of Italian, Croatian, English and Russian. As a leader, he would often reference Le Monde and the International Herald Tribune.
  • 1934
    Age 25
    He dropped out once more, and from 1934 to 1936 he was a secretary at the Albanian consulate in Brussels, attached to the personnel office of the Queen Mother.
    More Details Hide Details He was dismissed after the consul discovered that his employee kept Marxist materials and books in his office.
  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1908
    Born
    Born on October 16, 1908.
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