Ernest Hemingway
American writer and journalist
Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Miller Hemingway was an American author and journalist. His economical and understated style had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his life of adventure and his public image influenced later generations. Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, and won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954. He published seven novels, six short story collections and two non-fiction works.
Biography
Ernest Hemingway's personal information overview.
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Popular photos of Ernest Hemingway
News
News abour Ernest Hemingway from around the web
Hemingway the Museumgoer at the Met
NYTimes - over 5 years
ERNEST HEMINGWAY the hunter, Hemingway the fisherman, Hemingway the drinker — they’re all part of the legend. Among the motifs in “The Select,” the Elevator Repair Service staging of “The Sun Also Rises,” currently at the New York Theater Workshop, is an inside joke about how much imbibing takes place in that
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NYTimes article
THEATER REVIEW | 'THE SELECT (THE SUN ALSO RISES)'; A Lost Generation Drinks Up, Always on Jake Barnes's Tab
NYTimes - over 5 years
It takes great discipline to stay sloppy drunk for three hours and still be smart and engaging. I bet you've never achieved that. (If you think you have, your memory is lying.) So raise a brimming glass to Elevator Repair Service, which exists in what appears to be a state of perpetual and severe intoxication for the entirety of ''The Select (The
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NYTimes article
A Push-Button Hemingway Soundtrack
NYTimes - over 5 years
IN a game of Six Degrees of Ernest Hemingway it might take a while to get to David Lee Roth, the founding frontman for the rock band Van Halen. But Papa Hemingway and Diamond Dave are united in virility at the New York Theater Workshop, where Mr. Roth's arena-size yelps are among the atmospheric audio effects in ''The Select (The Sun Also Rises),''
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Get the Best of Paris this Summer—Cheap Hotels in Paris Available with ... - DigitalJournal.com (press release)
Google News - over 5 years
For a city that left Ernest Hemingway stupefied, Paris has lost none of its old charm, elegance and grace. One major advantage of the Owl City Concert is that it is widely accepted by the young and old of Paris. Every year, the event pulls crowds from
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"Midnight in Paris" actor mans up for Hemingway role - Reuters
Google News - over 5 years
Stoll spoke to TheWrap about acting, the motion picture business and how he played Ernest Hemingway in "Midnight in Paris." Did you have any sense of the kind of phenomenon this movie was going to be? No. I expected it to get the attention that Woody
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Intersection | Hemingway vs. The Modern Man - WMFE
Google News - over 5 years
August 23, 2011 | WMFE - Ernest Hemingway typifies a certain kind of man. It's a man who fishes, fights, writes, drinks, and lives life to the extreme. But for modern men there's a struggle between emulating that archetype and the modern image of
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Solera Pays Homage to Hemingway August 23 - 28 - Sacramento Bee
Google News - over 5 years
19, 2011 -- /PRNewswire/ -- Ernest Hemingway, the literary legend who is inextricably linked to Spain, will be the focus of a weeklong celebration at Solera Cocina de Espana in Minneapolis, August 23 – 28. The authentic Spanish restaurant will pay
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Cuba? Why not? - Columbia Star
Google News - over 5 years
American novelist and short–story writer Ernest Hemingway first visited Cuba in 1928. During the 1930s he often stayed in the Hotel Ambos Mundos, room 511. Papa frequented the neighborhood bar, La Bodeguita del Medio, near his hotel
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'Gendercide' in India - CNN (blog)
Google News - over 5 years
NEW DELHI – Ernest Hemingway's collection of stories, Men without Women, examines tense gender relationships. In a particularly poignant story, a young man convinces his partner to have an abortion, viewing their
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A Classic, Condensed - Wall Street Journal
Google News - over 5 years
They won't have to be seated quite as long for the company's new rendition of Ernest Hemingway's "The Sun Also Rises": This time, the company decided to do some editing. Kate Scelsa performs in 'The Select (The Sun Also Rises)
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Moderne Man Talk Debut Album, Ernest Hemingway, and Wes Anderson Flicks - Artistdirect.com
Google News - over 5 years
Josh Ballard of Moderne Man spoke to ARTISTdirect.com editor and Dolor author Rick Florino in this exclusive interview about the album, why he likes Ernest Hemingway, Wes Anderson movies, and so much more. Did you have one vision for Moderne Man from
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Ernest Hemingway Photo Wins Paris Review Photoshop Contest - mediabistro.com
Google News - over 5 years
The image embedded on the side showcases “Ernest Hemingway,” the winning photograph. The winner edited six photos for the contest. The pictures feature highly prolific writers such as George Orwell, Sir Salman Rushdie and Vladimir Nabokov
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Fulford: Hemingway's enduring legacy - National Post (blog)
Google News - over 5 years
Half a century after his suicide in July 1961, Ernest Hemingway has become source material for the talents of other writers. That's part of his legacy. All his life he tried to live as good a story as any he wrote. By exploiting the new styles of
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Learning Not To Dislike Ernest Hemingway On The 50th Anniversary Of His Death - Huffington Post
Google News - over 5 years
For much of the 1980s, beginning when I was in college, I used to read a Hemingway book a year. The point was not self-improvement but rather a kind of exploration: What was it, exactly, about his writing that I'd missed?
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The old man and the Seine - Sydney Morning Herald
Google News - over 5 years
Exploring the city's cobbled streets, bustling cafes and ancient haunts, Sue Joseph understands why her idol Ernest Hemingway always had a place for Paris. ONE of the best things about having appalling schoolgirl French is that when travelling alone in
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Hemingway leaves indelible mark on Pamplona - AFP
Google News - over 5 years
PAMPLONA, Spain — Room 217 in the Gran Hotel La Perla, swankiest hotel in northern Spain's bull-running city Pamplona, has barely changed since Ernest Hemingway last slept here. There are a few alterations the American writer might have abhorred -- a
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Ernest Hemingway
    OTHER
  • 1961
    Medical records made available in 1991 confirm that Hemingway had also been diagnosed with hemochromatosis in early 1961.
    More Details Hide Details Both his sister Ursula, and his brother Leicester also committed suicide. Added to Hemingway's physical ailments was the additional problem that he had been a heavy drinker for most of his life. Family and friends flew to Ketchum for the funeral, officiated by the local Catholic priest who believed Hemingway's death accidental. Of the funeral (during which an altar boy fainted at the head of the casket), Hemingway's brother Leicester wrote: "It seemed to me Ernest would have approved of it all." In a press interview five years later, Mary Hemingway admitted that her husband had committed suicide. The New York Times wrote in 1926 of Hemingway's first novel, "No amount of analysis can convey the quality of The Sun Also Rises. It is a truly gripping story, told in a lean, hard, athletic narrative prose that puts more literary English to shame." The Sun Also Rises is written in the spare, tight prose that made Hemingway famous, and, according to James Nagel, "changed the nature of American writing." In 1954, when Hemingway was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature, it was for "his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style."
    Two days later, in the early morning hours of July 2, 1961, Hemingway "quite deliberately" shot himself with his favorite shotgun.
    More Details Hide Details He had unlocked the basement storeroom where his guns were kept, gone upstairs to the front entrance foyer of their Ketchum home, and according to Mellow, with the "double-barreled shotgun that he had used so often it might have been a friend", he shot himself. Mary called the Sun Valley Hospital, and a doctor quickly arrived at the house. Despite his finding that Hemingway "had died of a self-inflicted wound to the head", the initial story told to the press was that the death had been "accidental". During his final years, Hemingway's behavior had been similar to his father's before he committed suicide; his father may have had the genetic disease hemochromatosis, in which the inability to metabolize iron culminates in mental and physical deterioration.
    Three months after Hemingway was released from Mayo Clinic, back in Ketchum, in April 1961, one morning in the kitchen Mary "found Hemingway holding a shotgun".
    More Details Hide Details She called Saviers who sedated him and admitted him to the Sun Valley hospital; from there he was returned to the Mayo Clinic for more electro shock treatments. He was released in late June, and arrived home in Ketchum on June 30.
    The FBI knew Hemingway was at the Mayo Clinic, as an agent later documented in a letter written in January 1961.
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    After the 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Finca Vigia was expropriated by the Cuban government, complete with Hemingway's collection of "four to six thousand books".
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  • 1960
    Meyers writes that "an aura of secrecy surrounds Hemingway's treatment at the Mayo", but confirms he was treated with electroconvulsive therapy as many as 15 times in December 1960, and in January 1961 was "released in ruins".
    More Details Hide Details Reynolds was able to access Hemingway's records at the Mayo, which indicated that the combination of medications given to Hemingway may have created the depressive state for which he was treated. According to A.E. Hotchner, Hemingway's close associate and a writer of Papa Hemingway and Hemingway and His World, Hemingway complained for years that he was under FBI surveillance. Hotchner and other friends of the Nobel prize winner dismissed such claims as paranoia. To Hotchner’s surprise, in 1980, when the FBI was forced to release some of its least-damning Hemingway files, it turned out Hemingway was right. Hotchner believes that FBI's surveillance "substantially contributed to his friend's anguish and... suicide," adding that he had "regretfully misjudged" his friend's fear of the organization.
    He was lonely and took to his bed for days, retreating into silence, despite having had the first installments of The Dangerous Summer published in Life in September 1960 to good reviews.
    More Details Hide Details In October, he left Spain for New York, where he refused to leave Mary's apartment on the pretext that he was being watched. She quickly took him to Idaho, where George Saviers (a Sun Valley physician) met them at the train. At this time, Hemingway was constantly worried about money and his safety. He worried about his taxes, and that he would never return to Cuba to retrieve the manuscripts he had left there in a bank vault. He became paranoid, thinking the FBI was actively monitoring his movements in Ketchum. The FBI had, in fact, opened a file on him during World War II, when he used the Pilar to patrol the waters off Cuba, and J. Edgar Hoover had an agent in Havana watch Hemingway during the 1950s. By the end of November, Mary was at wits' end, and Saviers suggested Hemingway go to the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota, where he may have believed he was to be treated for hypertension.
    On July 25, 1960, Hemingway and Mary left Cuba, never to return.
    More Details Hide Details Hemingway then traveled alone to Spain to be photographed for the front cover for the Life magazine piece. A few days later, he was reported in the news to be seriously ill and on the verge of dying, which panicked Mary until she received a cable from him telling her, "Reports false. Enroute Madrid. Love Papa." However, he was seriously ill, and believed himself to be on the verge of a breakdown.
  • 1959
    In the summer of 1959, he visited Spain to research a series of bullfighting articles commissioned by Life magazine, returning to Cuba in January 1960 to work on the manuscript.
    More Details Hide Details Life wanted only 10,000 words, but the manuscript grew out of control. For the first time in his life unable to organize his writing, he asked A. E. Hotchner to travel to Cuba to help. Hotchner helped him trim the Life piece to 40,000 words, and Scribner's agreed to a full-length book version (The Dangerous Summer) of almost 130,000 words. Hotchner found Hemingway to be "unusually hesitant, disorganized, and confused", and suffering badly from failing eyesight.
    He was in Cuba in November 1959, between returning from Pamplona and traveling west to Idaho, and the following year for his 60th birthday; however, that year he and Mary decided to leave after hearing the news that Castro wanted to nationalize property owned by Americans and other foreign nationals.
    More Details Hide Details In July 1960, the Hemingways left Cuba for the last time, leaving art and manuscripts in a bank vault in Havana.
    The Finca Vigia became crowded with guests and tourists, as Hemingway, beginning to become unhappy with life there, considered a permanent move to Idaho. In 1959 he bought a home overlooking the Big Wood River, outside Ketchum, and left Cuba—although he apparently remained on easy terms with the Castro government, telling The New York Times he was "delighted" with Castro's overthrow of Batista.
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    By 1959 he ended a period of intense activity: he finished A Moveable Feast (scheduled to be released the following year); brought True at First Light to 200,000 words; added chapters to The Garden of Eden; and worked on Islands in the Stream.
    More Details Hide Details The last three were stored in a safe deposit box in Havana, as he focused on the finishing touches for A Moveable Feast. Author Michael Reynolds claims it was during this period that Hemingway slid into depression, from which he was unable to recover.
  • 1957
    Excited about the discovery, when he returned to Cuba in 1957, he began to shape the recovered work into his memoir A Moveable Feast.
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  • 1956
    In November 1956, while staying in Paris, he was reminded of trunks he had stored in the Ritz Hotel in 1928 and never retrieved.
    More Details Hide Details Upon re-claiming and opening the trunks, Hemingway discovered that the trunks were filled with notebooks and writing from his Paris years.
  • 1955
    From the end of the year in 1955 to early 1956, Hemingway was bedridden.
    More Details Hide Details He was told to stop drinking to mitigate liver damage, advice he initially followed but then disregarded. In October 1956, he returned to Europe and met Basque writer Pio Baroja, who was seriously ill and died weeks later. During the trip, Hemingway became sick again and was treated for "high blood pressure, liver disease, and arteriosclerosis".
  • 1954
    In October 1954, Hemingway received the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    More Details Hide Details He modestly told the press that Carl Sandburg, Isak Dinesen and Bernard Berenson deserved the prize, but he gladly accepted the prize money. Mellow claims Hemingway "had coveted the Nobel Prize", but when he won it, months after his plane accidents and the ensuing world-wide press coverage, "there must have been a lingering suspicion in Hemingway's mind that his obituary notices had played a part in the academy's decision." Because he was suffering pain from the African accidents, he decided against traveling to Stockholm. Instead he sent a speech to be read, defining the writer's life:
    In 1954, while in Africa, Hemingway was almost fatally injured in two successive plane crashes.
    More Details Hide Details He chartered a sightseeing flight over the Belgian Congo as a Christmas present to Mary. On their way to photograph Murchison Falls from the air, the plane struck an abandoned utility pole and "crash landed in heavy brush". Hemingway's injuries included a head wound, while Mary broke two ribs. The next day, attempting to reach medical care in Entebbe, they boarded a second plane that exploded at take-off, with Hemingway suffering burns and another concussion, this one serious enough to cause leaking of cerebral fluid. They eventually arrived in Entebbe to find reporters covering the story of Hemingway's death. He briefed the reporters and spent the next few weeks recuperating and reading his erroneous obituaries. Despite his injuries, Hemingway accompanied Patrick and his wife on a planned fishing expedition in February, but pain caused him to be irascible and difficult to get along with. When a bushfire broke out, he was again injured, sustaining second degree burns on his legs, front torso, lips, left hand and right forearm. Months later in Venice, Mary reported to friends the full extent of Hemingway's injuries: two cracked discs, a kidney and liver rupture, a dislocated shoulder and a broken skull. The accidents may have precipitated the physical deterioration that was to follow. After the plane crashes, Hemingway, who had been "a thinly controlled alcoholic throughout much of his life, drank more heavily than usual to combat the pain of his injuries."
  • 1952
    The Old Man and the Sea became a book-of-the-month selection, made Hemingway an international celebrity, and won the Pulitzer Prize in May 1952, a month before he left for his second trip to Africa.
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  • 1948
    In 1948, Hemingway and Mary traveled to Europe, staying in Venice for several months. While there, Hemingway fell in love with the then 19-year-old Adriana Ivancich. The platonic love affair inspired the novel Across the River and into the Trees, written in Cuba during a time of strife with Mary, and published in 1950 to negative reviews.
    More Details Hide Details The following year, furious at the critical reception of Across the River and Into the Trees, he wrote the draft of The Old Man and the Sea in eight weeks, saying that it was "the best I can write ever for all of my life".
  • 1946
    Nonetheless, in January 1946, he began work on The Garden of Eden, finishing 800 pages by June.
    More Details Hide Details During the post–war years, he also began work on a trilogy tentatively titled "The Land", "The Sea" and "The Air", which he wanted to combine in one novel titled The Sea Book. However, both projects stalled, and Mellow says that Hemingway's inability to continue was "a symptom of his troubles" during these years.
    In 1946 he married Mary, who had an ectopic pregnancy five months later.
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  • 1945
    The Hemingway family suffered a series of accidents and health problems in the years following the war: in a 1945 car accident, he "smashed his knee" and sustained another "deep wound on his forehead"; Mary broke first her right ankle and then her left in successive skiing accidents.
    More Details Hide Details A 1947 car accident left Patrick with a head wound and severely ill. Hemingway sank into depression as his literary friends began to die: in 1939 William Butler Yeats and Ford Madox Ford; in 1940 Scott Fitzgerald; in 1941 Sherwood Anderson and James Joyce; in 1946 Gertrude Stein; and the following year in 1947, Max Perkins, Hemingway's long-time Scribner's editor and friend. During this period, he suffered from severe headaches, high blood pressure, weight problems, and eventually diabetes—much of which was the result of previous accidents and many years of heavy drinking.
    The last time that Hemingway saw Martha was in March 1945 as he was preparing to return to Cuba, and their divorce was finalized later that same year.
    More Details Hide Details Meanwhile, he had asked Mary Welsh to marry him on their third meeting. Hemingway was present at the Normandy Landings wearing a large head bandage but, according to Meyers, he was considered "precious cargo" and not allowed ashore. The landing craft came within sight of Omaha Beach before coming under enemy fire and turning back. Hemingway later wrote in Collier's that he could see "the first, second, third, fourth and fifth waves of troops lay where they had fallen, looking like so many heavily laden bundles on the flat pebbly stretch between the sea and first cover." Mellow explains that, on that first day, none of the correspondents were allowed to land and Hemingway was returned to the Dorothea Dix.
  • 1944
    On December 17, 1944, a feverish and ill Hemingway had himself driven to Luxembourg to cover what was later called The Battle of the Bulge.
    More Details Hide Details As soon as he arrived, however, Lanham handed him to the doctors, who hospitalized him with pneumonia; by the time that he recovered a week later, most of the fighting in this battle was over. In 1947, Hemingway was awarded a Bronze Star for his bravery during World War II. He was recognized for his valor, having been "under fire in combat areas in order to obtain an accurate picture of conditions", with the commendation that "through his talent of expression, Mr. Hemingway enabled readers to obtain a vivid picture of the difficulties and triumphs of the front-line soldier and his organization in combat". Hemingway said he "was out of business as a writer" from 1942 to 1945 during his residence in Cuba.
    From May 1944 to March 1945, Hemingway was in London and Europe.
    More Details Hide Details When Hemingway first arrived in London, he met TIME magazine correspondent Mary Welsh, with whom he became infatuated. Martha had been forced to cross the Atlantic in a ship filled with explosives because Hemingway refused to help her get a press pass on a plane, and she arrived in London to find Hemingway hospitalized with a concussion from a car accident. Unsympathetic to his plight, she accused him of being a bully and told him that she was "through, absolutely finished".
  • 1940
    Pauline and the children left Hemingway that summer, after the family was reunited during a visit to Wyoming, and when Hemingway's divorce from Pauline was finalized, he and Martha were married November 20, 1940, in Cheyenne, Wyoming.
    More Details Hide Details As he had after his divorce from Hadley, he changed locations, moving his primary summer residence to Ketchum, Idaho, just outside the newly built resort of Sun Valley, and his winter residence to Cuba. Hemingway, who had been disgusted when a Parisian friend allowed his cats to eat from the table, became enamored of cats in Cuba, keeping dozens of them on the property.
  • 1939
    Gellhorn inspired him to write his most famous novel, For Whom the Bell Tolls, which he started in March 1939 and finished in July 1940.
    More Details Hide Details It was published in October 1940. Consistent with his pattern of moving around while working on a manuscript, he wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls in Cuba, Wyoming, and Sun Valley. For Whom the Bell Tolls became a Book-of-the-Month Club choice, sold half a million copies within months, was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize, and as Meyers describes it, "triumphantly re-established Hemingway's literary reputation". In January 1941, Martha was sent to China on assignment for Collier's magazine. Hemingway went with her, sending in dispatches for the newspaper PM, but in general he disliked China. A 2009 book suggests during that period he may have been recruited to work for Soviet intelligence agents under the name "Agent Argo". They returned to Cuba before the declaration of war by the United States that December, when he convinced the Cuban government to help him refit the Pilar, which he intended to use to ambush German submarines off the coast of Cuba.
    In the spring of 1939, Hemingway crossed to Cuba in his boat to live in the Hotel Ambos Mundos in Havana.
    More Details Hide Details This was the separation phase of a slow and painful split from Pauline, which had begun when Hemingway met Martha Gellhorn. Martha soon joined him in Cuba, and they almost immediately rented "Finca Vigia" ("Lookout Farm"), a property from Havana.
  • 1938
    He returned to Key West for a few months, then back to Spain twice in 1938, where he was present at the Battle of the Ebro, the last republican stand, and he was among the British and American journalists who were some of the last to leave the battle as they crossed the river.
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  • 1937
    Late in 1937, while in Madrid with Martha, Hemingway wrote his only play, The Fifth Column, as the city was being bombarded.
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    In 1937, Hemingway agreed to report on the Spanish Civil War for the North American Newspaper Alliance (NANA), arriving in Spain in March with Dutch filmmaker Joris Ivens.
    More Details Hide Details Ivens, who was filming The Spanish Earth, wanted Hemingway to replace John Dos Passos as screenwriter, since Dos Passos had left the project when his friend José Robles was arrested and later executed. The incident changed Dos Passos' opinion of the leftist republicans, creating a rift between him and Hemingway, who later spread a rumor that Dos Passos left Spain out of cowardice. Journalist and writer Martha Gellhorn, whom Hemingway had met in Key West the previous Christmas (1936), joined him in Spain. Like Hadley, Martha was a St. Louis native, and like Pauline, she had worked for Vogue in Paris. Of Martha, Kert explains, "she never catered to him the way other women did".
    During this period he also worked on To Have and Have Not, published in 1937 while he was in Spain, the only novel he wrote during the 1930s.
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  • 1935
    In 1935 he first arrived at Bimini, where he spent a considerable amount of time.
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  • 1934
    Hemingway bought a boat in 1934, named it the Pilar, and began sailing the Caribbean.
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    On Hemingway's return to Key West in early 1934, he began work on Green Hills of Africa, which he published in 1935 to mixed reviews.
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  • 1933
    In 1933, Hemingway and Pauline went on safari to East Africa.
    More Details Hide Details The 10-week trip provided material for Green Hills of Africa, as well as for the short stories "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" and "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber". The couple visited Mombasa, Nairobi, and Machakos in Kenya; then moved on to Tanganyika Territory, where they hunted in the Serengeti, around Lake Manyara, and west and southeast of present-day Tarangire National Park. Their guide was the noted "white hunter" Philip Hope Percival who had guided Theodore Roosevelt on his 1909 safari. During these travels, Hemingway contracted amoebic dysentery that caused a prolapsed intestine, and he was evacuated by plane to Nairobi, an experience reflected in "The Snows of Kilimanjaro".
    Meanwhile, he continued to travel to Europe and to Cuba, and—although in 1933 he wrote of Key West, "We have a fine house here, and kids are all well"—Mellow believes he "was plainly restless".
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  • 1931
    His third son, Gregory Hancock Hemingway, was born a year later on November 12, 1931, in Kansas City.
    More Details Hide Details Pauline's uncle bought the couple a house in Key West with a carriage house, the second floor of which was converted into a writing studio. Its location across the street from the lighthouse made it easy for Hemingway to find after a long night of drinking. While in Key West, Hemingway frequented the local bar Sloppy Joe's. He invited friends—including Waldo Peirce, Dos Passos, and Max Perkins—to join him on fishing trips and on an all-male expedition to the Dry Tortugas.
  • 1930
    He was joined there by Dos Passos and in November 1930, after bringing Dos Passos to the train station in Billings, Montana, Hemingway broke his arm in a car accident.
    More Details Hide Details The surgeon tended the compound spiral fracture and bound the bone with kangaroo tendon. Hemingway was hospitalized for seven weeks, with Pauline tending to him; the nerves in his writing hand took as long as a year to heal, during which time he suffered intense pain.
  • 1929
    In Spain during the summer of 1929, Hemingway researched his next work, Death in the Afternoon.
    More Details Hide Details He wanted to write a comprehensive treatise on bullfighting, explaining the toreros and corridas complete with glossaries and appendices, because he believed bullfighting was "of great tragic interest, being literally of life and death." During the early 1930s, Hemingway spent his winters in Key West and summers in Wyoming, where he found "the most beautiful country he had seen in the American West" and hunted deer, elk, and grizzly bear.
  • 1928
    In the late spring, Hemingway and Pauline traveled to Kansas City, where their son Patrick was born on June 28, 1928.
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  • 1927
    Pfeiffer, who was from a wealthy Catholic Arkansas family, had moved to Paris to work for Vogue magazine. Before their marriage, Hemingway converted to Catholicism. They honeymooned in Le Grau-du-Roi, where he contracted anthrax, and he planned his next collection of short stories, Men Without Women, which was published in October 1927, and included his boxing story "Fifty Grand".
    More Details Hide Details Cosmopolitan magazine editor-in-chief Ray Long praised "Fifty Grand", calling it, "one of the best short stories that ever came to my hands... the best prize-fight story I ever read... a remarkable piece of realism." By the end of the year Pauline, who was pregnant, wanted to move back to America. John Dos Passos recommended Key West, and they left Paris in March 1928. That spring, Hemingway suffered a severe injury in their Paris bathroom, when he pulled a skylight down on his head thinking he was pulling on a toilet chain. This left him with a prominent forehead scar, which he carried for the rest of his life. When Hemingway was asked about the scar, he was reluctant to answer. After his departure from Paris, Hemingway "never again lived in a big city".
    The couple were divorced in January 1927, and Hemingway married Pfeiffer in May.
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    After his 1927 divorce from Richardson, Hemingway married Pauline Pfeiffer; they divorced after he returned from the Spanish Civil War, where he had been a journalist, and after which he wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940).
    More Details Hide Details Martha Gellhorn became his third wife in 1940; they separated when he met Mary Welsh in London during World War II. He was present at the Normandy landings and the liberation of Paris. Shortly after the publication of The Old Man and the Sea (1952), Hemingway went on safari to Africa, where he was almost killed in two successive plane crashes that left him in pain or ill health for much of his remaining life. Hemingway maintained permanent residences in Key West, Florida (1930s) and Cuba (1940s and 1950s), and in 1959, he bought a house in Ketchum, Idaho, where he committed suicide in the summer of 1961.
  • 1926
    The manuscript arrived in New York in April; he corrected the final proof in Paris in August 1926, and Scribner's published the novel in October.
    More Details Hide Details The Sun Also Rises epitomized the post-war expatriate generation, received good reviews, and is "recognized as Hemingway's greatest work". Hemingway himself later wrote to his editor Max Perkins that the "point of the book" was not so much about a generation being lost, but that "the earth abideth forever"; he believed the characters in The Sun Also Rises may have been "battered" but were not lost.
    Hemingway's marriage to Hadley deteriorated as he was working on The Sun Also Rises. In the spring of 1926, Hadley became aware of his affair with Pfeiffer, who came to Pamplona with them that July.
    More Details Hide Details On their return to Paris, Hadley asked for a separation; in November she formally requested a divorce. They split their possessions while Hadley accepted Hemingway's offer of the proceeds from The Sun Also Rises.
    He published his debut novel, The Sun Also Rises, in 1926.
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  • 1925
    A few months later, in December 1925, the Hemingways left to spend the winter in Schruns, Austria, where Hemingway began revising the manuscript extensively.
    More Details Hide Details Pauline Pfeiffer joined them in January and against Hadley's advice, urged Hemingway to sign a contract with Scribner's. He left Austria for a quick trip to New York to meet with the publishers, and on his return, during a stop in Paris, began an affair with Pfeiffer, before returning to Schruns to finish the revisions in March.
  • 1924
    The Hemingways returned to Pamplona in 1924 and a third time in June 1925; that year they brought with them a group of American and British expatriates: Hemingway's Michigan boyhood friend Bill Smith, Donald Ogden Stewart, Lady Duff Twysden (recently divorced), her lover Pat Guthrie, and Harold Loeb.
    More Details Hide Details A few days after the fiesta ended, on his birthday (July 21), he began to write the draft of what would become The Sun Also Rises, finishing eight weeks later.
  • 1923
    With his wife Hadley, Hemingway first visited the Festival of San Fermín in Pamplona, Spain, in 1923, where he became fascinated by bullfighting.
    More Details Hide Details It is at this time that he began to be referred to as "Papa."
  • 1922
    Hemingway was devastated on learning that Hadley had lost a suitcase filled with his manuscripts at the Gare de Lyon as she was traveling to Geneva to meet him in December 1922.
    More Details Hide Details The following September, the couple returned to Toronto, where their son John Hadley Nicanor was born on October 10, 1923. During their absence, Hemingway's first book, Three Stories and Ten Poems, was published. Two of the stories it contained were all that remained after the loss of the suitcase, and the third had been written the previous spring in Italy. Within months a second volume, in our time (without capitals), was published. The small volume included six vignettes and a dozen stories Hemingway had written the previous summer during his first visit to Spain, where he discovered the thrill of the corrida. He missed Paris, considered Toronto boring, and wanted to return to the life of a writer, rather than live the life of a journalist. Hemingway, Hadley and their son (nicknamed Bumby) returned to Paris in January 1924 and moved into a new apartment on the rue Notre-Dame des Champs. Hemingway helped Ford Madox Ford edit the The Transatlantic Review, which published works by Pound, John Dos Passos, Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven, and Stein, as well as some of Hemingway's own early stories such as "Indian Camp". When In Our Time (with capital letters) was published in 1925, the dust jacket bore comments from Ford. "Indian Camp" received considerable praise; Ford saw it as an important early story by a young writer, and critics in the United States praised Hemingway for reinvigorating the short story genre with his crisp style and use of declarative sentences.
    The American poet Ezra Pound met Hemingway by chance at Sylvia Beach's bookshop Shakespeare and Company in 1922.
    More Details Hide Details The two toured Italy in 1923 and lived on the same street in 1924. They forged a strong friendship, and in Hemingway, Pound recognized and fostered a young talent. Pound introduced Hemingway to the Irish writer James Joyce, with whom Hemingway frequently embarked on "alcoholic sprees". During his first 20 months in Paris, Hemingway filed 88 stories for the Toronto Star newspaper. He covered the Greco-Turkish War, where he witnessed the burning of Smyrna, and wrote travel pieces such as "Tuna Fishing in Spain" and "Trout Fishing All Across Europe: Spain Has the Best, Then Germany".
  • 1921
    They were married on September 3, 1921; two months later, Hemingway was hired as foreign correspondent for the Toronto Star, and the couple left for Paris.
    More Details Hide Details Of Hemingway's marriage to Hadley, Meyers claims: "With Hadley, Hemingway achieved everything he had hoped for with Agnes: the love of a beautiful woman, a comfortable income, a life in Europe." Carlos Baker, Hemingway's first biographer, believes that while Anderson suggested Paris because "the monetary exchange rate" made it an inexpensive place to live, more importantly it was where "the most interesting people in the world" lived. In Paris, Hemingway met writers such as Gertrude Stein, James Joyce, and Ezra Pound who "could help a young writer up the rungs of a career". The Hemingway of the early Paris years was a "tall, handsome, muscular, broad-shouldered, brown-eyed, rosy-cheeked, square-jawed, soft-voiced young man." He and Hadley lived in a small walk-up at 74 rue du Cardinal Lemoine in the Latin Quarter, and he worked in a rented room in a nearby building. Stein, who was the bastion of modernism in Paris, became Hemingway's mentor and godmother to his son Jack; she introduced him to the expatriate artists and writers of the Montparnasse Quarter, whom she referred to as the "Lost Generation"—a term Hemingway popularized with the publication of The Sun Also Rises. A regular at Stein's salon, Hemingway met influential painters such as Pablo Picasso, Joan Miró, and Juan Gris. He eventually withdrew from Stein's influence and their relationship deteriorated into a literary quarrel that spanned decades.
    In 1921, he married Hadley Richardson, the first of his four wives.
    More Details Hide Details The couple moved to Paris, where he worked as a foreign correspondent and fell under the influence of the modernist writers and artists of the 1920s "Lost Generation" expatriate community.
  • 1920
    He returned to Michigan the following June and then moved to Chicago in September 1920 to live with friends, while still filing stories for the Toronto Star.
    More Details Hide Details In Chicago, he worked as an associate editor of the monthly journal Cooperative Commonwealth, where he met novelist Sherwood Anderson. When St. Louis native Hadley Richardson came to Chicago to visit the sister of Hemingway's roommate, he became infatuated and later claimed, "I knew she was the girl I was going to marry". Hadley was red-haired, with a "nurturing instinct", and eight years older than Hemingway. Despite being older than Hemingway, Hadley, who had grown up with an overprotective mother, seemed less mature than usual for a young woman her age. Bernice Kert, author of The Hemingway Women, claims Hadley was "evocative" of Agnes, but that Hadley had a childishness that Agnes lacked. The two corresponded for a few months and then decided to marry and travel to Europe. They wanted to visit Rome, but Sherwood Anderson convinced them to visit Paris instead, writing letters of introduction for the young couple.
  • 1919
    Hemingway returned home early in 1919 to a time of readjustment.
    More Details Hide Details Not yet 20 years old, he had gained from the war a maturity that was at odds with living at home without a job and with the need for recuperation. As Reynolds explains, "Hemingway could not really tell his parents what he thought when he saw his bloody knee. He could not say how scared he was in another country with surgeons who could not tell him in English if his leg was coming off or not." In September, he took a fishing and camping trip with high school friends to the back-country of Michigan's Upper Peninsula. The trip became the inspiration for his short story "Big Two-Hearted River", in which the semi-autobiographical character Nick Adams takes to the country to find solitude after returning from war. A family friend offered him a job in Toronto, and with nothing else to do, he accepted. Late that year he began as a freelancer, staff writer, and foreign correspondent for the Toronto Star Weekly.
    While recuperating, he fell in love, for the first time, with Agnes von Kurowsky, a Red Cross nurse seven years his senior. By the time of his release and return to the United States in January 1919, Agnes and Hemingway had decided to marry within a few months in America.
    More Details Hide Details However, in March, she wrote that she had become engaged to an Italian officer. Biographer Jeffrey Meyers states in his book Hemingway: A Biography that Hemingway was devastated by Agnes' rejection, and in future relationships, he followed a pattern of abandoning a wife before she abandoned him.
  • 1918
    Early in 1918, Hemingway responded to a Red Cross recruitment effort in Kansas City and signed on to become an ambulance driver in Italy.
    More Details Hide Details He left New York in May and arrived in Paris as the city was under bombardment from German artillery. By June, he was at the Italian Front. It was probably around this time that he first met John Dos Passos, with whom he had a rocky relationship for decades. On his first day in Milan, he was sent to the scene of a munitions factory explosion, where rescuers retrieved the shredded remains of female workers. He described the incident in his non-fiction book Death in the Afternoon: "I remember that after we searched quite thoroughly for the complete dead we collected fragments". A few days later, he was stationed at Fossalta di Piave. On July 8, he was seriously wounded by mortar fire, having just returned from the canteen bringing chocolate and cigarettes for the men at the front line. Despite his wounds, Hemingway assisted Italian soldiers to safety, for which he received the Italian Silver Medal of Bravery. Still only 18, Hemingway said of the incident: "When you go to war as a boy you have a great illusion of immortality. Other people get killed; not you... Then when you are badly wounded the first time you lose that illusion and you know it can happen to you." He sustained severe shrapnel wounds to both legs, underwent an immediate operation at a distribution center, and spent five days at a field hospital before he was transferred for recuperation to the Red Cross hospital in Milan.
  • 1916
    Hemingway and Marcelline both had pieces submitted to The Trapeze; Hemingway's first piece, published in January 1916, was about a local performance by the Chicago Symphony Orchestra.
    More Details Hide Details He continued to contribute to and to edit the Trapeze and the Tabula (the school's newspaper and yearbook), for which he imitated the language of sportswriters, and used the pen name Ring Lardner, Jr.—a nod to Ring Lardner of the Chicago Tribune whose byline was "Line O'Type". Like Mark Twain, Stephen Crane, Theodore Dreiser and Sinclair Lewis, Hemingway was a journalist before becoming a novelist; after leaving high school he went to work for The Kansas City Star as a cub reporter. Although he stayed there for only six months, he relied on the Stars style guide as a foundation for his writing: "Use short sentences. Use short first paragraphs. Use vigorous English. Be positive, not negative."
  • 1913
    From 1913 until 1917, Hemingway attended Oak Park and River Forest High School where he took part in a number of sports, namely boxing, track and field, water polo, and football.
    More Details Hide Details He excelled in English classes and performed in the school orchestra with his sister Marcelline for two years. In his junior year, he took a journalism class, taught by Fannie Biggs, which was structured "as though the classroom were a newspaper office". The better writers in class submitted pieces to The Trapeze, the school newspaper.
  • 1903
    He realized how Hadley must have felt after her own father's suicide in 1903, and he commented, "I'll probably go the same way."
    More Details Hide Details Upon his return to Key West in December, Hemingway worked on the draft of A Farewell to Arms before leaving for France in January. He had finished it in August but delayed the revision. The serialization in Scribner's Magazine was scheduled to begin in May, but as late as April, Hemingway was still working on the ending, which he may have rewritten as many as seventeen times. The completed novel was published on September 27. Biographer James Mellow believes A Farewell to Arms established Hemingway's stature as a major American writer and displayed a level of complexity not apparent in The Sun Also Rises.
  • 1899
    Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago.
    More Details Hide Details His father, Clarence Edmonds Hemingway, was a physician, and his mother, Grace Hall-Hemingway, was a musician. Both were well-educated and well-respected in the conservative community of Oak Park, a community about which resident Frank Lloyd Wright said, "So many churches for so many good people to go to". For a short period after their marriage, Clarence and Grace Hemingway lived with Grace's father, Ernest Hall, who eventually became their first son's namesake. Later Ernest Hemingway would say that he disliked his name, which he "associated with the naive, even foolish hero of Oscar Wilde's play The Importance of Being Earnest". The family eventually moved into a seven-bedroom home in a respectable neighborhood with a music studio for Grace and a medical office for Clarence. Hemingway's mother frequently performed in concerts around the village. As an adult, Hemingway professed to hate his mother, although biographer Michael S. Reynolds points out that Hemingway mirrored her energy and enthusiasm. Her insistence that he learn to play the cello became a "source of conflict", but he later admitted the music lessons were useful to his writing, as is evident in the "contrapuntal structure" of For Whom the Bell Tolls. The family owned a summer home called Windemere on Walloon Lake, near Petoskey, Michigan, where as a four-year-old he learned from his father to hunt, fish, and camp in the woods and lakes of Northern Michigan.
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