Estes Kefauver
American politician
Estes Kefauver
Carey Estes Kefauver was an American politician from Tennessee. A member of the Democratic Party, he served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1939 to 1949 and in the Senate from 1949 to his death in 1963. After leading a much-publicized investigation into organized crime in the early 1950s, he twice sought his party's nomination for President of the United States.
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Τζάκι Κένεντι Ωνάση: Μια πλούσια ζωή - Capital.gr
Google News - over 5 years
Αν και ο John Cennedy έδωσε την ομιλία για την ανάδειξη του υποψηφίου προέδρου για τους δημοκρατικούς Adlai Stevenson τελικά εκείνος που επιλέχθηκε ως αντιπρόεδρος του κόμματος ήταν ο Estes Kefauver. Στις 23 Αυγούστου του 1956 λίγο μετά την αναχώρηση
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Obama/Hillary Coming Soon to a Primary Near You? - American Thinker
Google News - over 5 years
The previous occasion was in 1952 -- also in the midst of a long, unpopular war, this one in Korea -- when President Harry Truman dropped out after Senator Estes Kefauver won the New Hampshire primary. The Democrats ultimately nominated Adlai Stevenson
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Frank Tashlin - A.V. Club Chicago
Google News - over 5 years
Artists & Models satirizes the hysteria regarding comic books in the age of Estes Kefauver and Fredric Wertham while Hollywood Or Bust finds Tashlin on solid ground spoofing film, a medium he knew, loved, and gleefully dissected like few others
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Gambling profits turned criminals into big-time bosses - nwitimes.com
Google News - over 5 years
Gambling profits, according to US Senator Estes Kefauver's Special Senate Committee to investigate Organized Crime in Interstate Commerce in 1950, were the principal support of big-time racketeering and gangsterism. These profits provided the financial
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Republican racial history - York Daily Record
Google News - over 5 years
Only rare brave southern elected officials (unanimously Democrats) dared stray mid-20th Century from the segregationist position toward blacks, Tennessee's Albert Gore Sr. and Estes Kefauver and Texas's Ralph Yarborough and Lyndon Johnson being among
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Fashion at the Mall of America: Reality TV, Playboy Playmates, and pinup girls - MinnPost.com
Google News - over 5 years
It wasn't Betty Grable, after all, that Estes Kefauver dragged before a Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency after a young man had died in a bondage-related accident, supposedly inspired by a Page photograph. MinnPost photo by Max SparberClaire
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Courthouse saw its share of drama - Tbo.com
Google News - over 5 years
The Senate Committee to Investigate Organized Crime in Interstate Commerce, as it was officially known, was chaired by Estes Kefauver, a US senator from Tennessee in search of the roots of organized crime — and a possible presidential campaign
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Hair cut? We've got the chair ready — the one a gangster got plugged in - The Province
Google News - over 5 years
Estes Kefauver's Special Committee to Investigate Crime in Interstate Commerce held hearings in the building's main courtroom in 1950 and '51. His aim was to shut the casinos down. Precisely the opposite happened, making Las Vegas the centre of the
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DVD Review: Terminator, Cedar Rapids, Elephant White, The Captive City and The ... - Shockya.com
Google News - over 5 years
Robert Wise's 1952 film, “The Captive City”, meanwhile, is much more of a treat, even if its anti-gangland moralizing (driven home in a coda from sitting Senator Estes Kefauver) is too narratively on the nose by today's standards
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Why Would the FBI Give $223 Million to This Man? - San Diego Reader
Google News - over 5 years
When William testified before the organized-crime investigating committee of Senator Estes Kefauver in June 1950, he issued a statement: “I have never engaged in bookmaking or in any commercial gambling. I have never had a financial interest in any
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Huntsman is a Republican JFK, without the vig-ah - MarketWatch
Google News - over 5 years
Estes Kefauver. The national exposure introduced Kennedy to the voting public at large and paved the way for his successful run in 1960 without saddling him with any of the blame for Stevenson's predictable loss in the 1956 election
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Is Sarah Palin Bachmann's Goldwater? - American Spectator
Google News - over 5 years
Kennedy lost to Tennessee Senator Estes Kefauver -- who went on a losing ticket with Stevenson. But something had changed, thanks to the television coverage of the convention and the young senator's graceful concession speech
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Dr. Joe Harrop: Entertaining fantasies instead of public service - Red Bluff Daily News
Google News - over 5 years
When I was visiting a Congressional intern in Washington DC in 1961, Senator Estes Kefauver was a star; he always seemed to have an attractive young woman with him wherever he went. My intern friend told me the accepted explanation was that whomever he
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Happy 51st birthday to the incorporated city of Oak Ridge - Oak Ridger
Google News - over 5 years
Estes Kefauver and Al Gore Sr., Rep. Howard Baker, AEC Chairman John McCone, and Carbide's Clark Center. The Oak Ridger reported that many speakers thanked the AEC. Mayor Bissell made a big point of saying this was the first of what he certainly hoped
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Daily TWiP - William M. Gaines, co-founder and publisher of Mad magazine, dies ... - Nashua Telegraph
Google News - over 5 years
Which resulted in the following exchange: Senator Estes Kefauver: This seems to be a man with a bloody axe holding a woman's head up which has been severed from her body. Do you think that is in good taste? Gaines: Yes sir, I do, for the cover of a
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Profitable Ausbeutungsmaschinerie: Szene aus dem besprochenen Buch. - Foto ... - Tagesspiegel
Google News - over 5 years
... Davis Jr. oder der Frauenrechtlerin Gloria Steinem nutzt sie auch Personen, die mit Comics befasst waren: 1955 taucht bei einem Hearing anlässlich des schlechten Einflusses auf Jugendliche von Bettie Pages Bondage-Fotos Senator Estes Kefauver auf
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A Memorial Day Resolution: Add Fewer Graves - The New American
Google News - over 5 years
Estes Kefauver had campaigned for President in a coonskin cap, but Kennedy summoned us to a New Frontier, in which we would conquer hunger, disease, Communism, and outer space. Even the moon would be caught up in our cosmic conflict between good and
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Pawlenty: “We need to quit worrying about bus tours” - Hot Air
Google News - over 5 years
It wasn't so much that he was unsuccessful (the nomination went to Estes Kefauver instead), but what he learned along the way in setting himself up for his parties' Presidential nomination in 1960. What he learned was this: The grandees of the Democrat
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Estes Kefauver
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  • 1963
    In November 1963, President Kennedy named Nancy Kefauver to be the first head of the new Art in Embassies Program—Kennedy's last presidential appointment. The federal courthouse in Nashville, Tennessee was renamed the Estes Kefauver Federal Building and United States Courthouse in his honor. 1956 United States Presidential Election (Vice President's seat)
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    On August 8, 1963, Kefauver, a heavy smoker and drinker, suffered what was reported as a 'mild' heart attack on the floor of the Senate while attempting to place an antitrust amendment into a NASA appropriations bill that would have required that companies benefiting financially from the outcome of research subsidized by NASA reimburse NASA for the cost of the research.
    More Details Hide Details Two days after the attack, Kefauver died in his sleep in Bethesda, Maryland, of a ruptured aortic aneurysm. He was interred in the family cemetery in Madisonville.
    In May 1963, Kefauver's subcommittee concluded that within monopolized U.S. industries no real price competition existed anymore and also recommended that General Motors be broken up into competing firms.
    More Details Hide Details Kefauver's Antitrust and Monopoly Subcommittee also held hearings on the pharmaceutical industry between 1959 and 1963 that led to enactment of his most famous legislative achievement, the Kefauver-Harris Drug Act of 1962, after Kefauver expressed shock about the excess profits that U.S. drug companies were taking in at the expense of U.S. consumers. Some of what Kefauver's hearings on the U.S. pharmaceutical industry revealed includes the following: "Witnesses told of conflicts of interest for the AMA (whose journal, for example, received millions of dollars in drug advertising and was, therefore, reluctant to challenge claims made by drug company ads)…The drug companies themselves were shown to be engaged in frenzied advertising campaigns designed to sell trade name versions of drugs that could otherwise be prescribed under generic names at a fraction of the cost; this competition, in turn, had led to the marketing of new drugs that were no improvements on drugs already on the market but, nevertheless, heralded as dramatic breakthroughs without proper concern for either effectiveness or safety."
  • 1962
    In 1962, Kefauver, who had become known to the public at large as the chief enemy of crooked businessmen in the Senate, introduced legislation that would eventually pass into law as the Kefauver-Harris Drug Control Act.
    More Details Hide Details This bill, which Kefauver dubbed his "finest achievement" in consumer protection, imposed controls on the pharmaceutical industry that required that drug companies disclose to doctors the side-effects of their products, allow their products to be sold as generic drugs after having held the patent on them for a certain period of time, and be able to prove on demand that their products were, in fact, effective and safe.
  • 1960
    When he ran for reelection to a third term in 1960, his first and, it would turn out, last attempt at running for office after refusing to sign the Southern Manifesto, he faced staunch opposition for renomination from his party's still-thriving pro-segregation wing, but he won the primary decisively, 64% vs. 34% for his opponent, Tip Taylor.
    More Details Hide Details During the general election itself, polls showed Kefauver's support to be near-nonexistent and it was later said that, on election day, no one outside of Kefauver's family could be found who would admit to having voted for him. Nevertheless, Kefauver swamped his opponent, winning nearly 72% of the vote.
  • 1959
    In 1959, the senator let it be known that he was not going to campaign a third time for the presidential nomination.
    More Details Hide Details He continued to represent Tennessee in the U.S. Senate; the abandonment of presidential ambitions led to his most productive years as a senator. While he largely faded from the public eye, he earned the respect of congressional colleagues from both parties for his independence and his sponsorship of a number of important foreign and domestic legislative measures.
  • 1957
    In an attempt to gain more public exposure, Kefauver capitalized on a nascent public campaign to restrict the sale of switchblade knives at the federal level by introducing legislation in 1957 to ban the sale or possession of such knives.
    More Details Hide Details The senator timed his hearings on the legislation to coincide with a series of lurid articles in the Saturday Evening Post and other periodicals of the day on the use of switchblades by juvenile delinquents and gangs. At each hearing the senator would display a bizarre array of confiscated bayonets, trench knives, daggers, and switchblades, all of which he described to the press as 'switchblade knives.' However, Kefauver's switchblade bill failed, in large part due to residual bad feelings between Kefauver and other senators.
  • 1956
    After his 1956 defeat, Kefauver was considered the front-runner for the 1960 Democratic nomination.
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    By April 1956, it appeared that Kefauver would match his spectacular performance in the primaries of four years earlier.
    More Details Hide Details But this time, Kefauver had active competition not only from Stevenson, but also from Governor W. Averell Harriman of New York, who was endorsed by former President Truman. Stevenson got significantly more endorsements and raised far more funds than Kefauver. He defeated Kefauver in the Oregon, Florida, and California primaries and, overall, won more primary votes than Kefauver. After his devastating loss in the California primary, Kefauver suspended his campaign. At the Democratic National Convention, Stevenson was again nominated for president. Stevenson then decided to let the delegates themselves pick his vice-presidential nominee, instead of making that choice himself. Although Stevenson preferred Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts as his running mate, he did not attempt to influence the balloting in any way, and Kefauver eventually received the nomination for Vice President. Stevenson lost the November election to Eisenhower, by an even bigger margin than in 1952.
    In 1956, he was selected by the Democratic National Convention to be the running mate of presidential nominee Adlai Stevenson.
    More Details Hide Details Still holding his U.S. Senate seat after the Stevenson–Kefauver ticket lost to the Eisenhower–Nixon ticket in 1956, Kefauver was named chair of the U.S. Senate Antitrust and Monopoly Subcommittee in 1957 and served as its chairman until his death. Kefauver was born in Madisonville, Tennessee, the son of Phredonia Bradford (born Estes) and Robert Cooke Kefauver, a hardware manager. Estes attended the University of Tennessee from 1922 to 1924, receiving a Bachelor of Arts degree and being initiated into the Kappa Sigma Fraternity.
  • 1952
    Stevenson, a one-term governor who was up for reelection in 1952, had resisted calls to enter the race, but he was nominated anyway by a "Draft Stevenson" movement that had been energized by his eloquent keynote speech on the opening night of the convention.
    More Details Hide Details John Sparkman was selected as the Democratic candidate for Vice President. Stevenson lost the general election in November to General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican nominee, in a landslide. In the March 13 New Hampshire primary, he defeated Adlai Stevenson 21,701 to 3,806. A week later, Kefauver again defeated Stevenson in the Minnesota primary, winning 245,885 votes compared to Stevenson's 186,723 votes. Kefauver was also victorious in the Wisconsin primary.
    He received 3.1 million votes, while the eventual 1952 Democratic presidential nominee, Illinois governor Adlai Stevenson, got only 78,000 votes.
    More Details Hide Details But primaries were not, at that time, the main method of delegate selection for the national convention. Kefauver entered the convention with a few hundred votes still needed for a majority of the delegates. The Kefauver campaign became the classic example of how presidential primary victories do not automatically lead to the nomination itself. Although he began the balloting far ahead of the other declared candidates, Kefauver eventually lost the nomination to Stevenson, the choice of the Democratic Party political bosses.
    Kefauver won 12 of the 15 primaries in 1952, losing three to "favorite son" candidates.
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  • 1950
    Although the hearings boosted Kefauver's political prospects, they helped to end the twelve-year Senate career of Democratic Majority Leader Scott Lucas. In a tight 1950 reelection race against former Illinois Representative Everett Dirksen, Lucas urged Kefauver to keep his investigation away from an emerging Chicago police scandal until after election day, but Kefauver refused.
    More Details Hide Details Election-eve publication of stolen secret committee documents hurt the Democratic Party in Cook County, cost Lucas the election, and gave Dirksen national prominence as the man who defeated the Senate majority leader. Campaigning in his coonskin cap, often by dogsled, Kefauver won in an electrifying victory in the New Hampshire primary, defeating President Harry S. Truman, the sitting President of the United States. Truman then withdrew his bid for re-election.
    In 1950, Kefauver headed a U.S. Senate committee investigating organized crime.
    More Details Hide Details The committee, officially known as the Senate Special Committee to Investigate Crime in Interstate Commerce, was popularly known as the Kefauver Committee or the Kefauver hearings. The Committee held hearings in fourteen cities and heard testimony from over 600 witnesses. Many of the witnesses were high-profile crime bosses, including such well-known names as Willie Moretti, Joe Adonis, and Frank Costello, the latter making himself famous by refusing to allow his face to be filmed during his questioning and then staging a much-publicized walkout. A number of politicians also appeared before the committee and saw their careers ruined. Among them were former Governor Harold G. Hoffman of New Jersey and Mayor William O'Dwyer of New York City. The committee's hearings, which were televised live, just as many Americans were first buying televisions, made Kefauver nationally famous and introduced many Americans to the concept of a criminal organization known as the Mafia for the first time officially. In fact, in 1951, Kefauver appeared as a celebrity guest on the new game show What's My Line? discussing the hearings briefly with the panel, showing how popular these hearings were with early television viewers.
  • 1948
    After being elected to the U.S. Senate in 1948, Kefauver guided the Celler–Kefauver Act of 1950, which amended the Clayton Act by plugging loopholes allowing a corporation to purchase a competing firm's assets, through the U.S. Senate.
    More Details Hide Details Between 1957 and 1963, his U.S. Senate Antitrust and Monopoly Subcommittee investigated concentration in the U.S. economy, industry by industry, and it issued a report exposing administrative, monopoly prices in the steel, automotive, bread and pharmaceutical industries.
    To win election to the Senate, Kefauver defeated the incumbent Tom Stewart in the 1948 Democratic primary.
    More Details Hide Details Kefauver was backed by the influential editor Edward J. Meeman of the Memphis Press-Scimitar, who had long fought the Crump machine for its corruption and stranglehold over Memphis politics. After he went on to win both the primary and the election, he adopted the cap as his trademark and wore it in every successive campaign. He received the cap from journalist Drue Smith. Kefauver was unique in Tennessee politics in his outspoken liberal views, a stand which established a permanent bloc of opposition to him in the state. Kefauver's success - despite his liberal views - was predicated largely on his support by the Nashville Tennessean, a consistently liberal newspaper that served as a focus for anti-Crump sentiment in the state. His constituency included many prominent citizens whose views were considerably less liberal than his but who admired him for his integrity.
    His progressive stances on the issues put Kefauver in direct competition with E. H. Crump, the former U.S. congressman, mayor of Memphis and boss of the state's Democratic Party, when he chose to seek the Democratic nomination for the U.S. Senate in 1948.
    More Details Hide Details During the primary, Crump and his allies accused Kefauver of being a "fellow traveler," and of working for the "pinkos and communists," with the stealth of a raccoon. In a televised speech given in Memphis, in which he responded to such charges, Kefauver put on a coonskin cap and proudly proclaimed, "I may be a pet coon, but I'm not Boss Crump's pet coon."
    In a May 1948 article which appeared in the American Economic Review, Kefauver also proposed that more staff and money be allocated to the Antitrust Division of the Justice Department and to the Federal Trade Commission; that new legislation to make it easier to prosecute big corporations be enacted; and that the danger of monopoly should be publicized more.
    More Details Hide Details The Kefauver investigation into television and juvenile delinquency in the mid-1950s led to an even more intensive investigation in the early 1960s. The new probe came about after people became increasingly concerned over juvenile violence, and the possibility of this behavior being related to violent television programs.
  • 1946
    He chaired, for instance, the House Select Committee on Small Business, which investigated economic concentration in the U.S. business world in 1946.
    More Details Hide Details That same year, Kefauver also introduced legislation to plug loopholes in the Clayton Antitrust Act.
  • 1939
    When Congressman Sam D. McReynolds of Tennessee's 3rd district, which included Chattanooga, died in 1939, Kefauver was elected to succeed him in the House.
    More Details Hide Details Kefauver was elected to five terms in the House of Representatives as a Democrat. As a member of the House during President Franklin D. Roosevelt's time in office, Kefauver distinguished himself from the other Democrats in Tennessee's congressional delegation, most of whom were conservatives, by becoming a staunch supporter of the President's New Deal legislation. In particular, he backed the controversial Tennessee Valley Authority and was best known for his successful bid to rebuff the efforts of Tennessee Senator Kenneth McKellar to gain political control over the agency. As a member of the House, "Kefauver began to manifest his concern over the growing concentration of economic power in the United States," concentrating much of his legislative efforts on congressional reform and anti-monopoly measures.
    He lost but in 1939 spent two months as Finance and Taxation Commissioner under the newly elected governor Prentice Cooper.
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    A member of the Democratic Party, he served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1939 to 1949 and in the Senate from 1949 until his death from a heart attack in Bethesda, Maryland, in 1963.
    More Details Hide Details After leading a much-publicized investigation into organized crime in the early 1950s, he twice sought his party's nomination for President of the United States.
  • 1938
    Aroused by his role as attorney for the Chattanooga News, Kefauver became interested in local politics and sought election to the Tennessee Senate in 1938.
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  • 1935
    In 1935 he married Nancy Pigott of Glasgow, Scotland, eight years his junior, whom he had met during her visit to relatives in Chattanooga.
    More Details Hide Details They raised four children, one of them adopted. Mrs. Kefauver died in 1967.
  • 1927
    After a year of teaching mathematics and coaching football at a Hot Springs, Arkansas, high school, he attended Yale Law School, from which he received an LL.B. cum laude in 1927.
    More Details Hide Details For the next dozen years Kefauver practiced law in Chattanooga, first with the firm of Cooke, Swaney & Cooke, as a partner in Sizer, Chambliss & Kefauver, and later in the firm of Duggan, McDonald, & Kefauver.
  • 1903
    Born on July 26, 1903.
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