Fidel V. Ramos
President of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998
Fidel V. Ramos
Fidel "Eddie" Valdez Ramos, GCMG, popularly known as FVR, was the 12th President of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998. During his six years in office, Ramos was widely credited and admired by many for revitalizing and renewing international confidence in the Philippine economy.
Fidel V. Ramos's personal information overview.
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Ally Criticizes Philippine President Duterte's Early Leadership
Wall Street Journal - 6 months
Ex-President Fidel Ramos expressed disappointment over the newly elected leader’s performance so far, citing controversies over vigilante killings and foul language.
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Wall Street Journal article
Japan warns China of deteriorating ties over East China Sea dispute - Reuters
Google News - 8 months
Reuters Japan warns China of deteriorating ties over East China Sea dispute Reuters TOKYO/WASHINGTON Japan warned China on Tuesday that ties were deteriorating over disputed East China Sea islets, and China's envoy in Tokyo reiterated Beijing's stance that the specks of land were its territory and called for talks to resolve the dispute. US Destroyer Visit Latest Twist in China-US Military TiesNew York Times Japan says ties with China 'deteriorating' over disputed islandsBBC News Former Philippine President Fidel Ramos talks China tiesWashington Post Christian Science Monitor -Daily Mail -Channel NewsAsia -The Japan Times all 210 news articles »
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Google News article
PH President to visit Canada, US
CNN iReport - almost 2 years
PHILIPPINE President Benigno Aquino III is scheduled to visit Canada and the United States next month, a Palace official announced on Friday. Deputy Presidential Spokesperson Abigail Valte said in a statement that President Aquino has accepted the invitation of Canadian Governor David Johnston to undertake a state visit from May 7 to 9. "President Aquino and his Canadian counterpart, Prime Minister Stephen Harper, are expected to witness the signing of bilateral agreements on labor cooperation, development assistance and infrastructure development, which will highlight the vibrancy of people-to-people relations,” she said. President Aquino’s trip to Canada will be the first state visit of a Philippine president since former President Fidel Ramos’ visit in 1997. Valte said the President is also expected to make a one-day working visit to the US to meet with potential investors and with the Filipino community in Chicago.
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CNN iReport article
True or false: Was 1972 Enrile ambush faked?
Inquirer Business - over 4 years
Did he or did he not fake his ambush 40 years ago?   In response to numerous requests from our readers, the Inquirer did a fact-check on a controversial claim that the Senate president made in his newly published book, “Juan Ponce Enrile: A Memoir.”   Enrile, the martial law administrator of the dictator Ferdinand Marcos, said in his book that the ambush on his convoy on the night of Sept. 22, 1972, was not staged—a turnaround from what the then defense secretary disclosed during a historic press conference on Feb. 23, 1986, when he and then Lt. Gen. Fidel V. Ramos announced their revolt against Marcos.   In other interviews with certain foreign cor... Keep on reading: True or false: Was 1972 Enrile ambush faked?
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Inquirer Business article
Surveil -- Amina Rasul: Jesse’s footprints
Business World - over 4 years
I FIRST MET Jesse Robredo in 1993. Then President Fidel V. Ramos asked me to help organize the LAKAS NUCD-UMDP Party’s Youth Wing with Pangasinan Vice-Governor Ranjit Shahani. FVR told me to get in touch with a popular young mayor of Naga, who had impressed him very much as a leader to watch. That was Jesse Robredo.
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Business World article
A workable plan - Manila Standard Today
Google News - over 5 years
Since the administration of former President Fidel Ramos, there have been proposals led by then-Nueva Ecija Rep. Renato Diaz to move the Bilibid prison from Muntinlupa to Fort Magsaysay in Nueva Ecija. Ramos initially supported it but when crunch time
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Google News article
Wanted: Water czar - Philippine Star
Google News - over 5 years
Vargas said the best model to pattern this after is the MWSS privatization program carried out by former President Fidel Ramos. The two Maynilad executives credited Ramos for having averted the looming water crisis in Metro Manila
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Google News article
P-Noy's modernization policy - Philippine Star
Google News - over 5 years
Having once headed the military as AFP chief of staff, former President Fidel Ramos started the ball rolling for the AFP modernization program. Large tracts of prime real estate of the AFP around its military camps were sold and privatized during the
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Google News article
The trouble with hello - BusinessWorld Online
Google News - over 5 years
Cory Aquino's six-year term as first President after the momentous People Power EDSA Revolution of 1986 had just ended, and it was the turn of Fidel Ramos to be President, in the fading euphoria of the country's deliverance from the 14-year dictator
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Google News article
Of historical, religious and community concerns -
Google News - over 5 years
By VP Vamenta Today is one of the more significant historical days in this National Language Month of August as declared by former President Fidel Ramos 1997, with President Manuel Quezon, considered the Father of the Philippine National Language
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Google News article
Huffing and puffing -
Google News - over 5 years
FIDEL RAMOS has a piece of advice to give P-Noy: Stop the witch-hunt against the Arroyo regime. “These investigations,” he says, “are not (creating) a pretty picture for us. It is not very attractive to those who want to invest and travel to the
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Google News article
Palace snubs Ramos warning about 'witch-hunt' vs Arroyo - GMANews.TV
Google News - over 5 years
Malacañang on Saturday rebuffed former President Fidel Ramos' warning over a supposed “witch-hunt" against the Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo administration, saying the “search for accountability" had been one of President Benigno Aquino III's campaign
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Ramos wishes GMA full recovery from ailment - Philippine Star
Google News - over 5 years
MANILA, Philippines - Former President Fidel Ramos on Thursday wished former President and now Pampanga Rep. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo's full recovery from her present ailment
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Google News article
Ex-Pres. Fidel Ramos gets honorary doctorate in Tokyo - GMANews.TV
Google News - over 5 years
Former Philippine President Fidel Ramos received an honorary doctorate in International Studies from the JF Oberlin University Yotsuya campus in Tokyo, Japan. The Philippine Embassy in Tokyo said JF Oberlin President Toyoshi Satow conferred the award
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Pay, pray, obey - Philippine Star
Google News - over 5 years
After Fidel Ramos the Protestant and Joseph Estrada the man who loved wine, women and gambling, the CBCP was ecstatic to have a devoutly Catholic president who started her day with prayer at the Malacañang chapel, who was always photographed attending
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Google News article
Pangasinan sets sight hosting Palarong Pambansa next year - Philippine Information Agency
Google News - over 5 years
He added that the only time Pangasinan hosted the Palarong Pambansa was in 1995 when one of the province's most prominent sons, Fidel Ramos, was president of the Philippines. If Pangasinan succeeds in its bid to host next year's event, the games will
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Google News article
Senate blue ribbon body calls for changes in PCSO fund approval, use -
Google News - over 5 years
... saying that not all cities, towns and provinces requested for these vehicles since these areas still have operational ambulances which were part of donations doled out by the PCSO during the term of former President Fidel Ramos
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Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Fidel V. Ramos
  • 2011
    Ramos is also a firm backer of the proposed Philippine Reproductive Health bill. During a meet-up with fellow RH bill supporters last May 2011, he urged President Benigno Aquino III to certify the RH bill as urgent, saying it is the "right thing" to do.
    More Details Hide Details During his administration, the Department of Health under Juan Flavier launched an intense drive to promote family planning. Asiaweek reported in August 1994 that under Ramos, "family planning funding has quintupled." They also noted that President Ramos "has gone the farthest of any administration in opposing the Church's positions on contraception and abortion." At present, Ramos is listed by the Forum for Family Planning and Development as one of its Eminent Persons. The Forum is a non-governmental organization working to advance "national policies on population management, health, and family welfare." Ramos is a Member of the Global Leadership Foundation, an organization which works to support democratic leadership, prevent and resolve conflict through mediation and promote good governance in the form of democratic institutions, open markets, human rights and the rule of law. It does so by making available, discreetly and in confidence, the experience of former leaders to today’s national leaders. It is a not-for-profit organization composed of former heads of government, senior governmental and international organization officials who work closely with Heads of Government on governance-related issues of concern to them.
  • 2008
    Accusations were not proven to the level of Ramos but the Supreme Court ultimately voided the PEA-AMARI sale for being unconstitutional, and in early August 2008, the Sandiganbayan suspended four government auditors and five PEA officials for their role in the anomalous deal.
    More Details Hide Details
  • 2006
    Ramos was heavily recommended for the position of the United Nations envoy to Myanmar (formerly known as Burma) in June 2006.
    More Details Hide Details He served as the Carlyle Group Asia Advisor Board Member until the board was disbanded in February 2004. At present, as a private citizen, Ramos is engaged in various private sector advocacies where he plays prominent roles. These include: Chairman, Ramos Peace and Development Foundation; Chairman, Boao Forum for Asia; Trustee, International Crisis Group (ICG); Member, Advisory Group, UN University for Peace; Honorary Director, General Douglas MacArthur Foundation; Founding Member, Policy Advisory Commission, World Intellectual Property Organization (PAC-WIPO); Honorary Member, World Commission on Water for the 21st century; Member, International Advisory Council, Asia House; Patron, Opportunity International (Philippines); Global Advisor, University of Winnipeg; Honorary Chairman, Yuchengco Center, De La Salle University; Member, Advisory Board, Metrobank; Honorary President, Human Development Network (HDN) Philippines; Lifetime Honorary President, Christian Democrats International (CDI); and Chairman Emeritus, Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats (CMD) Party.
  • 2005
    At the height of the election-rigging scandal in July 2005, Ramos publicly convinced President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo not to resign from office.
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  • 2001
    In January 2001, Ramos was instrumental in the success of the so-called second EDSA Revolution that deposed the properly elected Philippine president Joseph Estrada and placed then-Vice President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo in the presidential seat.
    More Details Hide Details Ramos is currently the Chairman Emeritus of the Lakas CMD (Christian-Muslim Democrats) Party, formerly known as Lakas NUCD-UMDP or the Partido Lakas Tao-National Union of Christian Democrats-Union of Muslim Democrats of the Philippines.
  • 1999
    In February 1999, the Senate Blue Ribbon Committee of the 11th Congress recommended the prosecution of ex-President Ramos and eight others for “technical malversation or misapplication of public funds” in connection with Centennial Expo scam, a recommendation not approved by the Senate, but pursued in the Sandigan Bayan against 6 of his high-ranking officials who were eventually exonerated.
    More Details Hide Details Ramos was eventually cleared by Ombudsman Aniano Desierto, a Ramos appointee who refused to inhibit himself from hearing the high-profile case.
  • 1998
    Ramos appeared before a Congressional Committee in October 1998 to help exonerate said officials of any wrongdoing.
    More Details Hide Details
    Supposedly, one of his notable contributions to the Philippines was the revival of nationalistic spirit by embarking on a massive promotion campaign for the centennial of Philippine Independence celebrated on June 12, 1998.
    More Details Hide Details However, charges of alleged massive corruption or misuse of funds blemished the resulting programs and various projects, one of which was the Centennial Expo and Amphitheater at the former Clark Air Base in Angeles City, Pampanga, supposedly Ramos' pet project. The commemorative projects, particularly those undertaken at the former Clark Air Base, were hounded by illegal electioneering and corruption controversies even years after the Centennial celebrations. A special report by the Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism (PCIJ) showed how the projects relating to the Expo site not only revealed the extravagance and inefficiency of the administration, but also served as convenient vehicle to effect election fund-raising for the LAKAS political party of Ramos at the expense of the tax-paying Filipinos and in violation of the Election Code. The Centennial Expo Pilipino project, intended to be the centerpiece for the celebrations for the 100th anniversary of the country's independence from Spain, also earned extensive criticisms for being an expensive white elephant project that disadvantaged the government at the cost of P9 billion, or 1.7 percent of the country's 1998 national budget. Six ranking Ramos cabinet members and officials, headed by Chairman Salvador Laurel (former Vice-President) of the Centennial Commission were cleared by the Ombudsman and Sandigan Bayan (People's Court).
  • 1997
    Leftist groups have also criticized Ramos for his economic reforms such as privatization, deregulation and trade liberalization, claiming that the economic growth posted during his presidency was "artificial." They blamed him for the slowdown of the Philippine economy during the 1997 East Asian financial crisis.
    More Details Hide Details The sale of 40% of Petron to Aramco is specifically criticized for resulting in the loss of the government's effective leverage on domestic oil prices. In 1998, the Union for Socialist Ideas and Action told a left-wing Australian organization that Ramos hesitantly admitted that contrary to his government's earlier claimed, the economic fundamentals of the country may actually be unsound. His admission came following the discovery of a secret memorandum issued by the National Economic Development Authority director-general urging the president to tell the Filipinos the truth about the state of the economy and that they ought to prepare for worse. According to former University of the Philippines president Francisco Nemenzo, Ramos "has done nothing to reverse or slow down the implementation" of the harmful IMF-imposed structural reforms. Inline General
    The 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, which started in Thailand, was a major blow to the Ramos administration.
    More Details Hide Details The economy was hit by currency devaluation. The same was true for the Thai baht, Malaysian ringgit and Indonesian rupiah. Growth fell to about −0.6% in 1998 from 5.2% in 1997, but recovered to 3.4% by 1999. It also resulted to the shutdown of some businesses, a decline in importation, a rising unemployment rate and an unstable financial sector. Clark Centennial Expo Scandal
    However, the momentum in the economic gains made under his administration was briefly interrupted during the onset of the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis.
    More Details Hide Details Nevertheless, during the last year of the term, the economy managed to make a rebound since it was not severely hit by the crisis as compared to other Asian economies. He also oversaw the Philippine Centennial Independence celebrations in 1998. Ramos has received numerous awards, and is the only Filipino to have received an honorary British order, having been made a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George by Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom in 1995. A member of the United Church of Christ in the Philippines, Ramos is notably the first and to date only Protestant president of the majority Roman Catholic country.
  • 1996
    Ramos, a military general himself, made peace with the rebel panels. He was instrumental in the signing of the final peace agreement between the government and the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) led by Nur Misuari in 1996.
    More Details Hide Details Although he battled Communist rebels as a young lieutenant in the 1950s, Ramos made a bold move when he signed into law Republic Act 7636, which repealed the Anti-Subversion Law. With its repeal, membership in the once-outlawed Communist Party of the Philippines became legal.
    In 1996 Ramos signed a bill that returned capital punishment with the electric chair (method used from 1923 to 1976, making Philippines the only country to do so outside U.S.) "until the gas chamber could be installed".
    More Details Hide Details However, no one was electrocuted nor gassed, because the previously used chair was destroyed earlier and the Philippines adopted the lethal injection. Some people were put to death by this means, until the death penalty was abolished again in 2006.
    To ensure a positive financial outlook on the Philippines, Ramos led the 4th Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Leaders' Summit in the Philippines on November 1996.
    More Details Hide Details Under his administration, the Philippines enjoyed economic growth and stability. The Philippine Stock Exchange in the mid-1990s was one of the best in the world and his visions of 'Philippines 2000' that led the country into a newly industrialized country in the world and the "Tiger Cub Economy in Asia". Philippines 2000 Five-Point Program: While campaigning for the presidency, Fidel Ramos declared his support for reinstating the death penalty. Capital punishment was abolished for all crimes in 1987, making the Philippines the first Asian country to do so.
  • 1995
    On the eve of his 67th birthday on March 17, 1995, Ramos was on a foreign trip when Flor Contemplación was hanged in Singapore.
    More Details Hide Details His last minute effort to negotiate with Singapore President Ong Teng Cheong and Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong never succeeded and Ramos' return home was marred with protests after his arrival in Manila. The protests also caused the resignation of Foreign Affairs Secretary Roberto Romulo and Labor Secretary Nieves Confesor from the Cabinet. He immediately recalled Philippine ambassador to Singapore Alicia Ramos and suspended diplomatic relations with Singapore. He created a special commission to look into the case which was in part an effort to try to rescue his sagging popularity. The commission was led by retired Supreme Court Justice Emilio Gancayco. As recommended by the Gancayco Commission, Ramos facilitated the enactment of Republic Act 8042, better known as the "Magna Carta for Overseas Workers" or more formally as the Migrant Workers Act. The Migrant Workers Act was signed into law on June 7, 1995. Learning from the lessons of Contemplación case, Ramos immediately ordered UAE Ambassador Roy Señeres to facilitate negotiations after learning of the death penalty verdict of Sarah Balabagan in September 1995. Balabagan's sentence was reduced and she was released August 1996. After tensions cooled off, Ramos restored diplomatic relations with Singapore after meeting Goh Chok Tong on the sidelines during the 50th anniversary of the United Nations in New York City.
  • 1993
    The Ramos government continued signing IPP contracts even after the power crisis had been considered solved by the end of 1993.
    More Details Hide Details The World Bank came up with a report in 1994 warning that power rates may rise if the government continued to enter into more IPP contracts that would mean excess power. The World Bank questioned the ambitious projections of the government on economic growth and power demand from 1994 to 1998. It also warned that the power generated by private utilities' IPPs could duplicate those of the National Power Corporation and create an overcapacity. The World Bank said that the factors create considerable uncertainty in power demand, like substantial overcapacity, particularly under take-or-pay conditions, would require considerable tariff increases that would be unpopular with the public. It was said that, presidents since Corazon Aquino catered mostly to the needs of big business for power and allowed the private sector to profit from this lucrative industry rather than craft an energy plan that would meet the needs of the Filipinos.
  • 1992
    Ramos, who was also hounded by charges of electoral fraud during the 1992 elections which were never proven in the Supreme Court, repeatedly stated that the scandal is nowhere as grave as that of People Power Revolutions of 1986 and 2001, citing factors such as the stagnant Philippine economy in the final years of the Marcos regime as well as the allegedly massive corruption of the Estrada administration.
    More Details Hide Details Ramos also unveiled his proposals for constitutional change of the country. Citing the need to be more economically competitive in the midst of globalization and the need to improve governance for all Filipinos, Ramos suggested that government should start the process of Charter Change with a set deadline in 2007 (by which time the new charter and new government would take effect). Ramos supports the transformation of the country's political system from the Philippine presidential-bicameral-system into a unicameral parliament in transition to a federal form. Ramos is currently representing the Philippines in the ASEAN Eminent Persons Group, tasked to draft the Charter of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). He was also a member of numerous international groups and fora, and is currently the Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Boao Forum for Asia (also one of the co-founders of BFA) and Co-Chairman of the Global Meeting of the Emerging Markets Forum (EMF).
    Mr. De Los Santos alleged that Libyan leader Muammar al-Qaddafi had channeled $200,000 (5 million pesos) to Ramos' 1992 election campaign.
    More Details Hide Details Ramos dismissed the claim as "hearsay by itself, and is further based on a string of successive hearsay conversations" and challenged anyone who believed the claim to produce evidence.
    During his State of the Nation address on July 27, 1992, he requested that the Congress enact a law that would create an Energy Department that would plan and manage the Philippines' energy demands.
    More Details Hide Details Congress not only created an Energy Department but gave him special emergency powers to resolve the power crisis. Using the powers given to him, Ramos issued licenses to independent power producers (IPP) to construct power plants within 24 months. Ramos issued supply contracts that guaranteed the government would buy whatever power the IPPs produced under the contract in U.S. dollars to entice investments in power plants. This became a problem during the East Asian Financial Crisis when the demand for electricity contracted and the Philippine peso lost half of its value. Ramos personally pushed for the speedy approval of some of the most expensive power deals, and justified signing more contracts despite warnings from within the government and the World Bank that an impending oversupply of electricity could push up prices, a situation that persists in the Philippines up to the present. Individuals linked to Ramos lobbied for the approval of some of the contracts for independent power producers (IPPs), which came with numerous other deals, including lucrative legal, technical, and financial consultancies that were given to individuals and companies close to the former president. Among the deals tied to IPP projects were insurance contracts in which companies made millions of dollars in commissions alone. All the IPP contracts came with attractive incentives and guarantees. Every contract was designed to give IPP creditors some degree of comfort in financing ventures that would usually involve huge capital and risks.
    He won the seven-way race on May 11, 1992, narrowly defeating popular Agrarian Reform Secretary Miriam Defensor Santiago. Despite winning, he garnered only 23.58% of the vote, the lowest plurality in the country's history. The election results were marred by allegations of fraud. These allegations were resurrected when Wikileaks, in September 2011, released US Embassy reports that Libyan ruler Muammar Gaddafi contributed Php5 million to finance Ramos’s campaign.
    More Details Hide Details Philippine election laws prohibit accepting contribution from foreigners. His running mate, Governor Osmeña, lost to Senator Joseph Estrada as Vice President. At the time of his assumption into power, Ramos was the oldest person to become President of the Philippines at the age of 64. He was also the first Protestant President of the country and the only Filipino officer in history to have held every rank in the Philippine military from Second Lieutenant to Commander-in-Chief. The first few years of his administration (1992–1995) were characterized by economic boom, technological development, political stability and efficient delivery of basic needs to the people. During his time, he advocated party platforms as outline and agenda for governance. As in his case, he was the first Christian Democrat to be elected in the country, being the founder of Lakas-CMD (Christian-Muslim Democrats Party). He was one of the most influential leaders and the unofficial spokesman of liberal democracy in Asia.
    It is during this assignment where he forged his lifelong friendship with his junior officer Maj. José T. Almonte, who went on to become his National Security Advisor throughout during his administration from 1992 to 1998.
    More Details Hide Details Ramos has received several military awards including the Philippine Legion of Honor, the Distinguished Conduct Star, Philippine Military Merit Medal, the United States Legion of Merit, the French Legion of Honor and the U.S. Military Academy Distinguished Graduate Award. During his stint at the Philippine Army, Ramos founded the Philippine Army Special Forces. And then, he was named to the commander of the Army's 3rd Division based in Cebu City, Cebu.
  • 1991
    In December 1991, Ramos declared his candidacy for President.
    More Details Hide Details However, he lost the nomination of the then-dominant party Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino (LDP) to House Speaker Ramon Mitra, Jr. Days later, he bolted from the party LDP and cried foul and founded his own party, the Partido Lakas Tao (People Power Party), inviting Cebu Governor Emilio Mario Osmeña to be his running mate as his Vice Presidential candidate. The party formed a coalition with the National Union of Christian Democrats (NUCD) of Senator Raul Manglapus and the United Muslim Democrats of the Philippines (UMDP) of Ambassador Sanchez Ali. Ramos and Osmeña, together with Congressman (later House Speaker) Jose de Venecia, campaigned for economic reforms and improved national security and unity.
  • 1987
    During his final years in office, Ramos tried to amend the country's 1987 constitution; a process popularly known to many Filipinos as Charter Change or the so-called "Cha-Cha".
    More Details Hide Details Widespread protests led by Corazon Aquino and the Catholic Church stopped him from pushing through with the plan. Political analysts were divided as to whether Ramos really wanted to use Cha-Cha to extend his presidency or only to imbalance his opponents, as the next presidential election neared.
  • 1986
    During the historic 1986 EDSA People Power Revolution, Ramos was hailed as a hero by many Filipinos for his decision to breakaway from the administration of President Ferdinand Marcos and pledge allegiance and loyalty to the newly established government of President Aquino.
    More Details Hide Details Under Ramos, the Philippines experienced a period of political stability and rapid economic growth and expansion, as a result of his policies and programs designed to foster national reconciliation and unity. Ramos was able to secure major peace agreements with Muslim separatists, communist insurgents and military rebels, which renewed investor confidence in the Philippine economy. Ramos also aggressively pushed for the deregulation of the nation's major industries and the privatization of bad government assets. As a result of his hands-on approach to the economy, the Philippines was dubbed by various internationally as Asia's Next Economic Tiger.
    Prior to his election as President, Ramos served in the Cabinet of President Corazón Aquino, first as chief-of-staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP), chief of Integrated National Police, and later on, as Secretary of National Defense from 1986 to 1991.
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  • 1983
    When Ver was implicated in the 21 August 1983 assassination of former opposition Senator Benigno Aquino, Jr., Ramos became Acting AFP Chief of Staff until Ver's reinstatement in 1985 after he was acquitted of charges related to the killing. Ramos at this time also formed the Special Action Force of the Philippine Constabulary to deal with terrorist-related crimes. On 22 February 1986, Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile protested alleged fraud committed by Marcos in the 1986 snap elections, withdrawing support and triggering the non-violent People Power Revolution.
    More Details Hide Details General Ramos later also defected and followed Enrile into Camp Crame, and the duo shifted their fealty to Corazón Aquino, the widow of Senator Aquino and Marcos' main election rival. On 25 February, the "EDSA Revolution" reached its peak when Marcos, along with his family and some supporters, fled into exile in Hawaii with the assistance of the United States government, ending his 20-year rule, leaving Aquino to accede as the country's first female President. When belittled by the press regarding his combat record, Ramos responded with trademark sarcasm (July 31, 1987): I fought the communists as part of the battalion combat teams, I went up the ladder. Battalion staff officer. Company commander. Task Force commander. Special Forces group commander. Brigade commander. All in different periods in our country. Huk campaign. Korean War campaign. The Vietnam War, and I was the head of the advance party of the PHILCAG (Philippine Civil Action Group to Vietnam) that went to a tiny province at the Cambodian border – the so-called Alligator Jaw – War Zone Z where even Max Soliven said ‘The Viet-Cong will eat us up.’ Of course, we were physically there as non-combat troops. But you try to be a non-combat troop in a combat area – that is the toughest kind of assignment.
    On 8 August 1983, during a speech in Camp Crame to commemorate Philippine Constabulary Day, Marcos announced his removal of Defense Secretary Juan Ponce Enrile from the chain of command, and the creation of a new arrangement with himself as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces until AFP Chief of Staff Ver.
    More Details Hide Details Marcos also removed the operational control of the Integrated National Police from the Philippine Constabulary under Ramos and transferred it under direct control of Ver; the Constabulary then had only administrative supervision over the INP.
  • 1982
    Thus, Ramos, Marcos' cousin was named AFP Vice-Chief of staff in 1982, became the military's second most powerful official after Ver and receiving the rank of three-star general.
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  • 1981
    Due to his accomplishments, Ramos became one of the candidates to become the new chief of staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines in 1981, to replace retiring General Romeo Espino. longest Martial law, chief of staff.
    More Details Hide Details However, Marcos instead opted and appointed his trusted military officer, General Fabian Ver, a graduate of the University of the Philippines, into the top military post.
  • 1972
    Ramos headed the Philippine Constabulary, then a major service branch of the Armed Forces, that acted as the country's national police until 1972, when Ferdinand Marcos imposed Martial Law.
    More Details Hide Details Ramos is held responsible by some (see below) for human rights abuses committed under Martial Law as head of the Philippine Constabulary chief; his supporters claim he initiated measures to ensure that the rights of the political detainees were protected and respected. He would also build the fighting capabilities of the PC. In 1975, all civic and municipal police forces in the country were integrated by decree, and it became known as the Integrated National Police (INP), which was under the control and supervision of the Constabulary. As head of the PC, Ramos was ex officio the INP's first concurrent Director-General. Martial Law was formally lifted nine years later on 17 January 1981, but Marcos retained absolute powers.
  • 1954
    He married Amelita Martinez on 21 October 1954, and together they have five daughters: Angelita Ramos-Jones, Josephine Ramos-Samartino, Carolina Ramos-Sembrano, Cristina Ramos-Jalasco and Gloria Ramos.
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  • 1950
    Ramos went to the United States Military Academy at West Point, and he graduated in 1950.
    More Details Hide Details Ramos, along with the Philippines' 20th Battalion Combat Team and his fellow West Point graduates of the 1950s, fought in the Korean War. Ramos was one of the heroes of the Battle of Hill Eerie, where he led his platoon to sabotage the enemy in Hill Eerie. He was also present in the Vietnam War as a non-combat civil military engineer and commanding officer of the Philippine Civil Action Group (PHILCAG).
  • 1928
    Fidel Ramos was born on March 18, 1928 in Lingayen, Pangasinan.
    More Details Hide Details His father, Narciso Ramos (1900–1986), was a lawyer, journalist and five-term legislator of the House of Representatives, who eventually rose to the position of Secretary of Foreign Affairs. As such, Narciso Ramos was the Philippine signatory to the ASEAN declaration forged in Bangkok in 1967, and was a founding member of the Liberal Party. His mother, Angela Valdez (1905–1977), was an educator, woman suffragette and member of the respected Valdez clan of Batac, Ilocos Norte, making him a second degree cousin to President Ferdinand E. Marcos. Ramos received secondary education at the University of the Philippines High School in the City of Manila. Afterwards he went to the United States and he graduated from the United States Military Academy, with Bachelor of Science and the University of Illinois, with a master's degree in civil engineering. He also holds a master's degree in National Security Administration from the National Defense College of the Philippines and a Master's degree in Business Administration from Ateneo de Manila University.
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