Francisco de Miranda
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Francisco de Miranda

Revolutionary
Male
Born Mar 28, 1750

Sebastián Francisco de Miranda Rodríguez, commonly known as Francisco de Miranda, was a Venezuelan revolutionary. Although his own plans for the independence of the Spanish American colonies failed, he is regarded as a forerunner of Simón Bolívar, who during the Spanish American wars of independence successfully liberated a vast portion of South America. Miranda led a romantic and adventurous life.… Read More

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CHILDHOOD

1750 Birth Miranda was born in Caracas, Venezuela Province, in the Spanish colonial Viceroyalty of New Granada, and baptized on April 5, 1750. … Read More

TEENAGE

1762 12 Years Old On January 10, 1762, Miranda began his studies at the Royal and Pontifical University of Caracas, where he studied Latin, the early grammar of Nebrija, and the Catechism of Ripalda for two years.
1764 14 Years Old 1 More Event
Miranda completed this preliminary course in September 1764 and became an upperclassman.
In June 1767, Miranda received his baccalaureate degree in the Humanities.
1769 19 Years Old In 1769, Sebastian produced a notarized genealogy to prove that his family had no African ancestors. … Read More

TWENTIES

1770 20 Years Old In 1770, Sebastian won his family's rights through an official royal patent, signed by Charles III, which confirmed Sebastian's title and societal standing. … Read More
After the court victory of his father, Miranda decided to pursue a new life in Spain, and, on January 25, 1771, Miranda left Caracas from the port of La Guaira for Cadiz, Spain, on a Swedish frigate, the Prince Frederick.
1773 23 Years Old In January 1773, Miranda's father transferred 85,000 reales vellon (silver coins), to help his son obtain the position of captain in the Princess's Regiment.
1774 24 Years Old 1 More Event
During his first year as a captain, Miranda traveled with his regiment mainly in North Africa and the southern Spanish province of Andalusia. In December 1774, Spain declared War with Morocco, and Miranda experienced his first combat during the conflict.
1779 29 Years Old The Spanish captain general of Louisiana, Bernardo de Gálvez, in 1779 attacked the British at Baton Rouge and Natchez, freeing the Mississippi River basin of hostile forces that could threaten its capital, New Orleans.

THIRTIES

1780 30 Years Old Spanish forces had begun moving against the British, and Miranda was ordered to report to the Regiment of Aragon, which sailed from Cadiz in spring of 1780 under Victoriano de Navia's command. … Read More
From their headquarters in Cuba, de Cagigal and Miranda participated in the Siege of Fort Pensacola on May 9, 1781, and Miranda was awarded the temporary title of lieutenant colonel during this action. … Read More
1782 - 1783 2 More Events
1785 35 Years Old However, the Spanish ambassador had secretly intrigued to have Miranda arrested when he reached Calais, France, where he could be handed over to Spain. The plan fell apart because the Venezuelan and his friend went on 10 August 1785 to a Dutch port (Hellevoetsluis) instead. … Read More
1789 39 Years Old Attempts to abduct Miranda by the diplomatic representatives of Spain failed as the Russian Ambassador in London, Semyon Vorontsov, declared on August 4, 1789, to the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Francis Osborne, 5th Duke of Leeds, that Miranda, although a Spanish subject, was a member of the Russian diplomatic mission in London. … Read More

FORTIES

1790 40 Years Old Miranda made use of the Spanish - British diplomatic row known as the Nootka Crisis in February 1790 to present to some British Cabinet ministers his ideas about the independence of Spanish territories in South America.
1791 41 Years Old Starting in 1791, Miranda took an active part in the French Revolution as marechal de camp.
1792 42 Years Old In Paris, he befriended the Girondists Jacques Pierre Brissot and Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve, and he briefly served as a general in the section of the French Revolutionary Army commanded by Charles François Dumouriez, fighting in the 1792 campaign of Valmy.
1793 43 Years Old 1 More Event
The Army of the North commanded by Miranda laid siege to Antwerp. Miranda failed to take Maastricht in February 1793 and was first arrested in April 1793 on the orders of Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville, Chief Prosecutor of the Revolution, and accused of conspiring against the republic with Charles François Dumouriez, the renegade general. … Read More
1794 44 Years Old 1 More Event
Miranda seems to have survived by a combination of good luck and political expediency: the revolutionary government simply could not agree on what to do with him. He remained in La Force even after the fall of Robespierre in July 1794, and was not finally released until January of the following year. … Read More
1797 47 Years Old He reappeared after being given permission to remain in France, though that did not stop his involvement in yet another monarchist plot in September 1797. … Read More
1798 48 Years Old With no more illusions about France or the Revolution, he left for England in a Danish boat, arriving in Dover in January 1798.

FIFTIES

1804 54 Years Old With informal British help, Miranda led an attempted invasion of the Captaincy General of Venezuela in 1804. … Read More
1805 55 Years Old In November 1805, Miranda travelled to New York, where he rekindled his acquaintance with William S. Smith, who introduced him to merchant Samuel Ogden (both would later be tried, but acquitted, for helping organize Miranda's expedition).
1806 56 Years Old Miranda hired a ship of 20 guns from Ogden, which he rebaptized Leander in honor of his oldest son, and set sail to Venezuela on 2 February 1806. … Read More
1808 58 Years Old …  In 1808 a large military force to attack Venezuela was assembled and placed under the command of Arthur Wellesley, but Napoleon's invasion of Spain suddenly transformed Spain into an ally of Britain, and the force instead went there to fight in the Peninsular War. … Read More

LATE ADULTHOOD

1811 61 Years Old In 1811 a delegation from the Supreme Junta, among them Bolívar, and a crowd of common people enthusiastically received Miranda in La Guaira. … Read More
1812 62 Years Old …  He started negotiations with royalists that finalized an armistice on July 25, 1812, signed in San Mateo. … Read More
1816 66 Years Old Miranda never saw freedom again. His case was still being processed when he died in a prison cell at the Penal de las Cuatro Torres at the Arsenal de la Carraca, outside Cádiz, aged 66, on July 14, 1816. … Read More
Original Authors of this text are noted on http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francisco_de_Miranda.
Text is made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.