Francisco Franco

Dictator and Head of State of Spain
Born Dec 4, 1892

Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was a Spanish dictator, the leader of the Nationalist military rebellion during the Spanish Civil War, and the authoritarian head of state of Spain from 1939 to his death in November 1975. He came to power while recognizing the principles of the far-right Falange movement, although this was for propaganda reasons, as he belonged to no political party before becoming Head of State.… Read More

related links

News + Updates

Browse recent news and stories about Francisco Franco.


Learn about the memorable moments in the evolution of Francisco Franco.


1892 Birth Franco was born at half past noon on December 4, 1892, at 108 Calle Frutos Saavedra in Ferrol, Galicia. … Read More


1906 13 Years Old Francisco was to follow his father into the Navy, but as a result of the Spanish–American War the country lost much of its navy as well as most of its colonies. Not needing any more officers, the Naval Academy admitted no new entrants from 1906 to 1913. … Read More
1907 14 Years Old In 1907, he entered the Infantry Academy in Toledo, graduating in 1910 as a lieutenant. … Read More


1913 20 Years Old In 1913, Franco transferred into the newly formed regulares: Moroccan colonial troops with Spanish officers, who acted as shock troops. … Read More
1916 23 Years Old In 1916, aged 23 and already a captain, he was shot by enemy machine gun fire. … Read More
1917 24 Years Old 1 More Event
With that he was promoted to major at the end of February 1917. … Read More


1923 - 1926 3 More Events
1928 35 Years Old In 1928 Franco was appointed director of the newly created General Military Academy of Zaragoza, a new college for all army cadets, replacing the former separate institutions for young men seeking to become officers in infantry, cavalry, artillery, and other branches of the army.
1931 38 Years Old 1 More Event
Franco was removed as Director of the Zaragoza Military Academy in 1931; about 95% of his former Zaragoza cadets later came to side with him in the Civil War.
1932 39 Years Old On February 5, 1932, he was given a command in A Coruña. … Read More


1933 40 Years Old As a side result of Azaña's military reform, in January 1933, Franco was relegated from the first to the 24th in the list of brigadiers; the same year, on February 17, he was given the military command of the Balearic Islands: a post above his rank, but Franco was still angered that he was purposely stuck in the positions he didn't want to be, and this was quite common for the Conservative Officers to be moved or demoted. … Read More
1935 42 Years Old …  Some time after these events, Franco was briefly commander-in-chief of the Army of Africa (from February 15 onwards), and from May 19, 1935, on, Chief of the General Staff. … Read More
Outwardly Franco maintained an ambiguous attitude almost until July. On June 23, 1936, he wrote to the head of the government, Casares Quiroga, offering to quell the discontent in the Spanish Republican Army, but received no reply. … Read More
1937 44 Years Old 1 More Event
From 1937 to 1948 the Franco regime was doctrinally at least a semi-fascist state, the categorical fascism of the FET (Falange Española Tradicionalista) as state party being mitigated above all by the confessional nature of the regime—creating the strange hybrid known to some as clerical fascism and to Amando de Miguel as "fascismo frailuno" (friar fascism).
In 1939 the fascist style heavily predominated, with ritualistic invocations of "Franco, Franco, Franco." … Read More
The 1940 shooting of the president of the Catalan government, Lluís Companys, was one of the most notable cases of this early suppression of opponents and dissenters. According to Gabriel Jackson, the number of victims of the "White Terror" (executions and hunger or illness in prisons) only between 1939 and 1943 was 200,000. … Read More
According to Franco's own autobiography, he also met privately with Mussolini in Bordighera, Italy on February 12, 1941 at Hitler's request. … Read More


1947 54 Years Old In 1947 Franco proclaimed Spain a monarchy, but did not designate a monarch. … Read More


1953 - 1968 4 More Events
1969 76 Years Old 1 More Event
Under Franco, Spain also pursued a campaign to force a negotiation on the British overseas territory of Gibraltar, and closed its border with that territory in 1969. … Read More
1973 80 Years Old By 1973 Franco had surrendered the function of prime minister (Presidente del Gobierno), remaining only as head of state and commander in chief of the military. … Read More
1974 81 Years Old On July 19, 1974, the aged Franco fell ill from various health problems, and Juan Carlos took over as Acting Head of State. … Read More
…  By the time of Franco's death in 1975, Spain still lagged behind most of Western Europe but the gap between its per capita GDP and that of the leading Western European countries had narrowed greatly, and the country had developed a large industrialised economy. … Read More
Original Authors of this text are noted on
Text is made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.