Francisco de Miranda
Venezuelan revolutionary
Francisco de Miranda
Sebastián Francisco de Miranda Rodríguez, commonly known as Francisco de Miranda, was a Venezuelan revolutionary. Although his own plans for the independence of the Spanish American colonies failed, he is regarded as a forerunner of Simón Bolívar, who during the Spanish American wars of independence successfully liberated a vast portion of South America. Miranda led a romantic and adventurous life.
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Francisco de Miranda's personal information overview.
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Regreso merenguero - El Diario de Hoy
Google News - over 5 years
FOTO EDH /nelson dueñas El músico salvadoreño Francisco Miranda, quien reside en Virgina, EE. UU., ha regresado a su tierra natal para promocionar sus nuevas canciones, las cuales ya están sonando en algunas emisoras cuscatlecas
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Hometown Happenings 0827-28 - Tbo.com
Google News - over 5 years
Guest speaker will be Francisco Miranda of Miranda Orchids. He specializes in Brazilian orchids. Complimentary refreshments will be served. Guests are welcome to attend. For information, call Linda Roderick at (352) 597-3736
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Francisco de Miranda y las Cortes de Cádiz - Qué.es
Google News - over 5 years
Ironía de la historia es que Cádiz haya representado a la vez el nacimiento del constitucionalismo liberal español y el fin de Francisco de Miranda, el precursor de lo mismo en Hispanoamérica. Su suelo había sido el primero de Europa que pisó el
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Laura de Castro - Tribuna de Toledo
Google News - over 5 years
El encuentro internacional de artistas NEXO, organizado por el Círculo de Arte y celebrado en Toledo a lo largo de la semana, colabora desde hace años con la institución educativa Francisco Miranda, un centro de enseñanza colombiano que desde Medellín
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Acedo gana dos nuevos liberados - Hoy Digital
Google News - over 5 years
En cuanto al resto de cambios, Acedo ha decidido repartir la dedicación exclusiva de Valdés entre dos semiliberados que ya habían demostrado su disposición a trabajar por el Consistorio, Juan Carlos Perdigón y Francisco Miranda
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Six area doctors join Christus Spohn - Corpus Christi Caller Times
Google News - over 5 years
They include family practice physicians Dr. Frank Dehnisch, Dr. Karole Beasley and Dr. Juan Schiavone, pediatrician Dr. Francisco Miranda, general practitioner Dr. Arthur Chin and nephrologist Dr. Oscar Iznaola. Matt Bochat, the Christus Spohn Medical
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Revolutionary Vignettes. Part 2: Venezuelan Workers' Councils Sabotaged by ... - Venezuelanalysis.com
Google News - over 5 years
One of the most scandalous cases is the harassment against the promoters of the Socialist Workers' Councils at Fundacomunal, a newly established institution, mainly staffed by people coming from the Frente Francisco Miranda revolutionary youth
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Venezuela to have new island territory - The Voice of Russia
Google News - over 5 years
... country`s President Hugo Chavez said addressing the nation on TV. Chavez said the territory was named after Venezuelan hero Francisco Miranda and it is a tribute to him on the occasion of the day where the Venezuelan flag was waved for the first time
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Muy pocos aragüeños conocen que este miércoles es el Día de la Bandera - El Periodiquito
Google News - over 5 years
El Día de la Bandera se celebra el 3 de agosto como fiesta nacional en Venezuela, siendo oficializado en el 2006 en conmemoración del primer izado de la propuesta que hizo el prócer Francisco Miranda en territorio venezolano
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Prevén sustituir 179 mil bombillos incandescentes por ahorradores en Mérida - Correo del Orinoco
Google News - over 5 years
... diariamente se están sustituyendo unos 5 mil bombillos, los cuales están siendo instalados por integrantes del Frente Francisco Miranda, Misión Madres del Barrio, el Partido Socialista Unido de Venezuela (Psuv) y los voceros de consejos comunales
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Francisco de Miranda. La aventura de la política - El País.com (España)
Google News - over 5 years
Ensayo. España ha sido una gran fabricante de revolucionarios en contra de sí misma. Francisco de Miranda, el precursor de las independencias latinoamericanas, es un excelente ejemplo de ello. Como se aprecia en la documentada pero sucinta biografía
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Busca el Cobat profesionalizar a sus docentes - E- Consulta
Google News - over 5 years
Con las conferencias magistrales de Juan Antonio García Fraile, Luis Ernesto Derbéz y Francisco Miranda, el Subsistema Colegio de Bachilleres del Estado (COBAT) da inició el próximo 18 de julio las Jornadas Académicas donde habrán de profesionalizarse
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Introducen drenaje en calle Francisco Miranda de colonia Lázaro Cárdenas - Sabinas Hidalgo .net
Google News - over 5 years
El alcalde de Sabinas Hidalgo, Raúl Mireles Garza, dedicó el sábado a recorrer y supervisar obra pública en proceso en el municipio, entre las cuales se encontraba la introducción del servicio de drenaje sanitario en la calle Francisco Miranda en la
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Nexo Miranda cambia imaginarios - El Colombiano
Google News - over 5 years
EL PROYECTO DE la Institución Educativa Francisco Miranda ofrece posibilidades de ver el mundo de otra manera a través del arte. Factor de cambio en Moravia. Michel Dayana Orozco solo muestra sus dientes blancos y amontonados en su boca, en una grande
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Cosechadas más de 100 kilos de semillas en el Parque Francisco de Miranda - Correo del Orinoco
Google News - over 5 years
Más de 100 kilos de semillas fueron cosechadas por estudiantes de básica de la parroquia La Vega, en Caracas, durante una jornada de recolección efectuada en el parque recreacional Generalísimo Francisco de Miranda, ubicado en el área metropolitana de
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Celebran 200 años de la Promulgación de Francisco de Miranda como Diputado - Correo del Orinoco
Google News - over 5 years
Desde el Pao, Barcelona, en el estado Anzoátegui, se celebra este lunes los 200 años de la Promulgación del Generalísimo Francisco de Miranda, como diputado al Congreso Nacional de la República en 1.811. Durante el evento, el diputado por el Partido
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South River High School graduates Class of 2011 - MyCentralJersey.com
Google News - over 5 years
... Snezhana Marach, Angelica M. Marques, Jonny Marques, Michael Dias Martins, Christopher John Mazurek, Jr., Danesha Annastasia McDonald Kettle, Joseph Robert McKiernan, Christian B. Medrano, Katharina B. Miguel, Francisco Miranda, Jessica N. Miranda,
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Honor roll: Camp Hill Middle School, third marking period - Patriot-News
Google News - over 5 years
... Tessa Eberlein, Madison Finney, Kara Getty, Ashley Groff, Dalton Hill, Brandon Johnson, Sander Kupfer, Kassidy Legge, Francisco Miranda, Hinkal Patel, Keanna Qarooni, Noah Resuta, Emma Rhinehart, Nikolas Rosson, Carissa Rovito, Matthew Schoonhoven,
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Francisco de Miranda
    LATE_ADULTHOOD
  • 1816
    Age 65
    Miranda never saw freedom again. His case was still being processed when he died in a prison cell at the Penal de las Cuatro Torres at the Arsenal de la Carraca, outside Cádiz, aged 66, on July 14, 1816.
    More Details Hide Details He was buried in a mass grave, making it impossible to identify his remains, so an empty tomb has been left for him in the National Pantheon of Venezuela. Miranda has long been associated with the struggle of the Spanish colonies in Latin America for independence. He envisioned an independent empire consisting of all the territories that had been under Spanish and Portuguese rule, stretching from the Mississippi River to Cape Horn. This empire was to be under the leadership of a hereditary emperor called the "Inca", in honor of the great Inca Empire, and would have a bicameral legislature. He conceived the name Colombia for this empire, after the explorer Christopher Columbus. Similarly to some others in the history of American Independence (George Washington, Benito Juárez, José de San Martín, Bernardo O'Higgins and Simón Bolívar), Miranda was a Freemason. In London he founded the lodge "The Great American Reunion".
  • 1812
    Age 61
    He started negotiations with royalists that finalized an armistice on July 25, 1812, signed in San Mateo.
    More Details Hide Details Then Colonel Bolívar and other revolutionary officers claimed his actions as treasonous. Bolívar and others arrested Miranda and handed him over to the Spanish Royal Army in La Guaira port. For his apparent services to the royalist cause, Monteverde granted Bolívar a passport, and Bolívar left for Curaçao on 27 August. Miranda went to the port of La Guaira intending to leave on a British ship before the royalists arrived, although under the armistice there was an amnesty for political offenses. Bolívar claimed afterwards that he wanted to shoot Miranda as a traitor but was restrained by the others; Bolívar's reasoning was that, "if Miranda believed the Spaniards would observe the treaty, he should have remained to keep them to their word; if he did not, he was a traitor to have sacrificed his army to it." Ironically, it was by handing over Miranda to the Spanish that Bolívar assured himself a passport from the Spanish authorities (passports which, nevertheless, had been guaranteed to all republicans who requested them by the terms of the armistice), which allowed him to leave Venezuela unmolested, and Miranda thought that the situation was hopeless.
  • 1811
    Age 60
    In 1811 a delegation from the Supreme Junta, among them Bolívar, and a crowd of common people enthusiastically received Miranda in La Guaira.
    More Details Hide Details In Caracas he agitated for the provisional government to declare independence from Spain under the rule of Joseph Bonaparte. Miranda gathered around him a group of similarly minded individuals and helped establish an association, la Sociedad Patriotica, modeled on the political clubs of the French Revolution. By the end of the year, the Venezuelan provinces elected a congress to deal with the future of the country, and Miranda was chosen as the delegate from El Pao, Barcelona Province. On July 5, 1811, it formally declared Venezuelan independence and established a republic. The congress also adopted his tricolor as the Republic's flag. The following year Miranda and the young Republic's fortunes turned. Republican forces failed to subdue areas of Venezuela (the provinces of Coro, Maracaibo and Guyana) that had remained royalist. In addition, Venezuela's loss of the Spanish market for its main export, cocoa, caused an economic crisis, which mostly hurt the middle and lower classes, who lost enthusiasm for the Republic. Finally a powerful earthquake and its aftershocks hit the country, which caused large numbers of deaths and serious damage to buildings, mostly in republican areas.
  • FIFTIES
  • 1808
    Age 57
    In 1808 a large military force to attack Venezuela was assembled and placed under the command of Arthur Wellesley, but Napoleon's invasion of Spain suddenly transformed Spain into an ally of Britain, and the force instead went there to fight in the Peninsular War.
    More Details Hide Details Venezuela achieved de facto independence on Maundy Thursday April 19, 1810, when the Supreme Junta of Caracas was established and the colonial administrators deposed. The Junta sent a delegation to Great Britain to get British recognition and aid. This delegation, which included future Venezuelan notables Simón Bolívar and Andrés Bello, met with and persuaded Miranda to return to his native land.
  • 1806
    Age 55
    Miranda hired a ship of 20 guns from Ogden, which he rebaptized Leander in honor of his oldest son, and set sail to Venezuela on 2 February 1806.
    More Details Hide Details In Jacmel, Haiti, Miranda acquired two other ships, the Bee and the Bacchus, and their crews. It was in Jacmel on March 12 that Miranda made and raised on the Leander, the first Venezuelan flag, which he had personally designed. On April 28, a botched landing attempt in Ocumare de la Costa resulted in two Spanish garda costas, Argos and Celoso, capturing the Bacchus and the Bee. Sixty men were imprisoned and put on trial in Puerto Cabello, and ten were sentenced to death. Only the Leander escaped, escorted by the packet ship HMS Lilly to the British islands of Grenada and Barbados, where Miranda met with Admiral Alexander Cochrane. As Spain was then at war with Britain, Cochrane and the governor of Trinidad agreed to provide some support for a second attempt to invade Venezuela. The Leander left Port of Spain on 24 July, together with HMS, HMS, HMS, and HMS Lilly, carrying General Miranda and some 220 officers and men. General Miranda decided to land in La Vela de Coro and the squadron anchored there on 1 August. The next day the frigate HMS joined them for three days. On 3 August, 60 Trinidadian volunteers under the Count de Rouveray, 60 men under Colonel Dowie, and 30 seamen and marines from HMS Lilly under Lieutenant Beddingfelt landed. This force cleared the beach of Spanish forces and captured a battery of four 9- and 12-pounder guns; the attackers had four men severely wounded, all from HMS Lilly.
  • 1805
    Age 54
    In November 1805, Miranda travelled to New York, where he rekindled his acquaintance with William S. Smith, who introduced him to merchant Samuel Ogden (both would later be tried, but acquitted, for helping organize Miranda's expedition).
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  • 1804
    Age 53
    With informal British help, Miranda led an attempted invasion of the Captaincy General of Venezuela in 1804.
    More Details Hide Details At the time, Britain was at war with Spain, an ally of Napoleon.
  • FORTIES
  • 1798
    Age 47
    With no more illusions about France or the Revolution, he left for England in a Danish boat, arriving in Dover in January 1798.
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  • 1797
    Age 46
    He reappeared after being given permission to remain in France, though that did not stop his involvement in yet another monarchist plot in September 1797.
    More Details Hide Details The police were ordered to arrest the "Peruvian general", as the said general submerged himself yet again in the underground.
  • 1794
    Age 43
    Miranda then went to Washington for private meetings with President Thomas Jefferson and Secretary of State James Madison, who met with Miranda but did not involve themselves or their nation in his plans, which would have been a violation of the Neutrality Act of 1794.
    More Details Hide Details In New York Miranda privately began organizing a filibustering expedition to liberate Venezuela. Among the 200 volunteers who served under him in this revolt were Smith's son William Steuben and David G. Burnet, who would later serve as interim president of the Republic of Texas after its secession from Mexico in 1836.
    Miranda seems to have survived by a combination of good luck and political expediency: the revolutionary government simply could not agree on what to do with him. He remained in La Force even after the fall of Robespierre in July 1794, and was not finally released until January of the following year.
    More Details Hide Details The art theorist Quatremère de Quincy was among those who campaigned for his release during this time. Now convinced that the whole direction taken by the Revolution had been wrong, he started to conspire with the moderate royalists against the Directory, and was even named as the possible leader of a military coup. He was arrested and ordered out of the country, only to escape and go into hiding.
  • 1793
    Age 42
    However, Marat denounced Chauveau-Lagarde as a liberator of the guilty. Even so, the campaign of Marat and the rest of the Jacobins against him did not weaken. He was arrested again in July 1793 and incarcerated in La Force prison, effectively one of the ante-chambers of death during the prevailing Reign of Terror.
    More Details Hide Details Appearing again before the tribunal, he accused the Committee of Public Safety of tyranny in disregarding his previous acquittal.
    The Army of the North commanded by Miranda laid siege to Antwerp. Miranda failed to take Maastricht in February 1793 and was first arrested in April 1793 on the orders of Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville, Chief Prosecutor of the Revolution, and accused of conspiring against the republic with Charles François Dumouriez, the renegade general.
    More Details Hide Details Though indicted before the Revolutionary Tribunal – and under attack in Jean-Paul Marat's L'Ami du peuple – he and his lawyer Claude François Chauveau-Lagarde conducted his defence with such calm eloquence that he was declared innocent.
  • 1792
    Age 41
    In Paris, he befriended the Girondists Jacques Pierre Brissot and Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve, and he briefly served as a general in the section of the French Revolutionary Army commanded by Charles François Dumouriez, fighting in the 1792 campaign of Valmy.
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  • 1791
    Age 40
    Starting in 1791, Miranda took an active part in the French Revolution as marechal de camp.
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  • THIRTIES
  • 1790
    Age 39
    Miranda made use of the Spanish - British diplomatic row known as the Nootka Crisis in February 1790 to present to some British Cabinet ministers his ideas about the independence of Spanish territories in South America.
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  • 1789
    Age 38
    Attempts to abduct Miranda by the diplomatic representatives of Spain failed as the Russian Ambassador in London, Semyon Vorontsov, declared on August 4, 1789, to the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Francis Osborne, 5th Duke of Leeds, that Miranda, although a Spanish subject, was a member of the Russian diplomatic mission in London.
    More Details Hide Details In Russia, he used the surname Meeroff and he left several children who later emigrated to the United States and Argentina.
  • 1785
    Age 34
    However, the Spanish ambassador had secretly intrigued to have Miranda arrested when he reached Calais, France, where he could be handed over to Spain. The plan fell apart because the Venezuelan and his friend went on 10 August 1785 to a Dutch port (Hellevoetsluis) instead.
    More Details Hide Details Miranda then travelled throughout Europe, including present-day Belgium, Germany, Austria, Hungary, Poland, Greece and Italy, where he remained for over a year. After passing through Constantinople, he visited the court of Catherine the Great, which had moved at that time from Moscow to Kiev (current Ukraine). In Hungary he stayed in the palace of Prince Nicholas Esterházy, who was sympathetic to his ideas, and wrote him a letter of recommendation to meet the musician Joseph Haydn.
  • 1783
    Age 32
    With the support of Cagigal, he escaped the surveillance of the Governor of Havana, and, aided by American James Seagrove who arranged the trip, he fled to New Bern, where he landed on July 10, 1783.
    More Details Hide Details During his time in the United States, Miranda made a critical study of its military defenses, which demonstrated extensive knowledge of the development of American conflict and circumstances. While there, Miranda prepared and fixed a correspondence technique, used for the rest of his journey: he would meet people through the gift or loan of books, and examine the culture and customs of the places through which he passed in a methodical way. Passing through Charleston, Philadelphia, and Boston, he dealt with different characters in American society. In New York City he met the prominent and politically connected Livingston family. Apparently Miranda had a romantic relationship with Susan Livingston, daughter of Chancellor Livingston. Although Miranda wrote to her for years, he never saw her again after leaving New York. During his time in the United States, Miranda met with many important people. He was personally acquainted with George Washington in Philadelphia. He also met General Henry Knox, Thomas Paine, Alexander Hamilton, Samuel Adams, and Thomas Jefferson. He also visited various institutions of the new nation that impressed him such as the Library of Newport and Princeton College, Rhode Island College and Cambridge College.
  • 1782
    Age 31
    The order to send Miranda back to Spain pursuant to the judgment of February 5, 1782, of the Supreme Inquisition Council failed to be met due to various faults of form and substance in the administrative process that caused the order to be questioned and, in part, by Cagigal's unconditional support of Miranda.
    More Details Hide Details Miranda participated in the Capture of The Bahamas and carried news of the island's fall to his superior Bernardo de Gálvez. Gálvez was angry that the Bahamas expedition had gone ahead without his permission, and he imprisoned Cajigal and had Miranda arrested. Miranda was later released, but this experience of Spanish officialdom may have been a factor in his subsequent conversion to the idea of independence for Spain's American colonies. The efficiency demonstrated by Miranda in the Bahamas led Cagigal to recommend that Miranda be promoted to colonel under the command of the General Commander of the Spanish forces in Cuba, Bernardo de Gálvez, in the town of Guárico. At that time, the Spaniards were preparing a joint action with the French to invade Jamaica, the last British stronghold in the Gulf of Mexico, and Guárico was the ideal place to plan these operations, being close to the island and providing easy access for troops and commanders. Miranda was seen as the right person to plan operations because he had a firsthand knowledge of the situation of the British in the area. However, a preemptive attack by the British and the difficulties of the French fleet forced peace between Britain and France, so the invasion did not materialize and Miranda remained in Guárico.
  • 1781
    Age 30
    Miranda managed to perform a successful reconnaissance mission and also negotiated an agreement dated November 18, 1781, that regulated the exchange of Spanish prisoners.
    More Details Hide Details However, Miranda also entered into a deal with a British merchant, Philip Allwood. Miranda agreed to use the ships he had secured from the British to transport Allwood's goods back to Spain to sell them. Upon his return, Miranda was charged with being a spy and smuggler of British goods.
    Miranda remained prominent while in Pensacola, and in August 1781, Cagigal secretly sent Miranda to Jamaica to arrange for the release of 900 prisoners, see to their immediate needs, and acquire English ships for the Spanish Navy.
    More Details Hide Details Miranda was also asked to perform espionage work while staying with his British hosts.
    From their headquarters in Cuba, de Cagigal and Miranda participated in the Siege of Fort Pensacola on May 9, 1781, and Miranda was awarded the temporary title of lieutenant colonel during this action.
    More Details Hide Details Miranda also contributed to the French success of a naval battle at the Chesapeake Bay when he helped the Count de Grasse raise needed funds and supplies.
  • TWENTIES
  • 1780
    Age 29
    Spanish forces had begun moving against the British, and Miranda was ordered to report to the Regiment of Aragon, which sailed from Cadiz in spring of 1780 under Victoriano de Navia's command.
    More Details Hide Details Miranda reported to his chief, General Juan Manuel Cagigal y Monserrat, in Havana, Cuba.
  • 1779
    Age 28
    The Spanish captain general of Louisiana, Bernardo de Gálvez, in 1779 attacked the British at Baton Rouge and Natchez, freeing the Mississippi River basin of hostile forces that could threaten its capital, New Orleans.
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  • 1774
    Age 23
    While Miranda was assigned to guard the stations of an unwanted colonial presence in North Africa, he began to draw connections to the similar colonial presence in Spanish South America. His first military feat took place during the siege of Melilla, held from December 9, 1774, to March 19, 1775, in which the Spanish forces managed to repel the Sultan of Morocco Mohammed ben Abdallah.
    More Details Hide Details However, despite the actions taken and danger faced, Miranda did not get an award or promotion and was assigned to the garrison of Cadiz. Despite Miranda's success in the military, he faced many disciplinary complaints, ranging from complaints that he spent too much time reading, to financial discrepancies, to the most serious disciplinary charges of violence and abuse of authority. One of Miranda's well-known enemies was Colonel Don Juan Manuel de Cagigal, who charged Miranda with the loss of company funds and brutalities against soldiers in Miranda's regiment. The account of the dispute was sent to Inspector General O'Reilly and eventually reached King Charles III, who ordered Miranda to be transferred back to Cadiz. Spain became involved in the American Revolutionary War in order to expand their territories in Louisiana and Florida, to force Britain to maintain multiple simultaneous war fronts, and to seek a recovery of Gibraltar.
    During his first year as a captain, Miranda traveled with his regiment mainly in North Africa and the southern Spanish province of Andalusia. In December 1774, Spain declared War with Morocco, and Miranda experienced his first combat during the conflict.
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  • 1773
    Age 22
    In January 1773, Miranda's father transferred 85,000 reales vellon (silver coins), to help his son obtain the position of captain in the Princess's Regiment.
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  • 1771
    Age 20
    On March 28, 1771, Miranda came to Madrid and took an interest in the libraries, architecture, and art that he found there.
    More Details Hide Details In Madrid, Miranda pursued his education, especially modern languages, as they would allow him to travel throughout Europe. He also sought to expand his knowledge of mathematics, history, and political science, as he aimed to serve the Spanish Crown as a military officer. During this time, he also pursued genealogical research of his family name to establish his ties to Europe and Christianity, which was especially important to him after his father's struggles to legitimize their family line in Caracas. It was in Madrid that Miranda began to build his personal library, which he added to as he traveled, collecting books, manuscripts and letters.
    Miranda landed at the Port of Cadiz on March 1, 1771, where he stayed for two weeks with a distant relative, Jose D'Anino, before leaving for Madrid.
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    After the court victory of his father, Miranda decided to pursue a new life in Spain, and, on January 25, 1771, Miranda left Caracas from the port of La Guaira for Cadiz, Spain, on a Swedish frigate, the Prince Frederick.
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  • TEENAGE
  • 1770
    Age 19
    In 1770, Sebastian won his family's rights through an official royal patent, signed by Charles III, which confirmed Sebastian's title and societal standing.
    More Details Hide Details The court ruling, however, created an irreconcilable enmity with the aristocratic elite, who never forgot the conflict nor forgave the challenge, which inevitably influenced subsequent decisions by Miranda.
  • 1769
    Age 18
    In 1769, Sebastian produced a notarized genealogy to prove that his family had no African ancestors.
    More Details Hide Details The need to establish the "purity" of the family bloodline was important to maintain a place in society in Caracas, as it was what allowed the family to attend university, to marry in the church, and to attain government positions.
  • 1767
    Age 16
    Beginning in 1767, Miranda's studies were disrupted in part due to his father's rising prominence in Caracas society.
    More Details Hide Details In 1764, Sebastian de Miranda was appointed the captain of the local militia known as the Company of the White Canary Islanders by the governor, Jose de Solano y Bote. Sebastian de Miranda directed his regiment for five years, but his new title and societal position bothered the white aristocracy. In retaliation, a competing faction formed a militia of its own and two local aristocrats, Don Juan Nicolas de Ponte and Don Martin Tovar Blanco, filed a complaint against Sebastian de Miranda. Sebastian de Miranda requested and was granted honorary military discharge to avoid further antagonizing the local elite, and spent many years attempting to clear the family name and establish the "purity" of his family line.
    It is unknown if Miranda received the title of Doctor, as the only evidence in favor of this title is his personal testimony stating he received it in 1767, at age 17.
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    In June 1767, Miranda received his baccalaureate degree in the Humanities.
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  • 1764
    Age 13
    Between 1764 and 1766, Miranda continued his studies, studying the writings of Cicero and Virgil, grammar, history, religion, geography and arithmetic.
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    Miranda completed this preliminary course in September 1764 and became an upperclassman.
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  • 1762
    Age 11
    On January 10, 1762, Miranda began his studies at the Royal and Pontifical University of Caracas, where he studied Latin, the early grammar of Nebrija, and the Catechism of Ripalda for two years.
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  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1750
    Born
    Miranda was born in Caracas, Venezuela Province, in the Spanish colonial Viceroyalty of New Granada, and baptized on April 5, 1750.
    More Details Hide Details His father, Sebastian de Miranda Ravelo, was an immigrant from the Canary Islands who had become a successful and wealthy merchant, and his mother, Francisca Antonia Rodríguez de Espinoza, was a wealthy Venezuelan. Growing up, Miranda enjoyed a wealthy upbringing and attended the finest private schools. However, he was not necessarily a member of high society; he faced some discrimination due to his Canarian roots, and his heritage was continually put into question by the Criollo aristocracy. Miranda's father, Sebastian, always strove to improve the situation of the family, and in addition to accumulating wealth and attaining important positions, he ensured his children a college education. Miranda was first tutored by Jesuits, Jorge Lindo and Juan Santaella, before entering the Academy of Santa Rosa.
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