Frank Lloyd Wright
American architect
Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright was a Welsh American architect, interior designer, writer and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures and completed 500 works. Wright believed in designing structures which were in harmony with humanity and its environment, a philosophy he called organic architecture.
Frank Lloyd Wright's personal information overview.
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CURRENTS | ROOMS; Since You Can't Stay in Fallingwater ...
NYTimes - over 5 years
In 1910, when Frank Lloyd Wright designed the Park Inn and City National Bank building in downtown Mason City, Iowa, he most likely didn't anticipate that one day it would be a boutique hotel. But the restored building recently reopened with 27 rooms, offering architecture enthusiasts the opportunity to spend the night in a Wright building. The
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Village People member cuffed at Incline Beach - North Lake Tahoe Bonanza
Google News - over 5 years
16, Paul Olson and Frank Wright, two Crystal Bay residents who are also members of a political advocacy group called The Village People, arrived at Incline Beach, according to an incident report obtained this week by the Bonanza
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Village board prohibits parking on North Highland - Wellsville Daily Reporter
Google News - over 5 years
Also Monday night, Frank Wright, an 11-year resident of Scott Avenue, told trustees he's been concerned about erosion near his property — a problem of which the village is aware. A bank is eroding and a guardrail is falling over, he noted
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Master vibraphonist Jamal to play Chester - Delaware County Daily Times
Google News - over 5 years
Some of his explorations with David Murray, Frank Wright and Sunny Murray led him to be tagged as an avant-garde musician, playing primarily abstract “out” music. The label illustrates formal jazz criticisms' tendency to use sophisticated analysis as a
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Police keep up pressure on Malahat traffic - BCLocalNews
Google News - over 5 years
Staff Sgt. Frank Wright, unit commander for the CRD IRSU, said even after the campaign ends officers will have a regular presence on the road watching for speeding, impaired driving and other high risk driving habits. "We know we have to be consistent
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Audit: Somerville Council on Aging director violated finance law - Wicked Local
Google News - over 5 years
City attorney Frank Wright said one of those checks was a reimbursement for the purchase of tickets to the musical “Menopause” and the other was an accidental second reimbursement for the theater tickets, which Robert Hickey paid back to the city
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Teachers line up for back-to-school thanks and shopping - Imperial Valley Press
Google News - over 5 years
“I'm looking forward to it,” Curtis Pettijohn, Frank Wright Middle School seventh-grade math teacher, said of the start of school as he waited in line with his wife and daughter. “I always get to make a positive impact on students,” he said
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What does future hold for Diamond Peak Ski Resort? - North Lake Tahoe Bonanza
Google News - over 5 years
Regos recently became the subject of criticism from Aaron Katz and Frank Wright, two vocal critics of IVGID's financial practices, when she advocated for a contract renewal with EXL Media — an advertising firm where she was previously employed
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Ed Youmans resigns from Diamond Peak Ski Resort - North Lake Tahoe Bonanza
Google News - over 5 years
A group called The Village People — which includes residents Frank Wright and Aaron Katz, who have been consistent and vocal critics of the district's financial practices — have routinely complained about Diamond Peak's advertising budget and IVGID's
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Series Exploring Biblical Response to Environmentalism among New Shows on NRB ... - Christian News Wire (press release)
Google News - over 5 years
... Tony Perkins (Family Research Council), Richard Land (Southern Baptist Convention), Wendy Wright (Concerned Women for America), Frank Wright (National Religious Broadcasters), David Barton (WallBuilders), and radio talk-show host Janet Parshall
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ANTIQUES; Hunting Windows For Wright House
NYTimes - over 5 years
Darwin D. Martin, a soap-factory executive in Buffalo, was a serial client of Frank Lloyd Wright. Between 1903 and 1928, the charismatic architect designed a half-dozen buildings for Martin's family, including a carriage house and a mausoleum. Wright referred to his shy, bookish patron as ''my best friend,'' borrowed $70,000 from him over the years
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QualityFirst Commercial Finds New Home for Underground Elephant - WebWire (press release)
Google News - over 5 years
Steven Martini of QualityFirst Commercial represented Underground Elephant, Jim Laing of Cushman and Wakefield represented FirstWind Energy and Andy LaDow and Frank Wright represented Legacy Partners. The complex transaction was composed of a 62-month
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Heat will spoil mixed ration quickly - Farmers Guardian
Google News - over 5 years
FARMERS buffer feeding dairy cows to complement summer grazing should take steps to prevent mixed diets heating up and spoiling in warm weather, says Tim Carter of Frank Wright Trouw Nutrition International. “As soon as a diet is mixed,
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Aldermen Approve Water, Sewer Rate Hikes For Next Year -
Google News - over 5 years
However, in response to questions from Ward 3 Alderman Frank Wright, Patrick Dello Russo, Melrose city auditor and chief financial officer, said that the city first came out of fiscal 2010 with a $500000 surplus that was applied to fiscal 2011
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Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Frank Lloyd Wright
  • 1959
    From Wright’s death in 1959 most of his collections were stored at the headquarters of the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation — Taliesin, in Spring Green, Wisconsin, and Taliesin West.
    More Details Hide Details The collection includes more than 23,000 architectural drawings, about 40 large-scale architectural models, some 44,000 photographs, 600 manuscripts and more than 300,000 pieces of office and personal correspondence. The archive’s architectural models include notable Wright projects like the unrealized St. Mark’s Tower and a version of the Guggenheim. Most of these models were not made for clients; they were constructed for MoMA’s retrospective of Wright in 1940. In order to guarantee a high level of conservation and access as well as to transfer the considerable financial burden of maintaining the archive, the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation in 2012 partnered with the Museum of Modern Art and the Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library to move the archive to New York. Wright’s furniture and art collection remain with the foundation, which will also have a role in monitoring the archive. Together the three parties established an advisory group to oversee exhibitions, symposiums, events and publications.
    Later in his life and well after his death in 1959, Wright received much honorary recognition for his lifetime achievements.
    More Details Hide Details He received Gold Medal awards from The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) in 1941 and the American Institute of Architects (AIA Gold Medal) in 1949. The medal was a symbolic "burying the hatchet" between Wright and the AIA. In a radio interview he commented, "Well, the AIA I never joined, and they know why. When they gave me the gold medal in Houston, I told them frankly why. Feeling that the architecture profession is all that's the matter with architecture, why should I join them?" He was awarded the Franklin Institute's Frank P. Brown Medal in 1953. He received honorary degrees from several universities (including his "alma mater", the University of Wisconsin) and several nations named him as an honorary board member to their national academies of art and/or architecture. In 2000, Fallingwater was named "The Building of the 20th century" in an unscientific "Top-Ten" poll taken by members attending the AIA annual convention in Philadelphia. On that list, Wright was listed along with many of the USA's other greatest architects including Eero Saarinen, I.M. Pei, Louis Kahn, Philip Johnson and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, and he was the only architect who had more than one building on the list. The other three buildings were the Guggenheim Museum, the Frederick C. Robie House and the Johnson Wax Building.
    Turmoil followed Wright even many years after his death on April 9, 1959, shortly after undergoing surgery in Phoenix, Arizona, to remove an intestinal obstruction.
    More Details Hide Details After the death of his third wife, Olgivanna in 1985, it was learned that her dying wish had been that Wright, she, and her daughter by her first marriage all be cremated and interred together in a memorial garden being built at Taliesin West. By then, and according to his own wishes, Wright's body had lain for over 25 years in the Lloyd-Jones cemetery, next to the Unity Chapel, near Taliesin, Wright's beloved home in Spring Green, Wisconsin. Although Olgivanna had taken no legal steps to move Wright's remains and against the wishes of other family members as well as the Wisconsin legislature, Wright's remains were removed from his grave by members of the Taliesin Fellowship, cremated and sent to Scottsdale where they were later interred in the memorial garden. Today, the original gravesite in Wisconsin, while empty, is still marked with Wright's name.
    Wright continued to collect and deal in prints until his death in 1959, using prints as collateral for loans, often relying upon his art business to remain financially solvent.
    More Details Hide Details The extent of his dealings in Japanese art went largely unknown, or underestimated, among art historians for decades until, in 1980, Julia Meech, then associate curator of Japanese art at the Metropolitan Museum, began researching the history of the museum's collection of Japanese prints. She discovered "a three-inch-deep 'clump of 400 cards' from 1918, each listing a print bought from the same seller—'F. L. Wright'" and a number of letters exchanged between Wright and the museum's first curator of Far Eastern Art, Sigisbert C. Bosch Reitz, in 1918-22. These discoveries, and subsequent research, led to a renewed understanding of Wright's career as an art dealer.
  • 1941
    Florida Southern College, located in Lakeland, Florida, constructed 12 (out of 18 planned) Frank Lloyd Wright buildings between 1941 and 1958 as part of the Child of the Sun project.
    More Details Hide Details It is the world's largest single-site collection of Frank Lloyd Wright architecture. A lesser known project that never came to fruition was Wright's plan for Emerald Bay, Lake Tahoe. Few Tahoe locals know of the iconic American architect's plan for their natural treasure.
  • 1937
    One of his projects, Monona Terrace, originally designed in 1937 as municipal offices for Madison, Wisconsin, was completed in 1997 on the original site, using a variation of Wright's final design for the exterior with the interior design altered by its new purpose as a convention center.
    More Details Hide Details The "as-built" design was carried out by Wright's apprentice Tony Puttnam. Monona Terrace was accompanied by controversy throughout the 60 years between the original design and the completion of the structure.
  • 1929
    In addition, other buildings were intentionally demolished during and after Wright's lifetime, such as: Midway Gardens (1913, Chicago, Illinois) and the Larkin Administration Building (1903, Buffalo, New York) were destroyed in 1929 and 1950 respectively; the Francis Apartments and Francisco Terrace Apartments (both located in Chicago and designed in 1895) were destroyed in 1971 and 1974, respectively; the Geneva Inn (1911) in Lake Geneva, Wisconsin was destroyed in 1970; and the Banff National Park Pavilion (1911) in Alberta, Canada was destroyed in 1939.
    More Details Hide Details The Imperial Hotel, in Tokyo (1913) survived the Great Kantō earthquake but was demolished in 1968 due to urban developmental pressures.
  • 1928
    In 1928, Wright wrote an essay on glass in which he compared it to the mirrors of nature: lakes, rivers and ponds.
    More Details Hide Details One of Wright's earliest uses of glass in his works was to string panes of glass along whole walls in an attempt to create light screens to join together solid walls. By utilizing this large amount of glass, Wright sought to achieve a balance between the lightness and airiness of the glass and the solid, hard walls. Arguably, Wright's best-known art glass is that of the Prairie style. The simple geometric shapes that yield to very ornate and intricate windows represent some of the most integral ornamentation of his career. Wright responded to the transformation of domestic life that occurred at the turn of the 20th century, when servants became less prominent or completely absent from most American households, by developing homes with progressively more open plans. This allowed the woman of the house to work in her 'workspace', as he often called the kitchen, yet keep track of and be available for the children and/or guests in the dining room. Much of modern architecture, including the early work of Mies van der Rohe, can be traced back to Wright's innovative work.
    Wright and Olgivanna married in 1928.
    More Details Hide Details In the 1920s, Wright designed a number of houses in California using precast "textile" concrete blocks reinforced by an internal system of bars. Wright first used his textile block system on the John Storer House in Hollywood, California, in 1923. The house is now used in films, television, and print media to represent the future. Typically Wrightian is the joining of the structure to its site by a series of terraces that reach out into and reorder the landscape, making it an integral part of the architect's vision. According to Wright's organic theory, all components of the building should appear unified, as though they belong together. Nothing should be attached to it without considering the effect on the whole. To unify the house to its site, Wright often used large expanses of glass to blur the boundary between the indoors and outdoors.
  • 1927
    Wright and Miriam Noel's divorce was finalized in 1927, and once again, Wright was required to wait for one year before remarrying.
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  • 1926
    In October 1926, Wright and Olgivanna were accused of violating the Mann Act and arrested in Tonka Bay, Minnesota.
    More Details Hide Details The charges were later dropped. During this period, Wright designed Graycliff (1926–31), the summer estate of Isabelle and Darwin D. Martin.
    In 1926, Olga's ex-husband, Vlademar Hinzenburg, sought custody of his daughter, Svetlana.
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  • 1924
    In 1924, after the separation but while still married, Wright met Olga (Olgivanna) Lazovich Hinzenburg at a Petrograd Ballet performance in Chicago.
    More Details Hide Details They moved in together at Taliesin in 1925, and soon Olgivanna was pregnant with their daughter, Iovanna, born on December 2, 1925. On April 20, 1925, another fire destroyed the bungalow at Taliesin. Crossed wires from a newly installed telephone system were deemed to be responsible for the blaze, which destroyed a collection of Japanese prints that Wright estimated to be worth $250,000 to $500,000. Wright rebuilt the living quarters, naming the home "Taliesin III".
  • 1923
    Wright wed Miriam Noel in November 1923, but her addiction to morphine led to the failure of the marriage in less than one year.
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    In 1923, Wright's mother, Anna (Lloyd Jones) Wright, died.
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  • 1922
    In 1922, Kitty Wright finally granted Wright a divorce.
    More Details Hide Details Under the terms of the divorce, Wright was required to wait one year before he could marry his then-partner, Maude "Miriam" Noel.
  • 1914
    On August 15, 1914, while Wright was working in Chicago, Julian Carlton, a male servant from Barbados who had been hired several months earlier, set fire to the living quarters of Taliesin and murdered seven people with an axe as the fire burned.
    More Details Hide Details The dead included Mamah; her two children, John and Martha; a gardener; a draftsman named Emil Brodelle; a workman; and another workman's son. Two people survived the mayhem, one of whom, William Weston, helped to put out the fire that almost completely consumed the residential wing of the house. Carlton swallowed hydrochloric acid immediately following the attack in an attempt to kill himself. He was nearly lynched on the spot, but was taken to the Dodgeville jail. Carlton died from starvation seven weeks after the attack, despite medical attention.
  • 1911
    Wright began to build himself a new home, which he called Taliesin, by May 1911.
    More Details Hide Details The recurring theme of Taliesin also came from his mother's side: Taliesin in Welsh mythology was a poet, magician, and priest. The family motto was Y Gwir yn Erbyn y Byd which means "The Truth Against the World"; it was created by Iolo Morgannwg who also had a son called Taliesin, and the motto is still used today as the cry of the druids and chief bard of the Eisteddfod in Wales.
    The land, bought on April 10, 1911, was adjacent to land held by his mother's family, the Lloyd-Joneses.
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  • 1910
    After Wright returned to the United States in October 1910, he persuaded his mother to buy land for him in Spring Green, Wisconsin.
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  • 1909
    In 1909, even before the Robie House was completed, Wright and Mamah Cheney went together to Europe, leaving their own spouses and children behind.
    More Details Hide Details By this point Wright "rejected" the Prairie Style single-family house model of the upper-middle class, and hoped to work on more democratic architecture. He was not getting larger commissions for commercial or public buildings, which frustrated him. What drew Wright to Europe was the chance to publish a portfolio of his work with Berlin publisher Ernst Wasmuth. The resulting two volumes, titled Studies and Executed Buildings of Frank Lloyd Wright, were published in 1911 in two editions, creating the first major exposure of Wright's work in Europe. The work contained more than 100 lithographs of Wright's designs and was commonly known as the Wasmuth Portfolio. Wright remained in Europe for almost a year and set up home first in Florence, Italy — where he lived with his eldest son Lloyd — and later in Fiesole, Italy where he lived with Mamah. During this time, Edwin Cheney granted Mamah a divorce, though Kitty still refused to grant one to her husband.
  • 1905
    The community agreed to hire him and he worked on the building from 1905 to 1909.
    More Details Hide Details Wright later said that Unity Temple was the edifice in which he ceased to be an architect of structure, and became an architect of space. Many architects consider it the world's first modern building, because of its unique construction of only one material: reinforced concrete. This would become a hallmark of the modernists who followed Wright, such as Mies van der Rohe, and even some post-modernists, such as Frank Gehry. Many examples of this work are in Buffalo, New York as a result of a friendship between Wright and Darwin D. Martin, an executive of the Larkin Soap Company. In 1902, the Larkin Company decided to build a new administration building. Wright came to Buffalo and designed not only the Larkin Administration Building (completed in 1904, demolished in 1950), but also homes for three of the company's executives including the Darwin D. Martin House in 1904, and later, their summer residence, the Graycliff Estate, also designed for Darwin D. Martin and his wife, Isabelle.
    Public buildings in the Prairie style include Unity Temple, the home of the Unitarian Universalist congregation in Oak Park. As a lifelong Unitarian and member of Unity Temple, Wright offered his services to the congregation after their church burned down in 1905.
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  • 1903
    Wright would later engage Mueller to build several of his public and commercial buildings between 1903 and 1923.
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  • 1901
    Bok also extended the offer to other architects, but Wright was the sole responder. "A Home in a Prairie Town" and "A Small House with Lots of Room in it" appeared respectively in the February and July 1901 issues of the journal.
    More Details Hide Details Although neither of the affordable house plans were ever constructed, Wright received increased requests for similar designs in following years. Wright's residential designs were known as "prairie houses" because the designs complemented the land around Chicago. These houses featured extended low buildings with shallow, sloping roofs, clean sky lines, suppressed chimneys, overhangs and terraces all using unfinished materials. The houses are credited with being the first examples of the "open plan". Windows whenever possible are long, and low, allowing a connection between the interior and nature, outside, that was new to western architecture and reflected the influence of Japanese architecture on Wright. The manipulation of interior space in residential and public buildings are hallmarks of his style.
  • 1900
    Between 1900 and 1901, Frank Lloyd Wright completed four houses which have since been identified as the onset of the "Prairie style".
    More Details Hide Details Two, the Hickox and Bradley Houses, were the last transitional step between Wright's early designs and the Prairie creations. Meanwhile, the Thomas House and Willits House received recognition as the first mature examples of the new style. At the same time, Wright gave his new ideas for the American house widespread awareness through two publications in the Ladies' Home Journal. The articles were in response to an invitation from the president of Curtis Publishing Company, Edward Bok, as part of a project to improve modern house design.
  • 1894
    The past five years had seen the birth of three more children — Catherine in 1894, David in 1895, and Frances in 1898 — prompting Wright to sacrifice his original home studio space for additional bedrooms.
    More Details Hide Details Thus, moving his work space necessitated his design and construction of an expansive studio addition to the north of the main house. The space, which included a hanging balcony within the two story drafting room, was one of Wright's first experiments with innovative structure. The studio was a poster for Wright's developing aesthetics and would become the laboratory from which the next ten years of architectural creations would emerge. The renovation included a playroom with high vaulted ceilings for his children. The fireplace takes up the majority of one wall of the playroom. A skylight at the top of the arc runs almost the length of the room. Made of Roman brick, the fireplace lies below a mural from the story "The Fisherman and the Genie" from Arabian Nights created by the artist Charles Corwin. Wright believed that the fireplace was an integral architectural feature within the home, often calling the hearth the heart of the home.
    Soon after the completion of the Winslow House in 1894, Edward Waller, a friend and former client, invited Wright to meet Chicago architect and planner Daniel Burnham.
    More Details Hide Details Burnham had been impressed by the Winslow House and other examples of Wright's work; he offered to finance a four-year education at the École des Beaux-Arts and two years in Rome. To top it off, Wright would have a position in Burnham's firm upon his return. In spite of guaranteed success and support of his family, Wright declined the offer. Burnham, who had directed the classical design of the World's Columbian Exposition was a major proponent of the Beaux Arts movement, thought that Wright was making a foolish mistake. Yet for Wright, the classical education of the École lacked creativity and was altogether at odds with his vision of modern American architecture. Wright relocated his practice to his home in 1898 in order to bring his work and family lives closer. This move made further sense as the majority of the architect's projects at that time were in Oak Park or neighboring River Forest.
    Between 1894 and the early 1910s, several other leading Prairie School architects and many of Wright's future employees launched their careers in the offices of Steinway Hall.
    More Details Hide Details Wright's projects during this period followed two basic models. On one hand, there was his first independent commission, the Winslow House, which combined Sullivanesque ornamentation with the emphasis on simple geometry and horizontal lines that is typical in Wright houses. The Francis Apartments (1895, demolished 1971), Heller House (1896), Rollin Furbeck House (1897), and Husser House (1899, demolished 1926) were designed in the same mode. For more conservative clients, Wright conceded to design more traditional dwellings. These included the Dutch Colonial Revival style Bagley House (1894), Tudor Revival style Moore House I (1895), and Queen Anne style Charles E. Roberts House (1896). As an emerging architect, Wright could not afford to turn down clients over disagreements in taste, but even his most conservative designs retained simplified massing and occasional Sullivan inspired details.
  • 1893
    As with the residential projects for Adler & Sullivan, he designed his bootleg houses on his own time. Sullivan knew nothing of the independent works until 1893, when he recognized that one of the houses was unmistakably a Frank Lloyd Wright design.
    More Details Hide Details This particular house, built for Allison Harlan, was only blocks away from Sullivan's townhouse in the Chicago community of Kenwood. Aside from the location, the geometric purity of the composition and balcony tracery in the same style as the Charnley House likely gave away Wright's involvement. Since Wright's five-year contract forbade any outside work, the incident led to his departure from Sullivan's firm. A variety of stories recount the break in the relationship between Sullivan and Wright; even Wright later told two different versions of the occurrence. In An Autobiography, Wright claimed that he was unaware that his side ventures were a breach of his contract. When Sullivan learned of them, he was angered and offended; he prohibited any further outside commissions and refused to issue Wright the deed to his Oak Park house until after he completed his five years. Wright could not bear the new hostility from his master and thought the situation was unjust. He "threw down his pencil and walked out of the Adler and Sullivan office never to return." Dankmar Adler, who was more sympathetic to Wright's actions, later sent him the deed. On the other hand, Wright told his Taliesin apprentices (as recorded by Edgar Tafel) that Sullivan fired him on the spot upon learning of the Harlan House. Tafel also accounted that Wright had Cecil Corwin sign several of the bootleg jobs, indicating that Wright was aware of their illegal nature.
  • 1891
    During this time, Wright worked on Sullivan's bungalow (1890) and the James A. Charnley bungalow (1890) both in Ocean Springs, Mississippi, the Berry-MacHarg House (1891) and Louis Sullivan's House (1892) both in Chicago, and the most noted 1891 James A. Charnley House also in Chicago.
    More Details Hide Details Of the five collaborations, only the two commissions for the Charnley family still stand. Despite Sullivan's loan and overtime salary, Wright was constantly short on funds. Wright admitted that his poor finances were likely due to his expensive tastes in wardrobe and vehicles, and the extra luxuries he designed into his house. To supplement his income and repay his debts, Wright accepted independent commissions for at least nine houses. These "bootlegged" houses, as he later called them, were conservatively designed in variations of the fashionable Queen Anne and Colonial Revival styles. Nevertheless, unlike the prevailing architecture of the period, each house emphasized simple geometric massing and contained features such as bands of horizontal windows, occasional cantilevers, and open floor plans which would become hallmarks of his later work. Eight of these early houses remain today including the Thomas Gale, Robert P. Parker House, George Blossom, and Walter Gale houses.
  • 1890
    According to an 1890 diagram of the firm's new, 17th floor space atop the Auditorium Building, Wright soon earned a private office next to Sullivan's own.
    More Details Hide Details However, that office was actually shared with friend and draftsman George Elmslie, who was hired by Sullivan at Wright's request. Wright had risen to head draftsman and handled all residential design work in the office. As a general rule, Adler & Sullivan did not design or build houses, but they obliged when asked by the clients of their important commercial projects. Wright was occupied by the firm's major commissions during office hours, so house designs were relegated to evening and weekend overtime hours at his home studio. He would later claim total responsibility for the design of these houses, but careful inspection of their architectural style and accounts from historian Robert Twombly suggest that it was Sullivan who dictated the overall form and motifs of the residential works; Wright's design duties were often reduced to detailing the projects from Sullivan's sketches.
  • 1889
    On June 1, 1889, Wright married his first wife, Catherine Lee "Kitty" Tobin (1871–1959).
    More Details Hide Details The two had met around a year earlier during activities at All Souls Church. Sullivan did his part to facilitate the financial success of the young couple by granting Wright a five-year employment contract. Wright made one more request: "Mr. Sullivan, if you want me to work for you as long as five years, couldn't you lend me enough money to build a little house?" With Sullivan's $5,000 loan, Wright purchased a lot at the corner of Chicago and Forest Avenues in the suburb of Oak Park. The existing Gothic Revival house was given to his mother, while a compact Shingle style house was built alongside for Wright and Catherine.
  • 1886
    Wright previously collaborated with Silsbee—accredited as the draftsman and the construction supervisor—on the 1886 Unity Chapel for Wright's family in Spring Green, Wisconsin.
    More Details Hide Details While with the firm, he also worked on two other family projects: All Souls Church in Chicago for his uncle, Jenkin Lloyd Jones, and the Hillside Home School I in Spring Green for two of his aunts. Other draftsmen who worked for Silsbee in 1887 included future architects Cecil Corwin, George W. Maher, and George G. Elmslie. Wright soon befriended Corwin, with whom he lived until he found a permanent home. In his autobiography, Wright recounts that he also had a short stint in another Chicago architecture office. Feeling that he was underpaid for the quality of his work for Silsbee (at $8 a week), the young draftsman quit and found work as a designer at the firm of Beers, Clay, and Dutton. However, Wright soon realized that he was not ready to handle building design by himself; he left his new job to return to Joseph Silsbee—this time with a raise in salary.
    Wright attended Madison High School, but there is no evidence he ever graduated. He was admitted to the University of Wisconsin–Madison as a special student in 1886.
    More Details Hide Details There he joined Phi Delta Theta fraternity, took classes part-time for two semesters, and worked with a professor of civil engineering, Allan D. Conover.. In 1887, Wright left the school without taking a degree (although he was granted an honorary Doctorate of Fine Arts from the University in 1955) and arrived in Chicago in search of employment. As a result of the devastating Great Chicago Fire of 1871 and recent population boom, new development was plentiful in the city. He later recalled that his first impressions of Chicago were that of grimy neighborhoods, crowded streets, and disappointing architecture, yet he was determined to find work. Within days, and after interviews with several prominent firms, he was hired as a draftsman with the architectural firm of Joseph Lyman Silsbee.
  • 1885
    The divorce was finalized in 1885 after William sued Anna for lack of physical affection.
    More Details Hide Details William left Wisconsin after the divorce and Wright claimed he never saw his father again. At this time he changed his middle name from Lincoln to Lloyd in honor of his mother's family, the Lloyd Joneses. As the only male left in the family, Wright assumed financial responsibility for his mother and two sisters.
  • 1867
    Frank Lloyd Wright was born Frank Lincoln Wright in the farming town of Richland Center, Wisconsin, United States, in 1867.
    More Details Hide Details His father, William Carey Wright (1825–1904), was a locally admired orator, music teacher, occasional lawyer, and itinerant minister. William Wright met and married Anna Lloyd Jones (1838/39 – 1923), a county school teacher, the previous year when he was employed as the superintendent of schools for Richland County. Originally from Massachusetts, William Wright had been a Baptist minister, but he later joined his wife's family in the Unitarian faith. Anna was a member of the large, prosperous and well-known Lloyd Jones family of Unitarians, who had emigrated from Wales to Spring Green, Wisconsin. One of Anna's brothers was Jenkin Lloyd Jones, who would become an important figure in the spread of the Unitarian faith in the Western United States. Both of Wright's parents were strong-willed individuals with idiosyncratic interests that they passed on to him. According to his biography, his mother declared when she was expecting that her first child would grow up to build beautiful buildings. She decorated his nursery with engravings of English cathedrals torn from a periodical to encourage the infant's ambition. The family moved to Weymouth, Massachusetts, in 1870 for William to minister a small congregation.
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