Franz Stangl
Austrian SS Officer
Franz Stangl
Franz Paul Stangl was an Austrian-born SS commandant of the Sobibor and Treblinka extermination camps during the Operation Reinhard phase of the Holocaust. He was arrested in Brazil in 1967, extradited and tried in West Germany for the mass murder of 900,000 people, and in 1970 was found guilty and sentenced to the maximum penalty, life imprisonment. He died of heart failure six months later.
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Franz Stangl's personal information overview.
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Comment écrire aujourd'hui autour de la Shoah? - Les Inrocks
Google News - over 5 years
Et c'est sans doute Dominique Sigaud qui l'exprime et l'explique le mieux dans son troublant Franz Stangl et moi (Stock). A partir de la figure de Franz Stangl, commandant des camps de Sobibor et de Treblinka, incarnation de la banalité du mal,
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Between the Lines: - Las Cruces Sun-News
Google News - over 5 years
A stunning set of interviews with Franz Stangl, the commandant of Treblinka, his wife, some colleagues and camp survivors. Rating: 93 Until next week, remember: ¡Es mejor morir de pie que vivir de rodillas! (Death on your feet is better than life on
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Am Leo wird schon fleißig verputzt - lokalnews.de
Google News - over 5 years
Etwa zwei Meter vom Boden weg haben Franz Stangl (Foto) und seine Kollegen vom Städtischen Bauhof dieser Tage schon verputzt: Der Sockelputz, erklärt Rathaussprecher Herbert Zillinger, wird von der Stadt erneuert. Ansonsten wird gerade alles für eine
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Popular Theatre 40 Production Returns - Patch.com
Google News - over 5 years
Dugan portrays the aging concentration camp survivor as he recounts his life's work of pursuing Nazi war criminals Adolf Eichmann, Franz Stangl, Dr. Josef Mengele and Karl Silberbauer, the SS officer who imprisoned Anne Frank
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Vi kan lära av historien - Göteborgs-Posten
Google News - over 5 years
Jag tänker ofta på Franz Stangl, en österrikisk vävare som blev polis och i nazismens tjänst kommendant över de båda utrotningslägren Sobibor och Treblinka. Stangl lät mörda cirka en miljon människor. I Gitta Serenys intervjubok, Vid avgrunden,
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Franz Stangl byl odsouzen za zabití 900 tisíc lidí v Treblince - Týden.cz
Google News - over 5 years
Válečný zločinec a velitel nacistických vyhlazovacích táborů v Sobiboru a Treblince Franz Stangl pocházel z Rakouska, kde se stal mistrem v textilce a poté policistou. Nacisté si jej vyhlédli v roce 1940 nejprve pro program eutanazie
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Baedeker der Vernichtung - haGalil onLine
Google News - over 5 years
So kommentiert der ehemalige Kommandant von Sobibor und Treblinka, Franz Stangl, im Gespräch mit Gitta Sereny seine Ankunft in Treblinka so: „Es war Dantes Inferno (…). Dantes Inferno war Wirklichkeit geworden (TB, S. 181)
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Ein Mordschloss und die Aktion "T4" - Bizeps Info
Google News - over 5 years
Franz Stangl, Verwaltungs- und Büroleiter war führend in Sobibor und Treblinka tätig. Mit Hilfe eines Bischofs in Rom Flucht nach Syrien und Brasilien. 1967 verhaftet, ausgeliefert und 1970 in Deutschland zu lebenslanger Haft verurteilt,
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Gitta Sereny's In Quest of Conscience at Finborough Theatre - Spoonfed
Google News - over 5 years
At first, Gitta Sereny looks like iron as she waits for Franz Stangl, ex-commandant of Treblinka extermination camp. In Quest of Conscience is the dramatisation of her interview with the former Nazi and it's a disturbing relay of questions and answers
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Weißes Zugpferd galoppiert auf der Burg - Kurier
Google News - over 5 years
Die musikalische Leitung hat in bewährter Manier Franz Stangl inne. "Es gibt keinen Orchestergraben und auch keinen großen Chor." Man habe sich entschlossen mit einer kleinen Streicherbesetzung, der Originalversion, zu arbeiten, erläutert Stangl
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Events celebrate Jewish heritage, presence throughout Georgia - Newnan Times-Herald
Google News - over 5 years
The play chronicled Wiesenthal's life, from his harrowing, narrow escape from death in the concentration camps to his relentless pursuit of Adolf Eichmann, Franz Stangl and Dr. Josef Mengele. This gripping story of one man's struggle against Holocaust
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"Im weißen Rössl" auf Burg Güssing - ORF.at
Google News - over 5 years
Und für die Güssinger Amateurschauspieler hat der musikalische Leiter des Güssinger Kultursommers, Franz Stangl, die Singstimmen speziell arrangiert. "Der Gesang wird mehr oder weniger ein Sprechgesang sein. Es gibt also nicht diese hohen Koloraturen
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Frauenbund beschenkt sich mit einer neuen Fahne selbst - Passauer Neue Presse (Abonnement)
Google News - almost 6 years
Foto: Franz Stangl 1974 wurde der Frauenbund Thyrnau von Geistlichem Rat Valentin Horner gegründet. Seit diesen 37 Jahren ist dieser Verbund engagierter Frauen nicht nur ein unverzichtbarer Helfer im kirchlichen Leben von Thyrnau, mit unzähligen
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Sobibor - místo, kde zemřelo čtvrt milionu lidí - tn.cz
Google News - almost 6 years
Nejvyšší trest - doživotí - dostal Franz Stangl. Další rozsudek, který má původ v hrůzách Sobiboru, padne v nejbližších dnech, možná hodinách. Bude to verdikt o vině, či nevině Johna Demjanjuka. Případně o jeho trestu
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Spätes Urteil: Signal für die Zukunft - Salzburger Nachrichten
Google News - almost 6 years
Wie zB "Obersturmfuehrer" Franz Stangl (Kommandant) "Oberscharfuehrer" Gustav Wagner, (als Stellvertreter), "Hauptsturmfuehrer" Franz Reichleitner, (Gaskammer), ebenfalls als hoehere brutale Gewalt, "Sturmbannfuehrer " Herman Hoefle
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In Sobibor kwamen 34.000 Nederlandse Joden om - AD.nl
Google News - almost 6 years
Een van hen werd tot levenslang veroordeeld en vijf kregen gevangenisstraffen van drie tot acht jaar. Kampcommandant Franz Stangl, die naar Brazilië was gevlucht, werd in 1970 tot levenslang veroordeeld en stierf in 1971 in de gevangenis
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Franz Stangl
    LATE_ADULTHOOD
  • 1971
    Age 62
    That is my guilt.'" He died of heart failure nineteen hours after the conclusion of that interview, in Düsseldorf prison on June 28, 1971.
    More Details Hide Details Except where noted, quotes are taken from Into that Darkness, 1974, by Gitta Sereny.
  • 1970
    Age 61
    The court Schwurgericht Düsseldorf found Stangl guilty on October 22, 1970, and sentenced him to maximum penalty, life imprisonment.
    More Details Hide Details While in prison, Stangl was interviewed extensively by Gitta Sereny for a study of him published as Into that Darkness. She wrote, quoting him: In his prison interview with Sereny – she later wrote – Stangl "had pronounced the words 'my guilt': but more than the words, the finality of it was in the sagging of his body, and on his face. After more than a minute he started again, a half-hearted attempt, in a dull voice. 'My guilt,' he said, 'is that I am still here.
  • FIFTIES
  • 1967
    Age 58
    Despite being registered under his real name at the Austrian consulate in São Paulo, it took another six years before he was tracked down by Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal and arrested by Brazilian federal police on February 28, 1967.
    More Details Hide Details He never used an assumed name during his escape, and it is not clear why it took so long to apprehend him. After extradition to West Germany by Brazil, he was tried for the deaths of around 900,000 people. He admitted to these killings but argued: "My conscience is clear. I was simply doing my duty " Stangl's own attempt at justification of his murderous actions as being non-criminal in the face of German law (or so he thought) was subsequently quoted by Arad: Philosopher John Kekes discussed Stangl and the degree of his responsibility for war crimes in chapter 4 of his book, The Roots of Evil.
  • 1961
    Age 52
    Although his role in the mass murder of men, women, and children was known to the Austrian authorities a warrant was not issued for Stangl's arrest until 1961.
    More Details Hide Details
  • FORTIES
  • 1951
    Age 42
    Stangl was joined by his wife and family and lived in Syria for three years before they moved to Brazil in 1951.
    More Details Hide Details After years of other jobs, he found work at the Volkswagen plant in São Bernardo do Campo with the help of friends, still using his own name.
  • THIRTIES
  • 1948
    Age 39
    On May 30, 1948, Stangl escaped to Italy with his colleague from Sobibór, SS sergeant Gustav Wagner. Roman Catholic Bishop Alois Hudal, a Nazi sympathizer forced in 1952 to resign by the Vatican, helped him to escape through a "ratline" and to reach Syria using a Red Cross passport.
    More Details Hide Details
  • 1945
    Age 36
    At the end of the war, Stangl fled without concealing his name. He was detained by the American Army in 1945 and was briefly imprisoned pending investigation in Linz, Austria in 1947.
    More Details Hide Details Stangl was suspected of complicity in the T-4 euthanasia programme.
    Due to illness, he returned to Vienna in early 1945, where he served in the "Alpine Fortress" (Alpenfestung).
    More Details Hide Details
  • 1943
    Age 34
    In August 1943, along with Globocnik, Stangl was transferred to Trieste, where he helped organize the campaign against Yugoslav partisans and local Jews.
    More Details Hide Details
  • 1942
    Age 33
    In September 1942, Stangl supervised the building of new, larger gas chambers to augment the existing gas chambers.
    More Details Hide Details The new gas chambers became operational in early autumn 1942. It is believed that these death chambers were capable of killing 3,000 people in two hours, and 12,000 to 15,000 victims easily every day, with a maximum capacity of 22,000 deaths in 24 hours. According to Jankiel Wiernik: "When the new gas chambers were completed, the Hauptsturmführer Stangl came and remarked to the SS men who were with him: 'Finally the Jewish city is ready'." Erich Bauer would later remark:
    Stangl assumed command of Treblinka on September 1, 1942.
    More Details Hide Details Stangl wanted his camp to look attractive, so he ordered the paths paved and flowers planted along the sides of Seidel Street, near camp headquarters and SS living quarters. Despite being directly responsible for the camp's operations, Stangl said he limited his contact with Jewish prisoners as much as possible. Stangl rarely intervened with unusually cruel acts (other than gassing) perpetrated by his subordinate officers at the camp. Stangl usually wore a white uniform and carried a whip, which caused prisoners to nickname him the "White Death". He later claimed (while in prison) that his dedication had nothing to do with ideology or hatred of Jews. He said he matter-of-factly viewed the prisoners as material objects rather than people, including their extermination: "That was my profession. I enjoyed it. It fulfilled me. And yes, I was ambitious about that, I won't deny it." Stangl accepted and grew accustomed to the killings, perceiving prisoners not as humans but merely as "cargo" that must be destroyed. Stangl accepted the extermination of the Jews as a fact. At about this time, Stangl began drinking heavily. He is quoted as saying:
    On August 28, 1942, Odilo Globocnik ordered Stangl to become Kommandant at the newly opened but disorganized death camp, Treblinka, then under the incompetent command of Irmfried Eberl.
    More Details Hide Details Globocnik trusted that Stangl could restore order at Treblinka since Stangl had a reputation as a highly competent administrator and people manager with an excellent grasp of detail.
    Stangl was appointed by Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler to be the first commandant of Sobibór extermination camp. Stangl was Sobibór's commandant from April 28 to the end of August 1942, at the rank of SS-Obersturmführer.
    More Details Hide Details He claimed that Odilo Globocnik initially suggested that Sobibór was merely a supply camp for the army, and that the true nature of the camp became known to him only when he himself discovered a gas chamber hidden in the woods. Globocnik told him that if the Jews "were not working hard enough" he was fully permitted to kill them and that Globocnik would send "new ones". Stangl studied the camp operations and management of Bełżec, which had already commenced extermination activity. He then accelerated the completion of Sobibór. Around that time Stangl also had further dealings with Wirth, who was running extermination camps at Bełżec and Chelmno. On either May 16 or May 18, 1942, Sobibór became fully operational. Around 100,000 Jews are believed to have been killed there while Stangl was the administrator until the furnaces broke down in October, by which time Stangl had left. Stangl was succeeded as Sobibór commandant by his Hartheim Euthanasia Center colleague, Franz Reichleitner.
    In March 1942, Stangl was given a choice to either return to the Linz Gestapo or be transferred to Lublin for work in Operation Reinhard.
    More Details Hide Details Stangl accepted the posting to Lublin in the General Government, where he would manage Operation Reinhard under Odilo Globocnik.
  • 1940
    Age 31
    Through a direct order from Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler issued in November 1940, Stangl became the deputy office manager (Police Superintendent) of the T-4 Euthanasia Program at Hartheim Euthanasia Centre, and in late summer 1941 at Bernburg Euthanasia Centre, where people with mental and physical disabilities, as well as political prisoners, were sent to be killed.
    More Details Hide Details At Hartheim, Stangl served under Christian Wirth as assistant supervisor in charge of security. When Wirth was succeeded by Franz Reichleitner, Stangl stayed on as Reichleitner's deputy. During his brief posting to Bernburg Euthanasia Centre Stangl reorganized the office at that killing facility.
    After the onset of World War II, in early 1940, Stangl was instructed to report for work at the Public Service Foundation for Institutional Care (Gemeinnützige Stiftung für Anstaltspflege), a front organization of the T-4 Euthanasia Program.
    More Details Hide Details Stangl purposely solicited for a job in the newly created T-4 program in order to escape difficulties with his boss in the Linz Gestapo. He traveled to the RSHA in Berlin, where he was received by Paul Werner, who offered Stangl a job as supervisor in charge of security at a T4 killing facility, and in the language commonly used during recruitment, described Action T4 as a "humanitarian" effort that was "essential, legal, and secret". Next Stangl met with Viktor Brack, who offered him a choice of work between Hartheim and Sonnenstein Euthanasia Centres; naturally, Stangl picked Hartheim, which was near Linz.
  • TWENTIES
  • 1938
    Age 29
    Stangl joined the SS in May 1938.
    More Details Hide Details He would ultimately reach the rank of SS-Hauptsturmführer (Captain).
  • 1935
    Age 26
    In 1935, Stangl was accepted into the Kriminalpolizei as detective in the Austrian town of Wels.
    More Details Hide Details After Austria's Anschluss Stangl was assigned to the Schutzpolizei (which was taken over by the Gestapo) in Linz, where he was posted to the Jewish Bureau.
  • 1931
    Age 22
    Stangl became a member of the NSDAP (commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party) in 1931, an illegal association for an Austrian police officer at that time.
    More Details Hide Details Post-war, he denied having been a Nazi since 1931 and claimed that he had enrolled as member of the party only to avoid arrest following the Anschluss of Austria into Nazi Germany in May 1938. Records suggest that Stangl contributed to a Nazi aid fund but he disavowed knowing about the intended party purpose of the fund. Stangl had Nazi Party number 6,370,447 and SS number 296,569.
    He was accepted in early 1931 and trained for two years at the federal police academy in Linz.
    More Details Hide Details
  • 1930
    Age 21
    He moved to Innsbruck in 1930 and applied for an appointment in the Austrian federal police.
    More Details Hide Details Stangl later suggested that he liked the security and cleanliness that the police uniforms represented to him.
  • TEENAGE
  • 1927
    Age 18
    In his teens he secured an apprenticeship as a weaver, qualifying as a master weaver in 1927.
    More Details Hide Details Concerned that this trade offered few opportunities for advancement – and having observed the poor health of his co-workers – Stangl sought a new career.
  • 1923
    Age 14
    Stangl completed his public schooling in 1923.
    More Details Hide Details
  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1916
    Age 7
    Stangl claimed his father died of malnutrition in 1916.
    More Details Hide Details To help support his family Franz learned to play the zither and earned money giving zither lessons.
  • 1908
    Born
    Stangl was born on March 26, 1908 in Altmünster, located in the Salzkammergut region of Austria.
    More Details Hide Details He was the son of a night-watchman and had such an emotionally distressing relationship with his father that he was deeply frightened by and hated the sight of the elder Stangl's Habsburg Dragoons uniform.
Original Authors of this text are noted here.
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