Georgia O'Keeffe
Georgia O'Keeffe
Georgia Totto O'Keeffe (November 15, 1887 – March 6, 1986) was an American artist. Born near Sun Prairie, Wisconsin, O'Keeffe first came to the attention of the New York art community in 1916. She made large-format paintings of enlarged blossoms, presenting them close up as if seen through a magnifying lens, and New York buildings, most of which date from the same decade. Beginning in 1929, when she began working part of the year in Northern New Mexico—which she made her permanent home in 1949—O’Keeffe depicted subjects specific to that area. O'Keeffe has been recognized as the Mother of American Modernism.
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LETTER; Intimate Art
NYTimes - over 5 years
To the Editor: I was dismayed by Deborah Solomon's off-base review of ''My Faraway One: Selected Letters of Georgia O'Keeffe and Alfred Stieglitz -- Volume I, 1915-1933,'' edited by Sarah Greenough (Aug. 14). This is both a scholarly and important book, not ''cursory and slapdash.'' Solomon need not wonder ''for whom this book is intended'';
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Georgia O'Keeffe Elementary School / Jon Anderson Architecture - International Business Times
Google News - over 5 years
Georgia O'Keeffe was one of America's most important modern artists. The magnificent landscape of New Mexico profoundly affected Georgia O'Keeffe and transformed her work into an appreciation of what she
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O'Keeffe Unbrushed - New York Times
Google News - over 5 years
Reviewing “My Faraway One: Selected Letters of Georgia O'Keeffe and Alfred Stieglitz: Volume 1, 1915-1933” (Aug. 14) Deborah Solomon remarks that O'Keeffe didn't seem “to mind having wrinkles.” I don't think that back in the 1930s O'Keeffe was
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Dallas Museum of Art Appoints an American Art Curator - New York Observer
Google News - over 5 years
At the MIA, Ms. Canterbury organized exhibitions devoted to Georgia O'Keeffe, Beauford Delaney and other prominent American painters. Said DMA director Olivier Meslay in a statement, “She is enthusiastic about the important role of American art at the
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Cancer offers Wayland photographer Willard Traub a new perspective - Milford Daily News
Google News - over 5 years
11 at the Danforth Museum of Art. He photographed the clamps and tubes of an intravenous drip with the same elegance as a Georgia O'Keeffe still life. He holds a handful of pills like a benediction. Traub photographed his shadow hovering like a ghost
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A husband and wife's reversal of fortune - Irish Times
Google News - over 5 years
LETTERS: My Faraway One: Selected Letters of Georgia O'Keeffe and Alfred Stieglitz, 1915-1933 Edited by Sarah Greenough Yale University Press, 814pp. £28 IN ENEMIES OF PROMISE , Cyril Connolly warned of the dangers facing any artist unwise enough to
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Stieglitz to O'Keeffe: Fluff You - New York Observer
Google News - over 5 years
The relationship between photographer and gallerist Alfred Stieglitz, one of American Modernism's greatest cheerleaders, and painter Georgia O'Keeffe, one of America's greatest Modernist painters, is one of the great love
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Dearest Alfred and Georgia Sweetestheart
NYTimes - over 5 years
MY FARAWAY ONE Selected Letters of Georgia O'Keeffe and Alfred Stieglitz: Volume I, 1915-1933 Edited by Sarah Greenough Illustrated. 814 pp. Yale University Press. $39.95. Georgia O'Keeffe never seemed to mind having wrinkles. When we think of her, we are most likely to think of her later years, when she owned a ranch in Abiquiu, N.M., and roamed
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O'Keeffe and Stieglitz: Intimacy at a Distance - New York Times
Google News - over 5 years
Georgia O'Keeffe never seemed to mind having wrinkles. When we think of her, we are most likely to think of her later years, when she owned a ranch in Abiquiu, NM, and roamed the red hills. She lived to be 98, and even after her hair
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Book reveals love letters of O'Keeffe, Stieglitz - Auction Central News
Google News - over 5 years
National Gallery of Art photography curator Sarah Greenough leafed through 25000 pieces of paper exchanged by Georgia O'Keeffe and Alfred Stieglitz to produce "My Faraway One: Selected Letters of Georgia O'Keeffe and Alfred Stieglitz, Volume I,
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ART REVIEW; Testing the Waters Of Abstraction
NYTimes - over 5 years
The art of John Marin is easy to respect and hard to love. Compared with his vanguard associates of the between-the-wars era -- Georgia O'Keeffe, Arthur Dove, Charles Demuth and Marsden Hartley -- he was a flinty pragmatist. In the watercolors for which he was, and remains, most renowned, there is a hectic, sometimes luminously beautiful but often
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National Park Service Awards Grant to Georgia O'Keeffe Museum - ABQ Journal (subscription)
Google News - over 5 years
By ABQnews Staff on Thu, Aug 4, 2011 Tweet The Georgia O'Keeffe Museum in Santa Fe is among the recipients selected for federal competitive preservation technology and training grants, the National Park Service announced Thursday
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FASHION; Royal Chic: The Duchess and Her Prints
NYTimes - over 5 years
PARIS -- With all the drama surrounding the British phone hacking scandal and the demise of the disgraced News of the World, one message seems to be clear: some things should not appear in print. The descent of the tabloid press has illustrated what constitutes ''wrong'' material, generated by journalists using a combination of low cunning and high
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Amon Carter exhibit draws out delicate works on paper that rarely see the ... - Fort Worth Star Telegram
Google News - over 5 years
Three watercolors of early morning light on the Texas plains made by Georgia O'Keeffe in 1917 were in her possession for decades and were not shown publically until 1958. The Carter bought them in 1966 when it mounted a retrospective of O'Keeffe's work
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Get Your Feet Wet: Beginners Dip Into Watercolors - Express from The Washington Post
Google News - over 5 years
You don't need to be the next JMW Turner or Georgia O'Keeffe to take this class. In fact, you don't even need to be familiar with these famous watercolor artists. "This is for beginners," assures Penelope Nunes, Arlington Arts Center's director of
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Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Georgia O'Keeffe
  • 1986
    Age 98
    Died on March 6, 1986.
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  • 1985
    Age 97
    In 1985, she was awarded the National Medal of Arts.
    More Details Hide Details Following O'Keeffe's death, her family contested her will because codicils made to it in the 1980s had left all of her estate to Hamilton. The case was ultimately settled out of court in July 1987. The case became famous as a precedent in estate planning. A substantial part of her estate's assets were transferred to the Georgia O'Keeffe Foundation, which dissolved in 2006, leaving these assets to the Georgia O'Keeffe Museum, established in Santa Fe in 1995 to perpetuate O'Keeffe's artistic legacy. These assets included a large body of her work, photographs, archival materials, and her Abiquiú house, library, and property. The Georgia O'Keeffe Home and Studio in Abiquiú was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1998 and is now owned by the Georgia O'Keeffe Museum. In 1991, the PBS aired the American Playhouse production A Marriage: Georgia O'Keeffe and Alfred Stieglitz, starring Jane Alexander as O'Keeffe and Christopher Plummer as Alfred Stieglitz.
  • 1984
    Age 96
    She moved to Santa Fe in 1984, where she died on March 6, 1986 at the age of 98.
    More Details Hide Details In accordance with her wishes, her body was cremated and her ashes were scattered to the wind at the top of Pedernal Mountain, over her beloved "faraway".
  • 1977
    Age 89
    In 1977, President Gerald R. Ford presented O'Keeffe with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest honor awarded to American civilians.
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  • 1976
    Age 88
    In 1976, she wrote a book about her art and allowed a film to be made about her in 1977.
    More Details Hide Details O'Keeffe became increasingly frail in her late 90s.
  • 1973
    Age 85
    Juan Hamilton, a young potter, appeared at her ranch house in 1973 looking for work.
    More Details Hide Details She hired him for a few odd jobs and soon employed him full-time. He became her closest confidant, companion, and business manager until her death. Hamilton taught O'Keeffe to work with clay and, working with assistance, she produced clay pots and a series of works in watercolor.
  • 1972
    Age 84
    She stopped oil painting without assistance in 1972, but continued working in pencil and charcoal until 1984.
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    In 1972, O'Keeffe's eyesight was compromised by macular degeneration, leading to the loss of central vision and leaving her with only peripheral vision.
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  • 1970
    Age 82
    In late 1970, the Whitney Museum of American Art mounted the Georgia O'Keeffe Retrospective Exhibition, the first retrospective exhibition of her work in New York since 1946, the year Stieglitz died.
    More Details Hide Details This exhibit did much to revive her public career.
  • 1966
    Age 78
    In 1966, she was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
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  • 1962
    Age 74
    In 1962, O'Keeffe was elected to the fifty-member American Academy of Arts and Letters.
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  • 1961
    Age 73
    O'Keeffe met photographer Todd Webb in the 1940s, and after his move to New Mexico in 1961, he often made photographs of her, as did numerous other important American photographers, who consistently presented O'Keeffe as a "loner, a severe figure and self-made person."
    More Details Hide Details While O'Keeffe was known to have a "prickly personality", Webb's photographs portray her with a kind of "quietness and calm" suggesting a relaxed friendship, and revealing new contours of O'Keeffe's character.
  • 1946
    Age 58
    From 1946 through the 1950s, she made the architectural forms of her Abiquiú house—patio wall and door—subjects in her work.
    More Details Hide Details Another distinctive painting of the decade was Ladder to the Moon, 1958. From her first world travels in the late 1950s, O'Keeffe produced an extensive series of paintings of clouds, such as Above the Clouds I, 1962/1963. These were inspired by her views from the windows of airplanes. Below is an external link to a color image of one of these aerial cloudscape canvases.
    Shortly after O'Keeffe arrived for the summer in New Mexico in 1946, Stieglitz suffered a cerebral thrombosis.
    More Details Hide Details She immediately flew to New York to be with him. He died on July 13, 1946. She buried his ashes at Lake George. She spent the next three years mostly in New York settling his estate, and moved permanently to New Mexico in 1949.
  • 1945
    Age 57
    She also made paintings of the "White Place", a white rock formation located near her Abiquiú house. In 1945, O'Keeffe bought a second house, an abandoned hacienda in Abiquiú, some 18 miles (26 km) south of Ghost Ranch.
    More Details Hide Details The Abiquiú house was renovated through 1949 by Chabot.
    viewed from Ghost Ranch. This was a favorite subject for O'Keeffe, who once said, "It's my private mountain. It belongs to me. She traveled and camped there often with her friend, Maria Chabot, and in 1945 with Eliot Porter as well as in subsequent years, 1959, and 1977.
    More Details Hide Details O'Keeffe said that the Black Place resembled "a mile of elephants with gray hills and white sand at their feet." At times the wind was so strong when she was painting there that she had trouble keeping her canvas on the easel. When the heat from the sun became intense, she crawled under her car for shade. The Black Place still remains remote and uninhabited.
  • 1943
    Age 55
    She often talked about her fondness for Ghost Ranch and Northern New Mexico, as in 1943, when she explained: "Such a beautiful, untouched lonely feeling place, such a fine part of what I call the 'Faraway'.
    More Details Hide Details It is a place I have painted before... even now I must do it again." In the 1930s and 1940s, O'Keeffe's reputation and popularity continued to grow, earning her numerous commissions. Her work was included in exhibitions in and around New York. She completed Summer Days, a painting featuring a deer's skull adorned with various wildflowers, against a desert background in 1936, and it became one of her most famous and well-known works. During the 1940s O'Keeffe had two one-woman retrospectives, the first at the Art Institute of Chicago (1943), and the second in 1946 at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in Manhattan, the first retrospective MoMA held for a woman artist. O'Keeffe enjoyed many accolades and honorary degrees from numerous universities. In the mid-1940s, the Whitney Museum of American Art in Manhattan sponsored a project to establish the first catalogue of her work.
  • 1940
    Age 52
    In August of that year, she visited Ghost Ranch, north of Abiquiú, for the first time and decided immediately to live there; in 1940, she moved into a house on the ranch property.
    More Details Hide Details The varicolored cliffs of Ghost Ranch inspired some of her most famous landscapes. In 1977, O'Keeffe wrote: "the cliffs over there are almost painted for you—you think—until you try to paint them." Among guests to visit her at the ranch over the years were Charles and Anne Lindbergh, singer-songwriter Joni Mitchell, poet Allen Ginsberg, and photographer Ansel Adams. Known as a loner, O'Keeffe explored the land she loved often in her Ford Model A, which she purchased and learned to drive in 1929.
  • 1933
    Age 45
    In early 1933 and 1934, O'Keeffe recuperated in Bermuda, and she returned to New Mexico in mid-1934.
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    She was hospitalized in early 1933 and did not paint again until January 1934.
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  • 1932
    Age 44
    Late in 1932, O'Keeffe suffered a nervous breakdown that was brought on, in part, because she was unable to complete a Radio City Music Hall mural project that had fallen behind schedule.
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  • 1929
    Age 41
    Between 1929 and 1949, O'Keeffe spent part of nearly every year working in New Mexico.
    More Details Hide Details She collected rocks and bones from the desert floor and made them and the distinctive architectural and landscape forms of the area subjects in her work. She also went on several camping trips with friends, visiting important sites in the Southwest, and in 1961, she and others, including photographers Eliot Porter and Todd Webb, went on a rafting trip down the Colorado River about Glen Canyon, Utah.
    While in Taos in 1929, O'Keeffe visited and painted the nearby historical San Francisco de Asis Mission Church at Ranchos de Taos.
    More Details Hide Details She made several paintings of the church, as had many artists, and her painting of a fragment of it silhouetted against the sky captured it in a different way.
    The two set out by train in May 1929 and soon after their arrival, Mabel Dodge Luhan moved them to her house in Taos and provided them with studios.
    More Details Hide Details O'Keeffe went on many pack trips exploring the rugged mountains and deserts of the region that summer and later visited the nearby D. H. Lawrence Ranch, where she completed her now famous oil painting, The Lawrence Tree, currently owned by the Wadsworth Athenaeum in Hartford, Connecticut.
    By 1929, O'Keeffe acted on her increasing need to find a new source of inspiration for her work and to escape summers at Lake George, where she was surrounded by the Stieglitz family and their friends.
    More Details Hide Details O'Keeffe had considered finding a studio separate from Lake George in upstate New York and had also thought about spending the summer in Europe, but opted instead to travel to Santa Fe, with her friend Rebecca Strand.
  • 1928
    Age 40
    Her work commanded high prices; in 1928, Stieglitz masterminded a sale of six of her calla lily paintings for US$25,000, which would have been the largest sum ever paid for a group of paintings by a living American artist.
    More Details Hide Details Although the sale fell through, Stieglitz's promotion of it drew extensive media attention. In 1938, the advertising agency N. W. Ayer & Son approached O'Keeffe about creating two paintings for the Hawaiian Pineapple Company (now Dole Food Company) to use in their advertising. Other artists who produced paintings of Hawaii for the Hawaiian Pineapple Company’s advertising include Lloyd Sexton, Jr., Millard Sheets, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Isamu Noguchi, and Miguel Covarrubias. The offer came at a critical time in O’Keeffe’s life: she was 51, and her career seemed to be stalling (critics were calling her focus on New Mexico limited, and branding her desert images “a kind of mass production”). She arrived in Honolulu February 8, 1939 aboard the SS Lurline, and spent nine weeks in Oahu, Maui, Kauai, and the island of Hawaii. By far the most productive and vivid period was on Maui, where she was given complete freedom to explore and paint. She painted flowers, landscapes, and traditional Hawaiian fishhooks. Back in New York, O’Keeffe completed a series of 20 sensual, verdant paintings. However, she did not paint the requested pineapple until the Hawaiian Pineapple Company sent a plant to her New York studio.
  • 1924
    Age 36
    In 1924, Stieglitz's divorce was approved by a judge and, within four months, he and O'Keeffe married.
    More Details Hide Details It was a small, private ceremony at John Marin's house, and afterward the couple went back home. There was no reception, festivities, or honeymoon. O'Keeffe said later that they married in order to help soothe the troubles of Stieglitz's daughter Kitty who was being treated in a sanatorium for depression and hallucinations at that time. The marriage did not seem to have any immediate effect on either Stieglitz or O'Keeffe; they both continued working on their individual projects as they had before. For the rest of their lives together, their relationship was, as biographer Benita Eisler characterized it, a collusion... a system of deals and trade-offs, tacitly agreed to and carried out, for the most part, without the exchange of a word. Preferring avoidance to confrontation on most issues, O'Keeffe was the principal agent of collusion in their union.
  • 1923
    Age 35
    Beginning in 1923, Stieglitz organized annual exhibitions of O'Keeffe's work.
    More Details Hide Details By the mid-1920s, O'Keeffe had become known as one of the most important American artists.
  • 1922
    Age 34
    Inspired by Precisionism, The Green Apple, completed in 1922, depicts her notion of simple, meaningful life.
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    In 1922, the New York Sun published an article quoting O'Keeffe: "It is only by selection, by elimination, and by emphasis that we get at the real meaning of things."
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  • 1918
    Age 30
    Soon after 1918, she began working primarily in oil, a shift away from having worked primarily in watercolor in the earlier 1910s.
    More Details Hide Details By the mid-1920s, O'Keeffe began making large-scale paintings of natural forms at close range, as if seen through a magnifying lens. In 1924, she painted her first large-scale flower painting Petunia, No. 2, which was first exhibited in 1925. She also completed a significant body of paintings of New York buildings, such as City Night and New York—Night (1926) and Radiator Bldg—Night, New York (1927). O'Keeffe turned to working more representationally in the 1920s in an effort to move her critics away from Freudian interpretations. Her earlier work had been mostly abstract, but works such as Black Iris III (1926) evoke a veiled representation of female genitalia while also accurately depicting the center of an iris. O'Keeffe consistently denied the validity of Freudian interpretations of her art, but fifty years after it had first been interpreted in that way, many prominent feminist artists assessed her work similarly; Judy Chicago, for example, gave O'Keeffe a prominent place in her The Dinner Party. Although 1970s feminists celebrated O'Keeffe as the originator of "female iconography", O'Keeffe rejected their celebration of her work and refused to cooperate with any of their projects.
    Also around this time, O'Keeffe became sick during the 1918 flu pandemic, like so many others.
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    Beginning in 1918, O'Keeffe came to know the many early American modernists who were part of Stieglitz's circle of artists, including Charles Demuth, Arthur Dove, Marsden Hartley, John Marin, Paul Strand, and Edward Steichen.
    More Details Hide Details Strand's photography, as well as that of Stieglitz and his many photographer friends, inspired O'Keeffe's work.
  • 1917
    Age 29
    Stieglitz started photographing O'Keeffe when she visited him in New York City to see her 1917 exhibition.
    More Details Hide Details By 1937, when he retired from photography, he had made more than 350 portraits of her. Most of the more erotic photographs were made in the 1910s and early 1920s. In February 1921, forty-five of Stieglitz's photographs were exhibited in a retrospective exhibition at the Anderson Galleries, including many of O'Keeffe, some of which depicted her in the nude. It created a public sensation. She once made a remark to Pollitzer about the nude photographs which may be the best indication of O'Keeffe's ultimate reaction to being their subject: "I felt somehow that the photographs had nothing to do with me personally." In 1978, she wrote about how distant from them she had become: "When I look over the photographs Stieglitz took of me-some of them more than sixty years ago—I wonder who that person is. It is as if in my one life I have lived many lives. If the person in the photographs were living in this world today, she would be quite a different person—but it doesn't matter—Stieglitz photographed her then."
  • 1916
    Age 28
    Stieglitz and O'Keeffe corresponded frequently beginning in 1916 and, in June 1918, she accepted his invitation to move to New York to devote all of her time to her work.
    More Details Hide Details The two were deeply in love and, shortly after her arrival, they began living together, even though Stieglitz was married and 23 years her senior. That year, Stieglitz first took O'Keeffe to his family home at the village of Lake George in New York's Adirondack Mountains, and they spent part of every year there until 1929, when O'Keeffe spent the first of many summers painting in New Mexico.
    In April 1916, he exhibited ten of her drawings at 291.
    More Details Hide Details O'Keeffe knew that Stieglitz was planning to exhibit her work but he had not told her when, and she was surprised to learn that her work was on view; she confronted Stieglitz over the drawings but agreed to let them remain on exhibit. Stieglitz organized O'Keeffe's first solo show at 291 in April 1917, which included oil paintings and watercolors completed in Texas.
  • 1915
    Age 27
    O'Keeffe had made some charcoal drawings in late 1915 which she had mailed from South Carolina to Anita Pollitzer.
    More Details Hide Details Pollitzer took them to Alfred Stieglitz at his 291 gallery early in 1916. Stieglitz told Pollitzer that the drawings were the "purest, finest, sincerest things that had entered 291 in a long while", and that he would like to show them. O'Keeffe had first visited 291 in 1908, but did not speak with Stieglitz then, although she came to have high regard for him and to know him in early 1916, when she was in New York at Teachers College.
  • 1913
    Age 25
    She served as a teaching assistant to Bement during the summers from 1913–16 and taught at Columbia College, Columbia, South Carolina in late 1915, where she completed a series of highly innovative charcoal abstractions.
    More Details Hide Details After further course work at Columbia in early 1916 and summer teaching for Bement, she took a job as head of the art department at West Texas State Normal College from late 1916 to February 1918, the fledgling West Texas A&M University in Canyon just south of Amarillo. While there, she often visited the Palo Duro Canyon, making its forms a subject in her work.
  • 1912
    Age 24
    From 1912-14, she taught art in the public schools in Amarillo in the Texas Panhandle.
    More Details Hide Details She attended Teachers College of Columbia University from 1914–15, where she took classes from Dow, who greatly influenced O'Keeffe's thinking about the process of making art.
    She was inspired to paint again in 1912, when she attended a class at the University of Virginia Summer School, where she was introduced to the innovative ideas of Arthur Wesley Dow by Alon Bement.
    More Details Hide Details Dow encouraged artists to express themselves using line, color, and shading harmoniously.
  • 1908
    Age 20
    O'Keeffe abandoned the idea of pursuing a career as an artist in late 1908, claiming that she could never distinguish herself as an artist within the mimetic tradition which had formed the basis of her art training.
    More Details Hide Details She took a job in Chicago as a commercial artist. She did not paint for four years, and said that the smell of turpentine made her sick.
    While in the city in 1908, O'Keeffe attended an exhibition of Rodin's watercolors at the gallery 291, owned by her future husband, photographer Alfred Stieglitz.
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    In 1908, she won the League's William Merritt Chase still-life prize for her oil painting Dead Rabbit with Copper Pot.
    More Details Hide Details Her prize was a scholarship to attend the League's outdoor summer school in Lake George, New York.
  • 1905
    Age 17
    O'Keeffe studied at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago from 1905 to 1906.
    More Details Hide Details In 1907, she attended the Art Students League in New York City, where she studied under William Merritt Chase.
    She completed high school as a boarder at Chatham Episcopal Institute in Virginia (now Chatham Hall) and graduated in 1905.
    More Details Hide Details She was a member of the Kappa Delta sorority.
  • 1903
    Age 15
    O'Keeffe stayed in Wisconsin with her aunt and attended Madison High School, then joined her family in Virginia in 1903.
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  • 1902
    Age 14
    In late 1902, the O'Keeffes moved from Wisconsin to the close-knit neighborhood of Peacock Hill in Williamsburg, Virginia.
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  • 1901
    Age 13
    O'Keeffe attended high school at Sacred Heart Academy in Madison, Wisconsin as a boarder between 1901 and 1902.
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  • 1887
    Georgia O'Keeffe was born on November 15, 1887 in a farmhouse located at 2405 Hwy T in the town of Sun Prairie, Wisconsin.
    More Details Hide Details Her parents, Francis Calyxtus O'Keeffe and Ida (Totto) O'Keeffe, were dairy farmers. Her father was of Irish descent. Her maternal grandfather George Victor Totto, for whom O'Keeffe was named, was a Hungarian count who came to the United States in 1848. O'Keeffe was the second of seven children and the first daughter. She attended Town Hall School in Sun Prairie. By age ten she had decided to become an artist, and she and her sister received art instruction from local watercolorist Sara Mann.
Original Authors of this text are noted here.
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