Heinrich Müller
Heinrich Müller
Heinrich Müller was a German police official under both the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany. He became chief of the Gestapo, the political secret state police of Nazi Germany, and was involved in the planning and execution of the Holocaust. He was known as "Gestapo Müller" to distinguish him from another SS general named Heinrich Müller.
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Als Traore Judt in die Puppenkiste stopfen wollte - Nordbayern.de
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Strehl stockte, Heinrich Müller hatte zwischenzeitlich das 2:0 markiert, nach der Pause auf 3:0 auf. Hatte Tasso Wild den Goalgetter bei seinen ersten beiden Treffern noch assistiert, benötigte er diese Unterstützung beim 5:0-Schlusspunkt durch einen
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Neuburg: Fograscher besucht Bio-Bauern - donaukurier.de
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Bild: oh Simone Engelhard (vl), MdB Fograscher, JUSO-Kreisvorsitzender Dennis Nagl, Walter Engelhard und Gemeinderat und SPD-Ortsvorsitzender in Rennertshofen, Heinrich Müller. Auf den Ablauf auf einem zertifizierten Bio-Bauernhof war die
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TuSPO würdigt die Männer und Frauen der ersten Stunde - Mindener Tageblatt
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Vorsitzenden Heinz Willms aus Petershagen und Heinrich Müller aus Ovenstädt haben sich mit Weitsicht und Überzeugungskraft an die Arbeit gemacht. Maßgeblich wurden sie dabei von Karl-Heinz Schmitz unterstützt", sagte Büsing
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Cathryn: Debütalbum "Becoming Me" bei Nation Music - Musikmarkt
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Für die Badener Sängerin ist das Album nicht nur der Ausdruck ihrer Selbstfindung, sondern auch ein Schritt aus der zweiten Reihe: denn Cathryn war zuvor lediglich als Background-Sängerin für Künstler wie Seven und Heinrich Müller gebucht
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Rivalität gehört längst der Vergangenheit an - Mindener Tageblatt
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Heinz Willms (Petershagen / links) und Heinrich Müller (Ovenstädt), inzwischen 77 und 78 Jahre alt, übernahmen vor 20 Jahren als "Doppelspitze" das Amt der TuSPO-Vorsitzenden. Bei einem Treffen am Ovenstäder Sportplatz gab es viel über die
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Sommer in der Mittagspause - Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger
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Pech für Heinrich Müller, 57, der nur eine Zigarettenpause lang die Sonne genießen kann. Das macht er aber so intensiv wie möglich. Er lehnt mit halbgeschlossenen Augen an einem Gitter, das Gesicht zur Sonne gedreht. „Ich würde jetzt gern am Rhein
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Historischer Schafstall im Heiligen Hain wird saniert - Wolfsburger Allgemeine
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Das Dach, das zwei Pferdeköpfe zieren, ist übrigens laut Landschaftsführer Heinrich Müller Indiz dafür, dass der Schafstall zu den jüngeren seiner Art gehört. „Bei den ganz alten Ställen wurde das Dach bis zum Erdboden gezogen“, so Müller
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Auf „Mädchen“ ist Verlass - Allgemeine Zeitung Mainz
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„Alle waren zufrieden und kein einziger hat sich beklagt“, freute sich Vereinsvorsitzender Heinrich Müller, der sich bei der Vorbereitung und der Sponsorensuche wieder stark engagiert hatte, aber in der heißen Phase wegen eines 14-tägigen
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Theresa Krapf im Regen tadellos unterwegs - Rhein Zeitung
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"Wir leiden unter der Ferienzeit und haben besonders bei den Jugendlichen viele Ausfälle", bedauerte RFZV-Vorsitzender Heinrich Müller. Zwar findet das Traditionsturnier immer im Sommer statt, doch die Beeinträchtigung ist weniger gravierend,
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25 Prüfungen in Gebroth - Allgemeine Zeitung Mainz
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Die Anlage ist in bestem Zustand, bestätigte Vorsitzender Heinrich Müller im Gespräch mit dieser Zeitung. Und rechtzeitig sei auch die Überdachung vor der Küche fertig geworden. Insgesamt stehen 25 Prüfungen auf dem Programm mund fast 600 Nennungen
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Vöhrenbach: FC Furtwangen gewinnt zum 23. Mal - Schwarzwälder Bote
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Male wurde diese, seinerzeit von Heinrich Müller ins Leben gerufene Veranstaltung ausgetragen. Die Leitung des Turniers lag in den bewährten Händen von Adolf Wehrle aus Neukirch. Seit weit mehr als zehn Jahren übt er die Turnierleitung aus und
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„Aus Liebe zur Heimatgeschichte“ - suedkurier.de
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Karl Frey, Kurt Schrem, Hans Grohm, Klaus Matt, Hubertus Klett, Peter Schramm, Heinrich Müller und Hartmut Koblitz beleuchten historische Themen, wobei sie den Bogen von der Keltenzeit bis zum Kriegsende 1945 schlagen. „Sie können stolz auf dieses Heft
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Fußballer kämpfen zum 50. Mal um den Bregtalpokal - suedkurier.de
Google News - over 5 years
Die Idee zum Bregtalpokalturnier stammt von Heinrich Müller, damals Staffelleiter für den Bezirk Schwarzwald und auch Spielausschussvorsitzender des FC Furtwangen. Der engagierte Fußballfunktionär stiftete auch die beiden ersten Pokale für das Turnier
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Auftaktveranstaltung voller Erfolg - Start "heiße Phase" von 1200-Jahrfeier - Osthessen News
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Das Cantus Quartett unter Leitung von Heinrich Müller brachte zusammen mit dem Männergesangverein Heubach- Uttrichshausen ein auf Uttrichshausen komponiertes Lied zum Vortrag. Auf die vertonte Melodie von Heinrich Müller und dem Liedtext von Anni
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Triberg: Thema Sicherheit - Schwarzwälder Bote
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Der stellvertretende Kreisvorsitzende des Reservistenverbands, Knut-Heinrich Müller, begrüßte die Besucher des sicherheitspolitischen Seminars in Triberg. Foto: Kommert Foto: Schwarzwälder-Bote Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis (hjk). Der Verband der Reservisten
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75 Fotografen zeigen im Erfurter Rathaus ihre Wendegeschichte - Thüringische Landeszeitung
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Genau das sei das Anliegen der Ausstellung "East - Zu Protokoll", sagt der Fotograf Frank-Heinrich Müller . Müller ist Kurator der Schau mit Wende-Fotos, die derzeit im Erfurter Rathaus zu sehen ist. "Ich wollte eine Art Tagebuch des Wendeherbstes
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Heinrich Müller
    FORTIES
  • 1945
    Age 44
    Taking into account the currently available records, the authors of this report conclude that Müller most likely died in Berlin in early May 1945."
    More Details Hide Details In 2008, historian Peter Longerich published a biography of Heinrich Himmler, which appeared in English translation in 2012. Longerich asserts that Müller was with Himmler at Flensburg on 11 May, and accompanied Himmler and other SS officers in their unsuccessful attempt to escape capture by the Allies and reach Bavaria on foot. Longerich states that Himmler and Müller parted company at Meinstadt, after which Müller was not seen again. Longerich provides no source for this claim, which contradicts previous accounts of Müller's disappearance. The source for Longerich's account appears to be the interrogation of one of Himmler's adjutants, Werner Grothmann, the transcript of which contains references to "Müller".
    He was last seen in the Führerbunker in Berlin on 1 May 1945 and remains the most senior figure of the Nazi regime who was never captured or confirmed to have died.
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    In 2013 Johannes Tuchel, the head of the Memorial to the German Resistance, claimed Müller's body was found in August 1945 by a work crew cleaning up corpses and was one of 3,000 buried in a mass grave on the site of a former Jewish cemetery in Berlin-Mitte.
    More Details Hide Details While Tuchel was confident that he had solved the mystery, whether Müller is actually there has not been confirmed. Nonetheless, the uncertainty of Müller's ultimate end and/or whereabouts has only served to nourish the "mysterious power" that the Gestapo elicits even to the present.
    Müller was last seen in the bunker on the evening of 1 May 1945, the day after Hitler's suicide.
    More Details Hide Details Hans Baur, Hitler's pilot, later quoted Müller as saying, "We know the Russian methods exactly. I haven't the faintest intention of being taken prisoner by the Russians." From that day onwards, no trace of him has ever been found. He is the most senior member of the Nazi regime whose fate remains a mystery. Possible explanations for his disappearance include: The Central Intelligence Agency's file on Müller was released under the Freedom of Information Act in 2001, and documents several unsuccessful attempts by U.S. agencies to find Müller. The U.S. National Archives commentary on the file concludes: "Though inconclusive on Müller's ultimate fate, the file is very clear on one point. The Central Intelligence Agency and its predecessors did not know Müller's whereabouts at any point after the war. In other words, the CIA was never in contact with Müller." The CIA file shows that an extensive search was made for Müller in the months after the German surrender. The search was led by the counterespionage branch of the U.S. Office of Strategic Services (forerunner of the CIA). The search was complicated by the fact that "Heinrich Müller" is a very common German name. A further problem arose because " some of these Müllers, including Gestapo Müller, did not appear to have middle names. An additional source of confusion was that there were two different SS generals named Heinrich Müller."
    Both Junge and Oberscharführer Rochus Misch, the telephone operator for the Führerbunker, recalled seeing Müller on 30 April 1945.
    More Details Hide Details Misch placed him in the Reich Chancellery still in full uniform. That afternoon, Hitler committed suicide. On 2 May 1945, the commander of the Berlin Defence Area, General Helmuth Weidling, surrendered to the Red Army.
    Hitler's secretary, Traudl Junge, recounted seeing Müller on 22 April 1945 and claimed she saw him on occasion chatting with Hitler in the bunker; she also added that he (Müller) had assumed Kaltenbrunner's former duties as head of the RSHA.
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    In April 1945 he was among the last group of Nazi loyalists assembled in the Führerbunker in central Berlin as the Red Army fought its way into the city.
    More Details Hide Details One of his last tasks was the sharp interrogation of Hermann Fegelein in the cellar of the Church of the Trinity as to what he knew of Himmler's attempted peace negotiations with the western allies behind Hitler's back. Fegelein was Himmler's SS liaison officer and was shot after Hitler had Himmler expelled from all his posts for the betrayal.
  • 1944
    Age 43
    In the last months of the war Müller remained at his post, apparently still confident of a German victory — he told one of his officers in December 1944 that the Ardennes offensive would result in the recapture of Paris.
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    After the assassination attempt against Adolf Hitler on 20 July 1944, Müller was placed in charge of the arrest and interrogation of all those suspected of involvement in the resistance.
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    Early in 1944, Müller issued the heinous Nazi injunction known as the "cartridge directive"; this command stipulated that Soviet prisoners-of-war who had assisted in the identification of detained political commissars for the purpose of their liquidation, also be executed on the grounds that they were Geheimnisträger (bearers of secrets).
    More Details Hide Details Instructions like these amid the numerous other crimes committed at his command made Müller "one of the most feared officials in Europe" during the Nazi reign.
  • 1943
    Age 42
    According to the SiPo and SD official in Denmark, Rudolf Mildner, Gestapo Chief Müller instructed him "to arrest the Nobel Prize–winning atomic physicist Niels Bohr" sometime during the fall of 1943; this was likely the consequence of Bohr being half-Jewish, but his scientific significance also interested officials in Berlin.
    More Details Hide Details Fortunately for Bohr, he was tipped off by a sympathetic German woman working for the Gestapo and was able to escape across the Kattegat Strait into Sweden. Later, Mildner conveniently asserted during Allied questioning that he had disobeyed Müller's order and allowed Bohr to get to safety.
    He presented Himmler with firm evidence during February 1943, that Wilhelm Canaris was involved with the resistance; however, Himmler told him to drop the case.
    More Details Hide Details Offended by this, Müller became an ally of Martin Bormann, the head of the Nazi Party Chancellery, who was Himmler's main rival.
    In 1943 Müller had differences with Himmler over what to do with the growing evidence of a resistance network within the German state apparatus, particularly the Abwehr and the Foreign Office.
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    Sometime in 1943, Müller was sent to Rome to pressure the Italian government to cooperate in relinquishing their Jews for deportation.
    More Details Hide Details Despite having the apparent support of Mussolini, Müller's efforts were not very successful as influential Jewish figures within Italy were in contact with the police and the military; they successfully appealed to their (Italians and Jews) shared religious convictions and convinced them to resist Nazi pressure.
  • 1942
    Age 41
    Nonetheless, between the time Heydrich died in 1942 and Kaltenbrunner took office in January 1943, "Müller played a central role in the organization of the Holocaust."
    More Details Hide Details Evidence of Müller's intimate involvement in the Final Solution are abundant in some of the surviving documents and in the later testimony of Eichmann, who divulged that he remained in constant contact with Müller. Eichmann recalled how Müller reserved power unto himself and that while he (Eichmann), arranged plenty of deportations, it was only Müller who could write the total number of Jews (in his orange-colored pencil) who were transported at the top of the corresponding reports. When the Red Army counter-offensives began pushing the Wehrmacht out of Soviet territory in the autumn of 1942, the exigencies of war demanded an increase in arms production; Müller played his part by responding to and facilitating Himmler's request for an additional 35,000–40,000 forced laborers. The Gestapo Chief rounded them up from across detention centers and prisons which were not yet part of the concentration camp system and sent them to Majdanek and Auschwitz.
    In May 1942 Heydrich was assassinated in Prague by Czech soldiers sent from London.
    More Details Hide Details Müller was sent to Prague to head the investigation into Operation "Anthropoid". He succeeded through a combination of bribery and torture in locating the assassins, who killed themselves to avoid capture. Despite this success, his influence within the regime declined somewhat with the loss of his original patron, Heydrich.
    Enforcement and administration of Nazi racial-hygiene policies were also within the purview of Müller's responsibilities, as a special letter he sent from Berlin to all Gestapo offices on 10 March 1942 reveals; the letter contained instructions concerning the relationship between German women and Polish civilians or prisoners-of-war who were conscripted as labor during the war, particularly in cases related to pregnancy.
    More Details Hide Details If both parties proved "racially acceptable" and the Polish man wanted to marry the woman, the pregnancy and relationship was allowed without punitive consequences, provided the RSHA approved after photographic evaluation of both parties and subsequent "Germanization" of the Pole occurred. For cases where one or more parties was deemed racially unfit, the Polish male would receive "special handling", an obvious Nazi euphemism for a death-sentence.
    In January 1942 he also attended the Wannsee Conference at which Heydrich briefed senior officials from a number of government departments of the extermination plan, and at which Eichmann took the minutes. Once the conference concluded, Müller, Heydrich, and Eichmann remained afterwards for additional "informal chats". Just a couple months later in March 1942, Jews were already being systematically killed in gas vans at Chelmno and Belzec while construction was underway at Birkenau and Sobibor.
    More Details Hide Details Again, Müller sent Eichmann to relate his findings about the killing operations taking place at Chelmno; when Eichmann returned this time, he reported to Müller that the scene was "horrible" and added it was "an indescribable inferno." When the first denunciations of the mass murder being carried-out by the Germans hit the Allied press during the autumn and winter of 1942, Himmler instructed Müller to ensure that "all the bodies were either buried or burned."
    Heydrich was Müller's direct superior until his assassination in 1942.
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  • 1941
    Age 40
    On 23 October 1941, Müller briefed a circular to SiPo stations which exclusively prohibited any future Jewish emigration out of German controlled territory, a directive which presaged their imminent extermination.
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    Attempting to keep the brutality of the wholesale slaughter occurring in the East as quiet as possible, Müller sent a telegram to the Einsatzgruppen towards the end of August 1941, which explicitly instructed them "to prevent the crowding of spectators during the mass executions."
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    In August 1941, Müller ordered that these killing reports be forwarded to Hitler.
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    At the end of June 1941, Müller dispatched Eichmann to Minsk, so he could collect detailed information on the execution activities.
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    Correspondingly, Müller received detailed reports from Eichmann about the Einsatzgruppen units, which according to historian Raul Hilberg killed more than two million people, including 1.3 million Jews between 1941 and 1945.
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    Although his chief responsibility was always police work within Germany, he was fully in charge and thus responsible to execute the extermination of the Jews of Europe. When Eichmann reported to Müller sometime in the middle of 1941 that he had been informed by Himmler that the Führer had ordered the physical destruction of the Jews for instance, Müller silently nodded at his desk, indicating to Eichmann that he already knew.
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  • THIRTIES
  • 1939
    Age 38
    Twelve days later on 18 October 1939, he told Eichmann that it would soon "be necessary to organize the resettlement and removal of Poles and Jews into the area of the future Polish rump state centrally" via the RSHA.
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    On 6 October 1939 for instance, Müller instructed Eichmann to prepare for the deportation of some 70,000 to 80,000 Jews from the annexed Polish city of Kattowitz; an order which also included the deportation of the Jews from Ostrava—both "expulsion campaigns" had already been planned as early as September by the Gestapo or the army.
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    Thereafter, Müller continued to rise quickly through the ranks of the SS: in October 1939 he became an SS-Oberführer, in November 1941 – Gruppenführer and Lieutenant General of the police.
    More Details Hide Details During the Second World War, Müller was heavily involved in espionage and counter-espionage, particularly since the Nazi regime increasingly distrusted the military intelligence service—the Abwehr—which under Admiral Wilhelm Canaris was a hotbed of activity for the German Resistance. In 1942 he successfully infiltrated the "Red Orchestra" network of Soviet spies and used it to feed false information to the Soviet intelligence services.
    When Hitler and his army chiefs asked for a pretext for the invasion of Poland in 1939, Himmler, Heydrich, and Müller masterminded and carried out a false flag project code-named Operation Himmler.
    More Details Hide Details During one of the operations, the clandestine mission to a German radio station on the Polish border, Müller helped collect a dozen or so condemned men from camps, who were then dressed in Polish uniforms. In exchange for their participation, the men were told by Müller that "they would be pardoned and released." Instead, the men were given a lethal injection and gunshot wounds to make them appear to have been killed in action during a fake attack. These incidents (particularly the staged attack on the Gleiwitz radio station) were then used in Nazi propaganda to justify the invasion of Poland, the opening event of World War II.
    In September 1939, when the Gestapo and other police organizations were consolidated under Heydrich into the Reich Main Security Office (RSHA), Müller was made chief of the RSHA "Amt IV" (Office or Dept. 4): Gestapo.
    More Details Hide Details To distinguish him from another SS general named Heinrich Müller (a very common German name), he became known as "Gestapo Müller". As Gestapo chief of operations and later (September 1939 forward) head of the organization, Müller played a leading role in the detection and suppression of all forms of resistance to the Nazi regime. Trusted by both Heydrich and Himmler, Müller was pivotal in making the Gestapo the "central executive organ of National Socialist terror" according to historians Carsten Dams and Michael Stolle. Under his leadership, the Gestapo succeeded in infiltrating and to a large extent, destroying Nazi opposition groups like the underground networks of the left-wing Social Democratic Party and Communist Party. Along these lines, historian George C. Browder asserts that Müller's "expertise and his ardent hate for Communism guaranteed his future".
    Heydrich also tasked Müller during the summer of 1939 to create a centrally organized agency to deal with the eventual emigration of the Jews.
    More Details Hide Details While the chief of the subsequent Reich Central Office for Jewish Emigration was indeed Heydrich, it was Müller who took care of the office's administrative details. Shortly thereafter Müller took charge of this office but then handed control over to Adolf Eichmann. Once the war began, this ended the possibility of Jewish emigration which caused the office's dissolution.
  • 1938
    Age 37
    One of Müller's first major acts occurred during the unprecedented Kristallnacht pogrom of 9–10 November 1938, when he ordered the arrest of between 20,000–30,000 Jews.
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    He was made Inspector of the Security Police for all of Austria following the 1938 Anschluss, while his close friend Franz Josef Huber took charge of the Gestapo office in Vienna.
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  • 1936
    Age 35
    By 1936, with Heydrich head of the Gestapo, Müller was its operations chief.
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  • 1934
    Age 33
    Müller joined the SS in 1934.
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  • 1933
    Age 32
    After the Nazis came to power in 1933, Reinhard Heydrich as head of the Security Service (SD) recruited Müller, Franz Josef Huber and Josef Albert Meisinger, referred to as the "Bajuwaren-Brigade" (Bavarian Brigade).
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    Nazi jurist and former police chief, SS-Obergruppenführer Werner Best opined that Müller represented one of the "finest examples" of the limited connection between members of the NSDAP and the police before 1933.
    More Details Hide Details On 4 January 1937, an evaluation by the Nazi Party's Deputy Gauleiter of Munich-Upper Bavaria stated: This assessment did not deter Heydrich from moving Müller along the ranks, particularly since Heydrich believed it was an advantage not to be bound to the influence of the NSDAP. Functionaries like Müller were the sort of men Heydrich preferred since they were inherently committed to their "area of responsibility" and correspondingly justified any steps they deemed necessary against perceived enemies of the Nazi "racial community." Müller was promoted to the rank of Standartenführer (colonel) in 1937. Engrossing himself often in red-tape and statistics, Müller was a natural administrator who took solace in a "world of notes, memos, and regulations" and then received and transformed Gestapo reports of denouncements, torture, and secret executions into "administrative fodder." Despite the expense of so much mental energy in carrying out his duties, Müller disliked the scholarly types and once told Walter Schellenberg that "intellectuals should be sent down a coal mine and blown up."
    Once the Nazis seized power, Müller's knowledge of communist activities placed him in high demand; as a result he was promoted to Polizeiobersekretär in May 1933 and again to Criminal Inspector in November 1933.
    More Details Hide Details Historian Richard J. Evans wrote: "Müller was a stickler for duty and discipline, and approached the tasks he was set as if they were military commands. A true workaholic who never took a vacation, Müller was determined to serve the German state, irrespective of what political form it took, and believed that it was everyone's duty, including his own, to obey its dictates without question." Evans also records that Müller was a regime functionary out of ambition, not out of a belief in National Socialism: An internal Nazi Party memorandum... could not understand how "so odious an opponent of the movement" could become head of the Gestapo, especially since he had once referred to Hitler as "an immigrant unemployed house painter" and "an Austrian draft-dodger".
    On 9 March 1933, during the Nazi putsch that deposed the Bavarian government of Minister-President Heinrich Held, Müller advocated to his superiors using force against the Nazis.
    More Details Hide Details Ironically, these views aided Müller's rise as it guaranteed the hostility of the Nazis, thereby making Müller very dependent upon the patronage of Reinhard Heydrich, who in turn appreciated Müller's professionalism and skill as a policeman, and was aware of Müller's past, making Müller reliant upon Heydrich's protection.
  • TEENAGE
  • 1919
    Age 18
    After service in the last year of World War I as a pilot for an artillery spotting unit, during which he was decorated several times for bravery (including the Iron Cross 1st and 2nd class, Bavarian Military Merit Cross 2nd Class with Swords and Bavarian Pilots Badge), he joined the Bavarian Police in 1919 as an auxiliary worker.
    More Details Hide Details Although not a member of the Freikorps, he was involved in the suppression of the communist risings in the early post-war years. After witnessing the shooting of hostages by the revolutionary "Red Army" in Munich during the Bavarian Soviet Republic, he acquired a lifelong hatred of communism. During the years of the Weimar Republic he was head of the Munich Political Police Department, having rose quickly through the ranks due to his spirited efforts. It was under these auspices that he became acquainted with many members of the Nazi Party including Heinrich Himmler and Reinhard Heydrich, although Müller in the Weimar period was generally seen as a supporter of the Bavarian People's Party (which at that time ruled Bavaria).
  • 1918
    Age 17
    Not long after the anti-Nazi resisters were sadistically killed, Müller allegedly exclaimed, "We won't make the same mistake as in 1918.
    More Details Hide Details We won't leave our internal German enemies alive."
  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1900
    Born
    Müller was born in Munich on 28 April 1900 to Catholic parents.
    More Details Hide Details His father had been a rural police official. Müller attended a Volkshochschule and completed an apprenticeship as an aircraft mechanic before the outbreak of the First World War.
Original Authors of this text are noted here.
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