Hosni Mubarak
Egyptian President 1981-2011
Hosni Mubarak
"Mubarak" redirects here. For other uses, see Mubarak. Hosni Mubarak File:Hosni Mubarak ritratto.
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Blind sheikh Omar Abdel Rahman dies in US prison facility
Yahoo News - 3 days
Blind sheikh Omar Abdel Rahman, the Egyptian-born cleric linked to the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, died Saturday of natural causes in a US prison facility, the Justice Department said. Abdel Rahman was serving a life sentence on several terrorism-related charges at a Federal Medical Center in Butner, North Carolina. The sheikh was seen as a jihadist spiritual leader even after his conviction in 1995 for conspiring to bomb New York landmarks, including the United Nations, and assassinate the former Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak.
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Yahoo News article
The Arab Spring: Six Years Later
Huffington Post - 24 days
Egyptian protesters during demonstrations in Cairo, January 2011 On December 17, 2010, a street vendor in Tunis, named Mohammed Bouazizi, immolated himself in protest of the arbitrary seizing of his vegetable stand by a local government official. That act triggered the Jasmine Revolution in Tunisia and a wave of public unrest throughout the Middle East that came to be called the "Arab Spring." Six years later, little remains of the hopes that the West saw in the Arab Spring. Instead, that spring has given way to a winter of economic stagnation and political violence that has plunged Syria, Libya and Yemen into bloody civil war, has led to widespread unrest in Egypt, Iraq and Bahrain, and threatens to destabilize Arab governments from Morocco to Saudi Arabia. What went wrong? Should the United States have moved more forcefully to support the various Arab Spring movements or did Washington fail to understand the true nature of the popular revolts? Simply put, should we have d ...
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Huffington Post article
‘Biased’ Changes To Egypt’s Divorce Laws Over Custody Prompt Outcry
Huffington Post - 27 days
An amendment that would give custody of children to their father if their mother remarries has sparked outrage among Egyptian women and their advocates, who claim it highlights systemic gender biases in family laws. Hanna’s husband put her through years of psychological and physical abuse before she managed to divorce him. The Egyptian single mother, now 27, was living with her family in the U.S. when her husband Amir raped her. She pressed charges and he spent a month in prison, but he was then released when her family convinced her to drop the charges. After she returned to Egypt to file for a divorce, Amir followed her back to the country and abducted their only son Kareem, then three years old, and kept him hidden in a beach town in Sinai for three months. When Hanna got her son back and continued to push for the divorce, Amir put a knife to her throat. Eventually, in 2014, a judge granted Hanna a divorce, but said that because Amir hadn’t given his consent for the divorce, ...
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Huffington Post article
6 Years After Mubarak, Crackdown On Dissent Continues In Egypt
NPR - 27 days
This week marks the sixth anniversary of the ousting of former President Hosni Mubarak in Egypt. The crackdown on activism and dissent continues, even as a few are released from prisons.
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NPR article
Rest In Peace, January 25th Revolution... Till Egyptians Rise Again
Huffington Post - 28 days
Once upon a time, millions of Egyptians took to the streets after coming together through social media. Within a duration of only 18 days, they managed to topple a 30-year dictator, Hosni Mubarak. They thought they won and that the country would flip and take its best form the following day. But they were wrong. Fast forward. Six years. According to Egypt's Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics, 27.8 percent of Egypt's population lives below the poverty line. Nearly 14.5 million Egyptians were illiterate by 2015. The American dollar is now worth 19 Egyptian pounds. Rates of political prisoners, liberal and Islamic, reached over 40,000. People murdered by the police or military amounted to over a thousand, at least. The economy is disastrous. Oppression is hiked. People are starving. Even the middle class, who lived well during Mubarak's time, are now struggling with the current inflation of prices. People have reached a point where they wish they had never re ...
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Huffington Post article
Egyptian court approves freezing assets of rights activists
Yahoo News - about 1 month
An Egyptian court on Wednesday approved a freeze on the assets of three human rights activists, one of them said, the latest twist in a five-year-old case in which NGOs are accused of receiving foreign funds to sow chaos. Egyptian rights activists say they are facing the worst assault in their history amid a wider campaign to erase freedoms won in a 2011 uprising that ended Hosni Mubarak's 30-year rule. The court on Wednesday froze the assets of Mozn Hassan, director of the Nazra for Feminist Studies, Mohamed Zaree, head of the Arab Penal Reform Organization, and Atef Hafez, director of the Arab Organisation for Judicial Reform.
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Yahoo News article
Egypt targets 5% economic growth by mid-2018
Yahoo News - about 2 months
Egypt targets a five percent economic growth rate in the year to June 2018, the finance ministry said Sunday as the government seeks to revive an economy battered by political turmoil. Egyptian authorities have battled high unemployment, inflation and a collapse in tourism income since the 2011 uprising that toppled former president Hosni Mubarak. President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, who led the 2013 military overthrow of Mohamed Morsi, Egypt's first elected civilian president, vowed to get the economy back on track after his election the following year.
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Yahoo News article
Blast Inside Cairo's Coptic Cathedral Kills At Least 25 People
Huffington Post - 2 months
CAIRO, Dec 11 (Reuters) - A bombing at Cairo’s largest Coptic cathedral killed at least 25 people and wounded 49, many of them women and children attending Sunday mass, in the deadliest attack on Egypt’s Christian minority in years. The attack comes as President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi fights battles on several fronts. His economic reforms have angered the poor, a bloody crackdown on the Muslim Brotherhood has seen thousands jailed, whilst an insurgency rages in Northern Sinai, led by the Egyptian branch of Islamic State. The militant group has also carried out deadly attacks in Cairo and has urged its supporters to launch attacks around the world in recent weeks as it goes on the defensive in its Iraqi and Syrian strongholds. There was no immediate claim of responsibility, but exiled Brotherhood officials and home-grown militant groups condemned the attack. Islamic State supporters celebrated on social media. “God bless the person who did this blessed act,” wrote one suppor ...
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Huffington Post article
Egypt sees resurgence in independent music scene
Yahoo News - 3 months
Emerging artists are creating an eclectic selection of hip-hop, dubstep, electronic and rock music, with some influenced by traditional Egyptian sounds. The movement began in the mid-2000s as musicians bypassed record labels to reach their listeners directly via the web. It was boosted by Egypt's 2011 uprising which toppled longtime dictator Hosni Mubarak.
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Yahoo News article
Egyptian activists raise alarm over expanding NGO crackdown
Yahoo News - 3 months
By Ahmed Aboulenein CAIRO (Reuters) - An Egyptian bill regulating non-governmental organizations is so restrictive it effectively bans human rights work and makes it harder for charities to operate, activists and development workers say. The bill, passed by parliament last week but subject to a final vote, restricts NGO activity to developmental and social work and introduces jail terms of up to five years for non- compliance. Egyptian rights activists say they face the worst crackdown in their history under general-turned-president Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, who they accuse of erasing freedoms won in a 2011 uprising that ended Hosni Mubarak's 30-year rule.
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Yahoo News article
Egypt sees resurgence in independent music scene
Yahoo News - 3 months
Emerging artists are creating an eclectic selection of hip-hop, dubstep, electronic and rock music, with some influenced by traditional Egyptian sounds. The movement began in the mid-2000s as musicians bypassed record labels to reach their listeners directly via the web. It was boosted by Egypt's 2011 uprising which toppled longtime dictator Hosni Mubarak.
Article Link:
Yahoo News article
Painful Steps Help Egypt Secure $12 Billion I.M.F. Loan
NYTimes - 3 months
The loan is intended to avert the collapse of the economy, which has been crumbling since the 2011 uprising that toppled President Hosni Mubarak.
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NYTimes article
Under pressure, Egyptian president promises change
Huffington Post - 4 months
By James M. Dorsey Faced with a drop in popularity, intermittent protests against rising prices, and calls for a mass anti-government demonstration, Egyptian general-turned-president Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi, is seeking to appease the country's youth, soccer fans and activists with promises of change. Mr. Al-Sisi's efforts that include a one-time lifting of a ban on spectators attending soccer matches and promises of revisions of Egypt's draconic anti-protest law as well as a review of the cases of youth detained without trial and monthly meetings with young people to follow up on resolutions of a national youth conference held earlier this month have however provoked sharp criticism even before they got off the ground. An Egyptian poll reported this month that Mr. Al-Sisi's popularity had dropped 14 percent. Writing in Al Masry Al Youm newspaper, journalist Omar Hadi rejected Mr. Al-Sisi's addressing youth as his sons and daughters, insisting that the country's youth were citi ...
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Huffington Post article
Wael Ghonim: We Have A Duty To Use Our Social Media Power To Speak The Truth
Huffington Post - 4 months
The same medium that so effectively transmits a howling message of change also appears to undermine the ability to make it. Social media amplifies the human tendency to bind with one’s own kind. It tends to reduce complex social challenges to mobilizing slogans that reverberate in echo chambers of the like-minded rather than engage in persuasion, dialogue and the reach for consensus. Hate speech and untruths appear alongside good intentions and truths. We’ve seen this both in the Trump campaign in the United States as well as the Brexit campaign in Great Britain. When the body politic is serially divided among itself, each “tribe” hewing to its own chosen reality, polarization rigidifies. Paralysis and gridlock set in. Simple answers or authoritarian and strongman alternatives start to look like attractive ways to create order out of chaos. Wael Ghonim, a social activist whose Facebook posts helped ignite what would become the Arab Spring in Egypt in 2011, has experienced this ...
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Huffington Post article
A Belated Victory For Egypt's 'Golden General'
Huffington Post - 4 months
The fates of Hosni Mubarak and General El-Shazly collided in Tahrir, with one honoured in death and the other disgraced. Veteran Egyptian war correspondent Yehia Ghanem recalls the day in February 2011 when it seemed as if the Egyptian people had finally broken free from the cage of dictatorship. Read the rest of his series, Caged, here. On the morning of February 10, as the revolution was at its peak, I received a call from a former Egyptian diplomat, Ambassador Mohamed el-Shazly. He was calling to break the news of his uncle's death. Saad el-Shazly had been a legendary Egyptian military leader. Known as the Golden General, he had led the reconstruction of the Egyptian army after it had been shattered during the 1967 Six-Day War against Israel. The timing of his death seemed symbolic. As chief of staff, el-Shazly had led the army during the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, the most successful in modern Egyptian history. After the unprecedented success of the first 10 days of t ...
Article Link:
Huffington Post article
Threat Of Widespread Protests Justifies Continued Closure Of Egyptian Stadia
Huffington Post - 4 months
Egyptian-general-turned-president Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi's failed economic policies are prompting protests and widespread expressions of discontent. While the grumbling is unlikely to mushroom any time soon into a popular revolt similar to the one that toppled President Hosni Mubarak in 2011, it goes a long way to explain why Mr. Al-Sisi has refrained from lifting the ban on spectators attending Egyptian soccer league matches. The ban has been in place for much of the last five years. With an anti-government protest scheduled for November 11 and sporadic ones already occurring, Mr. Al-Sisi fears that like in 2011, stadia, if opened, could again become rallying points for the discontented and disaffected. Militant, politicized, and street battle-hardened soccer fans played a key role in the walk-up to the 2011 revolt, the protests on Tahrir Square that forced Mr. Mubarak out of office, and subsequent demonstrations against successive governments. A Facebook page titled The 25th ...
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Huffington Post article
Setting History Alight: Revolution and History in Egypt
Huffington Post - 5 months
From Jeeps running over protesters to a museum being set alight, Yehia Ghanem recalls key moments in Egypt's revolution. On Friday, January 28, the Egyptian revolution arrived at the doors of Al-Ahram newspaper, where veteran journalist and war correspondent Yehia Ghanem addressed demonstrators who were demanding that members of the editorial board be delivered to them. After persuading them to leave peacefully, he joined them as they marched towards Tahrir Square. But when the police began firing at the crowd, he had no choice but to retreat to the Al-Ahram offices with the injured. Read earlier installments in his series, Caged, here It was more than an hour later, at almost 5pm on Friday, January 28 -- a day branded "Angry Friday" -- when the police stopped shooting at the demonstrators who were gathered outside the offices of Egypt's Al-Ahram newspaper. On the third floor of the building was a well-equipped clinic for Al-Ahram's staff. I asked the building's security gu ...
Article Link:
Huffington Post article
Egypt Sends Submarine To Look For Missing Flight MS804
Huffington Post - 9 months
CAIRO, May 22 (Reuters) - Egypt has sent a robot submarine to join the hunt for an EgyptAir plane which crashed in some of the deepest waters of the Mediterranean Sea with 66 people on board, President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi said on Sunday. Ships and planes scouring the sea north of Alexandria have found body parts, personal belongings and debris from the Airbus 320, but are still trying to locate the black box recorders that could shed light on the cause of Thursday's crash. Sisi said that underwater equipment from Egypt's offshore oil industry was being brought in to help the search. "They have a submarine that can reach 3,000 meters under water," he said in a televised speech. "It moved today in the direction of the plane crash site because we are working hard to salvage the black boxes." An oil ministry source said Sisi was referring to a robot submarine used mostly to maintain offshore oil rigs. It was not clear whether the vessel would be able to help locate the black ...
Article Link:
Huffington Post article
The Strange, Unending Limbo of Egypt’s Hosni Mubarak
New York Times - 9 months
The deposed leader remains confined to a hospital room in Cairo even as many former allies cut deals with the government to overturn their own convictions.
Article Link:
New York Times article
Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Hosni Mubarak
    LATE_ADULTHOOD
  • 2016
    Age 87
    In April 2016, Alaa Mubarak was named in the Panama Papers as someone with financial interests that intersect with that of Mossack Fonseca, the firm implicated in that scandal.
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  • 2014
    Age 85
    In November 2014, conspiracy to kill charges were dismissed by the Cairo Criminal Court on a technicality.
    More Details Hide Details The court also cleared Mubarak of corruption charges. On 13 January 2015, Egypt's Court of Cassation overturned Mubarak's and his sons' embezzlement charges, the last remaining conviction against him, and ordered a retrial. A retrial on the corruption charges led to a conviction and sentencing to three years in prison in May 2015 for Mubarak, with four-year terms for his sons, Gamal and Alaa. It was not immediately clear whether the sentence would take into account time already served – Mubarak and his sons have already spent more than three years in prison, so potentially will not have to serve any additional time. Supporters of Mubarak jeered the decision when it was announced in a Cairo courtroom on 9 May. The sentence also included a 125 million Egyptian pound (US$16.3 million) fine, and required the return of 21 million embezzled Egyptian pounds (US$2.7 million). These amounts were previously paid after the first trial.
    In a new development, on 19 June 2014, Mubarak slipped in the bathroom at the military hospital in Cairo where he is being held and broke his left leg, also fracturing his left thighbone, requiring surgery.
    More Details Hide Details Mubarak is serving a three-year sentence for corruption and is also awaiting retrial regarding the killing of protesters during his regime. At one time, his release was ordered. However, Mubarak has remained at the military hospital since January 2014 due to his ongoing health issues. Hosni Mubarak is married to Suzanne Mubarak and has two sons: Alaa, and Gamal. Both sons served four years in Egyptian jail for corruption and were released in 2015. Through his son Alaa, Mubarak has two grandsons, Muhammed and Omar; and through his son Gamal, he has a granddaughter Farida. Muhammad died in 2014 from a fatal head injury.
  • 2013
    Age 84
    He was released from prison in August 2013.
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    On 11 May 2013, he told El-Watan in his first media appearance since his resignation said, "History will judge and I am still certain that the coming generations will view me fairly."
    More Details Hide Details He added that President Mohammed Morsi faced a tough time and that it was too early to judge him.
  • 2012
    Age 83
    On 27 December 2012, Mubarak was taken from Tora Prison to the Cairo military hospital after falling and breaking a rib.
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    On 2 June 2012, Mubarak was reported as have suffered a health crisis while being transported to prison after his conviction on the charges of complicity in the killing of protestors.
    More Details Hide Details Some sources reported he had had a heart attack. Further reports stated that Mubarak's health continued to decline; some said he had to be treated with a defibrillator.
    On 2 June 2012, Mubarak was found guilty of not halting the killing of protesters by the Egyptian security forces; he was sentenced to life imprisonment.
    More Details Hide Details The court found Mubarak not guilty of ordering the crackdown on Egyptian protesters. All other charges against Mubarak, including profiteering and economic fraud, were dismissed. Mubarak's sons, Habib el-Adly, and six senior police officials were all acquitted for their roles in the killing of demonstrators because of a lack of evidence. According to The Guardian, the relatives of those killed by Mubarak's forces were angered by the verdict. Thousands of demonstrators protested the verdict in Tahrir Square, Arbein Square and Al-Qaed Ibrahim Square. In January 2013, an appeals court overturned Mubarak's life sentence and ordered a retrial. He remained in custody and returned to court on 11 May 2013 for a retrial on charges of complicity in the murder of protesters. On 21 August 2013, a Cairo court ordered his release. Judicial sources confirmed that the court had upheld a petition from Mubarak's longtime lawyer that called for his release. A day later, interim prime minister Hazem el-Beblawi ordered that Mubarak be put under house arrest.
  • 2011
    Age 82
    The trial of Hosni Mubarak, his sons Ala'a and Gamal, former interior minister Habib el-Adly and six former top police officials began on 3 August 2011 at a temporary criminal court at the Police Academy in north Cairo.
    More Details Hide Details They were charged with corruption and the premeditated killing of peaceful protesters during the mass movement to oust the Mubarak government, the latter of which carries the death penalty. The trial was broadcast on Egyptian television; Mubarak made an unexpected appearance - his first since his resignation. He was taken into the court on a hospital bed and held in a cage for the session. Upon hearing the charges against him, Mubarak pleaded not guilty. Judge Ahmed Refaat adjourned the court, ruling that Mubarak be transferred under continued arrest to the military hospital on the outskirts of Cairo. The second court session scheduled for 15 August. On 15 August, the resumed trial lasted three hours. At the end of the session, Rifaat announced that the third session would take place on 5 September and that the remainder of the proceedings would be off-limits to television cameras.
    On 26 July 2011, Mubarak was reported to be depressed and refusing solid food while in hospital being treated for a heart condition and in custody awaiting trial.
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    On 13 July 2011, unconfirmed reports stated that Mubarak had slipped into a coma at his residence after giving his final speech, and on 17 July, el-Deeb confirmed the reports.
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    In June 2011, Mubarak's lawyer Farid el-Deeb said his client "has stomach cancer, and the cancer is growing".
    More Details Hide Details Mubarak had undergone surgery for the condition in Germany in 2010 and also suffered from circulatory problems with an irregular heart beat.
    On 12 April 2011, it was reported that he had been hospitalized after suffering a heart attack during questioning over possible corruption charges.
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    On 13 April 2011, a prosecutor ordered Mubarak and both of his sons (Alaa and Gamal) to be detained for 15 days of questioning about allegations of corruption and abuse of power.
    More Details Hide Details Mubarak was then ordered to stand trial on charges of negligence for failing to halt the killing of peaceful protesters during the revolution. These trials began on 3 August 2011. On 2 June 2012, an Egyptian court sentenced Mubarak to life imprisonment. After sentencing, he was reported to have suffered a series of health crises. On 13 January 2013, Egypt's Court of Cassation (the nation's high court of appeal) overturned Mubarak's sentence and ordered a retrial. On retrial, Mubarak and his sons were convicted on 9 May 2015 of corruption and given prison sentences. Mubarak is detained in a military hospital and his sons were freed 12 October 2015 by a Cairo court.
    Mubarak said on 1 February 2011 that he had no intention of standing in the 2011 presidential election.
    More Details Hide Details When this declaration failed to ease the protests, Mubarak's vice president stated that Gamal Mubarak would not run for president. With the escalation of the demonstration and the fall of Mubarak, Hamdy El-Sayed, a former influential figure in the National Democratic Party, said Gamal Mubarak intended to usurp the presidency, assisted by then Interior Minister, Habib El-Adly.
    The National Democratic Party of Egypt continued to state that Hosni Mubarak was to be the party's only candidate in the 2011 Presidential Election.
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    In February 2011, Voice of America reported that Egypt's top prosecutor had ordered a travel ban and an asset freeze for Mubarak and his family as he considered further action.
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    On 21 February 2011, the Egyptian Military Council, which was temporarily given the presidential authorities following 25 January 2011 Revolution, said it had no objection to a trial of Mubarak on charges of corruption.
    More Details Hide Details On 23 February 2011, the Egyptian newspaper Eldostor reported that a "knowledgeable source" described the order of the Prosecutor General to freeze Mubarak's assets and the threats of a legal action as nothing but a signal for Mubarak to leave Egypt after a number of attempts were made to encourage him to leave willingly.
    On 20 February 2011, the Egyptian Prosecutor General ordered the freezing of Mubarak's assets and those of his wife Suzanne, his sons Alaa and Gamal Mubarak, and his daughters-in-law Heidi Rasekh and Khadiga Gamal.
    More Details Hide Details The Prosecutor General also ordered the Egyptian Foreign Minister to communicate this to other countries where Mubarak and his family could have assets. This order came two days after Egyptian newspapers reported that Mubarak filed his financial statement. Egyptian regulations mandate government officials to submit a financial statement listing their assets and sources of income while performing government work.
    On 12 February 2011, the government of Switzerland announced it was freezing the Swiss bank accounts of Mubarak and his family.
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    In February 2011, ABC News reported that experts believed the personal wealth of Mubarak and his family was between and from military contracts made during his time as an air force officer.
    More Details Hide Details The Guardian reported that Mubarak and his family might be worth up to garnered from corruption, bribes and legitimate business activities. The money was said to be spread out in various bank accounts, including some in Switzerland and the UK, and invested in foreign property. The newspaper said some of the information about the family's wealth might be ten years old. According to Newsweek, these allegations are poorly substantiated and lack credibility.
    On 11 February 2011, Vice President Omar Suleiman announced that Mubarak had resigned as president and transferred authority to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces.
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    On 24 May 2011, Mubarak was ordered to stand trial on charges of premeditated murder of peaceful protesters during the revolution and, if convicted, could face the death penalty.
    More Details Hide Details The decision to try Mubarak was made days before a scheduled protest in Tahrir Square. The full list of charges released by the public prosecutor was "intentional murder, attempted killing of some demonstrators misuse of influence, deliberately wasting public funds and unlawfully making private financial gains and profits". On 28 May, a Cairo administrative court found Mubarak guilty of damaging the national economy during the protests by shutting down the Internet and telephone services. He was fined LE200 million - about - which the court ordered he must pay from his personal assets. This was the first court ruling against Mubarak, who would next have to answer to the murder charges.
    On 13 April 2011, a prosecutor originally appointed by Mubarak ordered the former president and both his sons to be detained for 15 days of questioning about allegations of corruption and abuse of power amid growing suspicion that the Egyptian military was more aligned with the Mubaraks than with the revolution.
    More Details Hide Details Gamal and Alaa were jailed in Tora Prison; state television reported that Mubarak was in police custody in a hospital near his residence following a heart attack. Former Israeli Cabinet minister Benjamin Ben Eliezer told Israeli Radio that he had offered Mubarak refuge in the southern Israeli city of Eilat.
    On 28 February 2011, the General Prosecutor of Egypt issued an order prohibiting Mubarak and his family from leaving Egypt.
    More Details Hide Details It was reported that Mubarak was in contact with his lawyer in case of possible criminal charges against him. As a result, Mubarak and his family were placed under house arrest at a presidential palace in the Red Sea resort of Sharm el-Sheikh.
    In a state televised broadcast on 1 February 2011, Mubarak announced that he would not seek re-election in September but would like to finish his current term and promised constitutional reform.
    More Details Hide Details This compromise was not acceptable for the protestors and violent demonstrations occurred in front of the Presidential Palace. On 11 February, then Vice President Omar Suleiman announced Mubarak had resigned and that power would be turned over to the Egyptian military. Two and a half hours after Mubarak's resignation, an Egyptian military member came on air and thanked Mubarak for "putting the interests of the country first." The statement, which said "The Supreme Council is currently studying the situation," did not state what the council would do next. It was widely believed that the Egyptian military abandoned Mubarak in large part because his succession plan, which would put his sons (Alaa and Gamal) in power following his death, constituted a threat to the military's extensive economic, political and financial interests and its vast privileges in Egypt. Mubarak made no media appearances after his resignation. Except for his family and a close circle of aides, he reportedly refused to talk to anyone - even his supporters. His health was speculated to be rapidly deteriorating; some reports said he was in a coma. Most sources said he was no longer interested in performing any duties and wanted to "die in Sharm El-Sheikh".
    On 25 January 2011, protests against Mubarak and his government erupted in Cairo and around Egypt calling for Mubarak's resignation.
    More Details Hide Details Mubarak stated in a speech that he would not leave, and would die on Egyptian soil. Opposition leader Mohamed ElBaradei paid no attention to Mubarak's remarks and labeled it as a trick designed to help Mubarak to stay in power.
    Mass protests against Mubarak and his regime erupted in Cairo and other Egyptian cities on 25 January 2011.
    More Details Hide Details On 1 February, Mubarak announced he would not contest the presidential election due in September. He also promised constitutional reform. This did not satisfy most protesters, who expected Mubarak to depart immediately. The demonstrations continued and on 2 February, violent clashes occurred between pro-Mubarak and anti-Mubarak protesters. On 10 February, contrary to rumours, Mubarak said he would not resign until the September election, though he would be delegating responsibilities to Vice President Omar Suleiman. The next day, Suleiman announced that Mubarak had resigned. The announcement sparked cheers, flag-waving, and celebrations from protesters in Egypt. Discussions about the nation's future direction began. It had been suggested that Egypt be put in the hands of a caretaker government.
  • 2010
    Age 81
    In July 2010, the media said Egypt was about to undergo dramatic change because Mubarak was thought to have cancer and because of the scheduled 2011 presidential election.
    More Details Hide Details Intelligence sources said he had esophageal cancer, stomach or pancreatic cancer; this was denied by Egyptian authorities. Speculation about his ill health increased after his resignation from the presidency. According to Egyptian media, Mubarak's condition worsened after he went into exile in Sharm el-Sheikh. He was reportedly depressed, refused to take medications, and was slipping in and out of consciousness. According to the source - an unnamed Egyptian security official - "Mubarak wants to be left alone and die in his homeland". The source denied that Mubarak was writing his memoirs, stating that he was almost completely unconscious. After his resignation, Egypt's ambassador to the United States Sameh Shoukry reported that his personal sources said Mubarak "is possibly in somewhat of bad health", while several Egyptian and Saudi Arabian newspapers reported that Mubarak was in a coma and close to death.
  • 2007
    Age 78
    In June 2007, Mubarak held a summit meeting at Sharm el-Sheik with King Abdullah II of Jordan, President Mahmoud Abbas and Prime Minister Ehud Olmert.
    More Details Hide Details On 19 June 2008, the Egypt-brokered pause in hostilities between Israel and Hamas went into effect. According to The New York Times, neither side fully respected the terms of the ceasefire. The agreement required Hamas to end rocket attacks on Israel and to enforce the ceasefire throughout Gaza. In exchange, Hamas expected the blockade to end, commerce in Gaza to resume, and truck shipments to be restored to 2005 levels. Israel tied an easing of the blockade to a reduction in rocket fire and gradually re-opened supply lines and permitted around 90 daily truck shipments to enter Gaza. Hamas criticized Israel for its continued blockade while Israel accused Hamas of continued weapons smuggling via tunnels to Egypt and pointed to continued rocket attacks. In 2009, Mubarak's government banned the Cairo Anti-war Conference, which had criticised his lack of action against Israel.
  • 2005
    Age 76
    President Mubarak and his son denied this; they said "a multi-candidate electoral system introduced in 2005 has made the political process more transparent".
    More Details Hide Details Nigerian Tribune journalist Abiodun Awolaja described a possible succession by Gamal Mubarak as a "hereditary pseudo-monarchy."
    In 2005 Freedom House, a non-governmental organization that conducts research into democracy, reported that the Egyptian government under Mubarak expanded bureaucratic regulations, registration requirements, and other controls that often feed corruption.
    More Details Hide Details Freedom House said, "corruption remained a significant problem under Mubarak, who promised to do much, but in fact never did anything significant to tackle it effectively". In 2010, Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index report assessed Egypt with a CPI score of 3.1, based on perceptions of the degree of corruption from business people and country analysts, with 10 being very clean and being highly corrupt. Egypt ranked 98th out of the 178 countries included in the report.
    On 28 July 2005, Mubarak announced his candidacy.
    More Details Hide Details The election was scheduled for 7 September 2005; according to civil organizations that observed the election it was marred by mass rigging activities. In a move widely seen as political persecution, Ayman Nour, a dissident and candidate for the El-Ghad Party ("Tomorrow party") was convicted of forgery and sentenced to five years' hard labor on 24 December 2005. While in office, political corruption in the Mubarak administration's Ministry of the Interior rose dramatically. Political figures and young activists were imprisoned without trial. Illegal, undocumented, hidden detention facilities were established, and universities, mosques, and newspaper staff were rejected because of political inclination. Military officers were allowed to violate citizens' privacy using unconditioned arrests under Egypt's emergency law.
    After increased domestic and international pressure for democratic reform in Egypt, Mubarak asked Parliament on 26 February 2005 to amend the constitution to allow multi-candidate presidential elections by September 2005.
    More Details Hide Details Previously, Mubarak secured his position by having himself nominated by Parliament then confirmed without opposition in a referendum. The September 2005 ballot was a multiple-candidate election rather than a referendum, but the electoral institutions and security apparatus remain under the control of the President.
  • 2003
    Age 74
    President Mubarak spoke out against the 2003 Iraq War, arguing that the Israeli–Palestinian conflict should have been resolved first.
    More Details Hide Details He also said the war would cause "100 Bin Ladens." However, as President he did not support an immediate US withdrawal from Iraq because he believed it would probably lead to chaos.
  • 1999
    Age 70
    He was also reportedly injured by a knife-wielding assailant in Port Said in September 1999.
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    Upon his return, Mubarak is said to have authorized bombings on Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya settlements, which by 1999 had seen 20,000 persons placed in detention related to the revolutionary Islamic organizations.
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  • 1995
    Age 66
    Because of his positions against Islamic fundamentalism and his diplomacy towards Israel, Mubarak was the target of repeated assassination attempts. According to the BBC, Mubarak survived six attempts on his life. In June 1995, there was an alleged assassination attempt involving noxious gases and Egyptian Islamic Jihad while Mubarak was in Ethiopia for a conference of the Organization of African Unity.
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  • FIFTIES
  • 1987
    Age 58
    President Mubarak was re-elected by majority votes in a referendum for successive terms on four occasions: in 1987, 1993, and 1999.
    More Details Hide Details No other candidates could run against the president because a restriction in the Egyptian constitution in which the People's Assembly played the main role in electing the President of the Republic.
    In 1987, Mubarak won an election to a second six-year term.
    More Details Hide Details In his early years in power, Mubarak expanded the Egyptian State Security Investigations Service (Mabahith Amn ad-Dawla) and the Central Security Forces (anti-riot and containment forces). According to Tarek Osman, the experience of seeing his predecessor assassinated "right in front of him" and his lengthy military career - which was longer than those of Nasser or Sadat - may have instilled in him more focus and absorption with security than seemed the case with the latter heads of state. Mubarak sought advice and confidence not in leading ministers, senior advisers or leading intellectuals, but from his security chiefs—"interior ministers, army commanders, and the heads of the ultra-influential intelligence services."
  • 1981
    Age 52
    Mubarak was injured during the assassination of President Sadat in October 1981 by soldiers led by Lieutenant Khalid Islambouli.
    More Details Hide Details Following Sadat's death, Mubarak became the fourth president of Egypt and the chairman of the National Democratic Party (NDP). Until Libya's suspension from the Arab League at the beginning of the Libyan Civil War, Egypt was the only state in the history of the organization to have had its membership suspended, because of President Sadat's peace treaty with Israel. In 1989, Egypt was re-admitted as a full member and the League's headquarters were moved to their original location in Cairo. Egypt was a member of the allied coalition during the 1991 Gulf War; Egyptian infantry were some of the first to land in Saudi Arabia to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait. Egypt's participation in the war solidified its central role in the Arab World and brought financial benefits for the Egyptian government. Reports that sums of up to per soldier were paid or debt forgiven were published in the news media. According to The Economist: The programme worked like a charm: a textbook case, says the Monetary Fund. In fact, luck was on Hosni Mubarak's side; when the US was hunting for a military alliance to force Iraq out of Kuwait, Egypt's president joined without hesitation. After the war, his reward was that America, the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, and Europe forgave Egypt around $20 billion of debt.
  • FORTIES
  • 1978
    Age 49
    During his presidency, Mubarak upheld the U.S. brokered Camp David Accords treaty signed between Egypt and Israel in 1978.
    More Details Hide Details Mubarak, on occasion also hosted meetings relating to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and made a number of attempts to serve as a broker between them. Mubarak was concerned that Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson didn't trust him on the issue and considered meeting him in New York. In October 2000, Mubarak hosted an emergency summit meeting at Sharm el-Sheikh to discuss the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. In attendance were: U.S. President Bill Clinton, P.L.O. Chairman Yasser Arafat, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, King Abdullah of Jordan, NATO Sec. General Javier Solana, and U.N. Sec. General Kofi Annan. Mubarak was involved in the Arab League, supporting Arab efforts to achieve a lasting peace in the region. At the Beirut Summit on 28 March 2002, the league adopted the Arab Peace Initiative, a Saudi-inspired plan to end the Arab–Israeli conflict.
  • 1975
    Age 46
    He was appointed Vice-President of Egypt by President Anwar Sadat in 1975 and assumed the presidency on 14 October 1981, eight days after Sadat's assassination.
    More Details Hide Details Mubarak's presidency lasted almost thirty years, making him Egypt's longest-serving ruler since Muhammad Ali Pasha, who ruled the country from 1805 to 1848, a reign of 43 years. Mubarak stepped down after 18 days of demonstrations during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011.
    Sadat also sent Mubarak to numerous meetings with foreign leaders outside the Arab world. Mubarak's political significance as Vice-President can be seen from a conversation held on 23 June 1975 between Foreign Minister Fahmy and US Ambassador Hermann Eilts.
    More Details Hide Details Fahmy told Eilts that "Mobarek is, for the time being at least, likely to be a regular participant in all sensitive meetings" and he advised the Ambassador not to antagonize Mubarak because he was Sadat's personal choice. Though supportive of Sadat's earlier efforts made to bring the Sinai Peninsula back into Egyptian control, Mubarak agreed with the views of various Arab figureheads and opposed the Camp David Accords for failing to address other issues relating to the Arab–Israeli conflict. Sadat even transferred his decisionmaking authority to Mubarak temporarily at times he went on vacations.
    In September 1975, Mubarak went on a mission to Riyadh and Damascus to persuade the Saudi Arabian and Syrian governments to accept the disengagement agreement signed with the Israeli government ("Sinai II"), but was refused a meeting by the Syrian President Hafez Al-Assad.
    More Details Hide Details During his meetings with the Saudi government, Mubarak developed a friendship with the nation's powerful Crown Prince Fahd, whom Sadat had refused to meet or contact and who was now seen as major player who could help mend the failing relationship between Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Mubarak also developed friendships with several other important Arab figureheads, including Saudi Foreign Minister Prince Saud, Oman's Sultan Qaboos, Morocco's King Hassan II, and Sudan's President Jaafar Nimeiry.
    In April 1975, Sadat appointed Mubarak Vice President of Egypt.
    More Details Hide Details In this position, he took part in government consultations that dealt with the future disengagement of forces agreement with Israel.
  • 1973
    Age 44
    In an interview with the Egyptian independent newspaper Almasry Alyoum (26 February 2011), El-Shazli said Mubarak altered documents to take credit from her father for the initial success of the Egyptian forces in 1973.
    More Details Hide Details She also said photographs pertaining to the discussions in the military command room were altered and Saad El-Shazli was erased and replaced with Mubarak. She stated she intends to take legal action.
    She said Mubarak exaggerated his role in the 1973 war.
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    The next year he was promoted to Air Chief Marshal in recognition of service during the October War of 1973 against Israel.
    More Details Hide Details Mubarak was credited in some publications for Egypt's initial strong performance in the war. The Egyptian analyst Mohamed Hassanein Heikal said the Air Force played a mostly psychological role in the war, providing an inspirational sight for the Egyptian ground troops who carried out the crossing of the Suez Canal, rather than for any military necessity. However Mubarak's influence was also disputed by Shahdan El-Shazli, the daughter of the former Egyptian military Chief of Staff Saad el-Shazly.
  • 1972
    Age 43
    In 1972, Mubarak became Commander of the Air Force and Egyptian Deputy Minister of Defense. On 6 October 1973, the Egyptian Air Force launched a surprise attack on Israeli soldiers on the east bank of the Suez Canal.
    More Details Hide Details Egyptian pilots hit 90% of their targets, making Mubarak a national hero.
  • THIRTIES
  • 1967
    Age 38
    In November 1967, Mubarak became the Air Force Academy's commander when he was credited with doubling the number of Air Force pilots and navigators during the pre-October War years.
    More Details Hide Details Two years later, he became Chief of Staff for the Egyptian Air Force.
  • 1966
    Age 37
    On his return to Egypt, he served as a wing commander, then as a base commander; he commanded the Cairo West Air Base in October 1966 then briefly commanded the Beni Suef Air Base.
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  • 1964
    Age 35
    In 1964 he gained a place at the Frunze Military Academy in Moscow.
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  • 1959
    Age 30
    From February 1959 to June 1961, Mubarak undertook further training in the Soviet Union, attending a Soviet pilot training school in Moscow and another at Kant Air Base near Bishkek in the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic.
    More Details Hide Details Mubarak undertook training on the Ilyushin Il-28 and Tupolev Tu-16 jet bombers.
    Mubarak served as an Egyptian Air Force officer in various formations and units; he spent two years in a Spitfire fighter squadron. Some time in the 1950s, he returned to the Air Force Academy as an instructor, remaining there until early 1959.
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  • TWENTIES
  • 1949
    Age 20
    On 2 February 1949, he left the Military Academy and joined the Air Force Academy, gaining his commission as a pilot officer on 13 March 1950 and eventually receiving a Bachelor's degree in aviation sciences.
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    After leaving high school, he joined the Egyptian Military Academy where he received a Bachelor's degree in Military Sciences in 1949.
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  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1928
    Born
    Hosni Mubarak was born on 4 May 1928 in Kafr El-Meselha, Monufia Governorate, Egypt.
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