Hussein ibn Ali
Hussein ibn Ali
Al-Hussein ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (11 or 13 January 626 CE – 13 October 680 CE) was the son of Ali ibn Abi Ṭalib and Fatimah Zahra and the younger brother of Hasan ibn Ali. Hussein is an important figure in Islam as he is a member of the Ahl al-Bayt (the household of Muhammad) and Ahl al-Kisa, as well as being an Imam. Hussein is highly regarded by both the Shia and the Sunni as a martyr because he refused to pledge allegiance to Yazid I, the Umayyad caliph.
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  • 6800
    But after the death of Hasan, he, thinking that no one will be courageous enough to object his decision as the Caliph, designated his son, Yazid I, as his successor in 680 CE, literally breaking the treaty.
    More Details Hide Details Husayn left Medina with his sisters, daughters, sons, brothers, and the sons of Hasan. He took a side road to Mecca to avoid being pursued, and once in Mecca Husayn stayed in the house of ‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib and remained there for four months. Husayn opposed Yazid I and declared that Umayyad rule was not only oppressive, but also religiously misguided. In his view the integrity and survival of the Islamic community depended on the re-establishment of the correct guidance. Husayn also believed that the succession of Yazid I was an attempt to establish an illegitimate hereditary dynasty. The religious attitudes of the Umayyad also inspired people who believed that leadership of the Muslim community rightly belonged to the descendants of Muhammed, so they urged Husayn to join them and come to Kufa to establish his caliphate since they had no imam. They told him that they did not attend the Friday prayer with the governor of Kufa, No'man ibn Bashir, and would drive him out of the town as soon as Husayn agreed to come to them.
    As a consequence, he was killed and beheaded in the Battle of Karbala in 680 (61 AH) by Shimr Ibn Thil-Jawshan.
    More Details Hide Details The annual memorial for him, his family, his children and his As'haab (companions) is called Ashura (tenth day of Muharram) and is a day of mourning for Shia Muslims. Anger at Hussein's death was turned into a rallying cry that helped undermine the Umayyad Caliphate and gave impetus to the rise of a powerful Shia movement. According to most reports, Hussein was born on 8 January 626 CE (3 Sha'aban 4 AH). Hussein and his brother Hasan were the last descendants of Muhammad living during his lifetime and remaining after his death. There are many accounts of his love for them which refer to them together but at times confuse them with each other. Muhammad is reported to have said that whoever loves them has loved him and whoever hates them has hated him. A famous narration declares them the "Masters of the Youth of Paradise"; this has been particularly important for the Shia who have used it in support of the right of Muhammad's descendants to succeed him. Other traditions record Muhammad with his grandsons on his knees, on his shoulders, and even on his back during prayer at the moment of prostrating himself, when they were young.
  • 6690
    According to the Shia, Husayn had gained the third Imam for a period of ten years after the death of his brother Hassan in 669.
    More Details Hide Details All of this time but the last six months coinciding with the caliphate of Muawiyah. One of the important points of the treaty made between Hasan and Muawiyah was that Muawiyah will not designate anyone as his successor after his death and the decision will be left to the Ummah (the Nation).
  • 6260
    Born in 626.
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