Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis
First Lady of the United States, book editor
Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis
Jacqueline Lee "Jackie" Bouvier Kennedy Onassis was the wife of the 35th President of the United States, John F. Kennedy, and First Lady of the United States during his presidency from 1961 until his assassination in 1963. Five years later she married Greek shipping magnate Aristotle Onassis; they remained married until his death in 1975. For the final two decades of her life, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis had a career as a book editor.
Biography
Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis's personal information overview.
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Popular photos of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis
News
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WarGames: What Will It Become? - About - News & Issues
Google News - over 5 years
The new screenwriter on the reboot is Noah Oppenheim, an ex-news producer who's breaking into film screenwriting; the scripts he has in development already, including a biopic on Jacqueline Onassis, suggest a bent more in the direction of reality-based
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See Deborah Turbeville's tainted beauty at Donna Karan - Elle UK
Google News - over 5 years
Visitors will come face-to-face with photographs beloved by Karl Lagerfeld, Jacqueline Onassis and Rei Kawakubo. It's Turbeville's insistence on layered, flawed beauty that reeled such tastemakers and countless other admirers in
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My Take: 5 biblical passages for Michele Bachmann and Rick Perry - CNN (blog)
Google News - over 5 years
That someone else was not Jacqueline Onassis but the pope. In a famous speech delivered on September 12, 1960, in Houston, he answered the question clearly and definitely. “I believe in an America where the separation of church and state is absolute;
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It's the economy, cari Obama e Zapatero - Linkiesta.it
Google News - over 5 years
... la cui “Great Society”, non ha avuto grandi cantori per la cattiva fama dell'inquilino della Casa Bianca sospettato a lungo, come si può leggere in questi giorni nell'intervista postuma di Jacqueline Onassis, di aver congiurato contro il primo dei
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'Explosive' Jackie Onassis Tapes To Be Released (VIDEO) - Huffington Post
Google News - over 5 years
There are reports that secret recordings offer stunning revelations into Jackie Kennedy, in particular who she thought was involved in her husband's assassination. Never-before-released audio recordings allegedly indicate that Jackie O believed
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Shame on Me, and You for Taking Pleasure in It - New York Times
Google News - over 5 years
He's made a career of scrutinizing the art, artists and public figures beloved by some gay men, writing in depth about not just Jacqueline Onassis but also Liberace and Andy Warhol. (New York magazine once called him “the philosopher of fabulousness
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Gucci dedica una mostra a Jackie Kennedy Onassis - Sfilate
Google News - over 5 years
Creata per la prima volta negli anni Cinquanta, il modello diventò l'accessorio preferito di Jacqueline Onassis, fotografata molte volte, durante gli anni Sessanta, con diverse versioni di questa borsa al braccio. L'ex First Lady degli Stati Uniti era
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Granny's Gourmet Room - Laughlin Entertainer
Google News - over 5 years
In the early '70s, he studied as an apprentice to three European trained chefs in Newport, Rhode Island before working as the personal chef to Jacqueline Onassis and Maurice Templesman. “Let's just say, I've been around food,” says Brown
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Walkers To Introduce Whimsical Scottie Dog Shaped Shortbread Cookies At Summer ... - OfficialWire (press release)
Google News - over 5 years
Queen Victoria and Jacqueline Onassis are just two of the famous women who have had them as pets. The 3.9 oz cartons of the Scottie Dogs are packaged in Walkers signature red tartan plaid and show two cookies on the front separated by a green plaid
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Benedictine Academy awarded 'Best New School' for public volunteer service - Cranford Chronicle - NJ.com
Google News - over 5 years
The Jefferson Award, which is considered the Nobel Prize for Public Service, was founded in 1972 by Jacqueline Onassis, Sam Beard, and Senator Robert Taft, Jr. While in Washington for the ceremonies, Benedictine Academy Students in Action leaders were
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Faccia a faccia con la fotografia - La Stampa (Blog)
Google News - over 5 years
... dedicata al paparazzo americano Ron Galella, che ha immortalato in bianco e nero divi di Hollywood, da Liz Taylor a Jack Nicholson e personaggi del jet set, da Jacqueline Onassis a Mick Jagger (in una foto gli fa il classico gesto del fuck off)
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Jackie O. à Capri avec Tod's - Puretrend.com
Google News - over 5 years
La maison italienne Tod's s'associe à la prochaine exposition autour de Jacqueline Onassis qui s'installera du 2 juillet au 20 août à Capri. Baptisée Jackie O, l'expo est composée de photos prises durant les voyages sur l'île de l'ancienne Première
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Photos | La maison de Céline Dion sur Jupiter Island - LeBuzz.info
Google News - over 5 years
Cette île, située près du comté de Palm Beach, est un véritable repaire de gens riches, mais pas célèbres!, les résidents des lieux ayant à cœur leur tranquillité (on murmure d'ailleurs que Jacqueline Onassis rêvait d'acheter une maison dans le coin,
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Sylphs and Dolls - The Faster Times
Google News - over 5 years
The girls from the Jacqueline Onassis School at ABT were lovely and precise in their “Dance of the Hours”–it was nice to see some of them, looking just a little bit taller, after their last appearance in the company's new “Nutcracker
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Ron Galella - Vogue
Google News - over 5 years
In seinem Fokus: Mick Jagger, Jerry Hall, Andy Warhol, Elizabeth Taylor oder Jacqueline Onassis. Galellas Handwerk war aber nicht nur dem Spontanen verschrieben, sondern auch dessen Inszenierung und so arbeitete der gebürtige New Yorker im Auftrag
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Interior designer Keith Irvine passes away at the age of 82 - Safestore.co.uk
Google News - over 5 years
They included Diana Ross, Leonard Bernstein, Jacqueline Onassis and Cary Grant among many others. He was known for making "chintz" popular. This signature look of pieces of china, needlework and prints became all the rage among the Manhattan elite of
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Genial e incorrigível, cantor João Gilberto chega aos 80 anos nesta sexta - Pernambuco.com
Google News - over 5 years
Um dos mais interessantes foi o encontro com Jacqueline Onassis, viúva de John Kennedy. “Por duas vezes João me chamou para tocar com ele em Nova York. Mas eu acabava era carregando o violão dele, virava roadie (risos). Em uma dessas noites,
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Keith Irvine, Interior Designer, Dies at 82 - New York Times
Google News - over 5 years
Keith Irvine, an interior designer who brought a sense of wit and unpredictability to the English country-house style that won the allegiance of clients like Jacqueline Onassis, Rex and Lady Harrison, and Pat and William F. Buckley
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High-Society Homicide: Christopher Mason, Host of the New TV Show "Behind ... - ARTINFO
Google News - over 5 years
George was an intimate friend of Brooke Astor, Jacqueline Onassis, and Liz Smith, and he entranced me with wondrous tales of intrigue and backstabbing, carried out with finesse. He could be devastatingly funny, and accurate, in his assessments of the
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis
    TWENTIES
  • 1994
    Onassis made her last trip home from New York Hospital–Cornell Medical Center on May 18, 1994.
    More Details Hide Details The following night at 10:15 p.m., she died in her sleep at age 64. Following the death, John F. Kennedy Jr. stated to the press, "My mother died surrounded by her friends and her family and her books, and the people and the things that she loved. She did it in her own way, and on her own terms, and we all feel lucky for that."
    She began chemotherapy in January 1994, and publicly announced the diagnosis, initially stating that the prognosis was good.
    More Details Hide Details While she continued to work at Doubleday, by March, the cancer had spread to her spinal cord and brain, and by May to her liver.
  • 1993
    In November 1993, while participating in a fox hunt in Middleburg, Virginia, Onassis fell from her horse and was taken to the hospital to be examined.
    More Details Hide Details A swollen lymph node was discovered in her groin, which was initially believed by the doctor to be caused by an infection. In December, Onassis developed new symptoms, including a stomach ache and swollen lymph nodes on her neck, and was diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1980
    From 1980 until her death, her companion and personal financial adviser was Maurice Tempelsman, a Belgian-born industrialist and diamond merchant who was estranged from his wife.
    More Details Hide Details In the early 1990s, Onassis became a supporter of Bill Clinton and contributed money to his presidential campaign. Following the election, she met with First Lady Hillary Clinton, and advised her on raising a child in the White House. Clinton wrote in her memoir Living History, that Onassis was "a source of inspiration and advice for me", while Democratic consultant Ann Lewis viewed Onassis as having reached out to the Clintons "in a way she has not always acted toward leading Democrats in the past".
  • 1977
    She resigned from Viking Press in 1977 following the false accusation by The New York Times that she held some responsibility for the company's publication of Jeffrey Archer novel Shall We Tell the President?, which was set in a fictional future presidency of Ted Kennedy and described an assassination plot against him.
    More Details Hide Details Two years later, she appeared alongside her mother-in-law Rose Kennedy at Faneuil Hall in Boston when Ted Kennedy announced that he was going to challenge incumbent President Carter for the Democratic nomination for president. She participated in the subsequent presidential campaign, which was unsuccessful. Following her resignation from Viking Press, Onassis moved to Doubleday, where she worked as an associate editor under an old friend, John Turner Sargent, Sr. Among the books she edited for the company are Larry Gonick's The Cartoon History of the Universe, the English translation of the three volumes of Naghib Mahfuz's Cairo Trilogy (with Martha Levin), and autobiographies of ballerina Gelsey Kirkland, singer-songwriter Carly Simon, and fashion icon Diana Vreeland. She also encouraged Dorothy West, her neighbor on Martha's Vineyard and the last surviving member of the Harlem Renaissance, to complete the novel The Wedding (1995), a multi-generational story about race, class, wealth, and power in the U.S..
  • 1976
    After almost a decade of avoiding participation in political events, she attended the 1976 Democratic National Convention, stunning the assembled delegates when she appeared in the visitors' gallery.
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  • 1975
    After the death of her husband, Onassis returned permanently to the United States, splitting her time between New York City, Martha's Vineyard, and the Kennedy Compound in Hyannis, Massachusetts. In 1975, she became a consulting editor at Viking Press, a position which she held for two years.
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  • OTHER
  • 1968
    She also attended the funeral services of Martin Luther King, Jr. in Atlanta, Georgia, in April 1968, despite her initial reluctancy due to the crowds and reminders of President Kennedy's death.
    More Details Hide Details After the assassination, Kennedy relied heavily on her brother-in-law Robert F. Kennedy, observing him to be the "least like his father" of the Kennedy brothers. He had been a source of support early in her marriage when she had her miscarriage; it was he, not her husband, who stayed with her in the hospital. In the aftermath of the assassination, Robert Kennedy became like a surrogate father for her children, until eventually demands by his own large family and his responsibilities as Attorney General required a reduction in attention. He credited Kennedy for convincing him to stay in politics, and she supported his 1964 run from New York for the United States Senate.
    On October 20, 1968, Kennedy married her long-time friend Aristotle Onassis, a wealthy Greek shipping magnate who was able to provide the privacy and security she sought for herself and her children.
    More Details Hide Details The wedding took place on Skorpios, Onassis's private Greek island in the Ionian Sea. Following her marriage and now going by the name Jacqueline Onassis, she lost her right to Secret Service protection, an entitlement to a widow of a U.S. president. The marriage brought her considerable adverse publicity, including talk of excommunication by the Roman Catholic church, though that idea was explicitly dismissed by Boston's Archbishop, Cardinal Richard Cushing as "nonsense." She was condemned as a "public sinner", and became the target of paparazzi who followed her everywhere and nicknamed her "Jackie O". During their marriage the couple inhabited six different residences: her 15-room Fifth Avenue apartment in New York City, her horse farm in New Jersey, his Avenue Foch apartment in Paris, his private island Skorpios, his house in Athens, and his yacht The Christina. Kennedy ensured that her children had a connection to the Kennedy family by having Ted Kennedy visit them often. She developed a close relationship with him, and he was involved in her public appearances from then on.
    Just after midnight PDT on June 5, 1968, Robert Kennedy was shot and mortally wounded, minutes after celebrating his victory in the California Democratic presidential primary with a crowd of his supporters.
    More Details Hide Details Jacqueline Kennedy rushed to Los Angeles from Manhattan to join his wife, her brother-in-law Ted Kennedy, and the other Kennedy family members at his hospital bedside. He died 26 hours after the shooting without regaining consciousness. After Robert Kennedy's death, Kennedy reportedly suffered a relapse of the depression she had experienced in the days following her husband's assassination nearly five years prior. She came to fear for her life and those of her children, saying: "If they're killing Kennedys, then my children are targets... I want to get out of this country".
    Following the January 1968 Tet offensive in Vietnam, which resulted in a drop in President Johnson's poll numbers, Robert Kennedy's advisors urged him to enter the presidential race.
    More Details Hide Details When asked by Art Buchwald if he intended to run, Robert replied, "That depends on what Jackie wants me to do." Kennedy met with him around this time, encouraging him to run after previously advising him to not copy his brother, but to "be yourself". Privately, she worried about his safety, believing he was more disliked than her husband had been and that there was "so much hatred" in the United States. She confided in him about these feelings, but by her own account, he was "fatalistic" like her. Despite her concerns, Kennedy campaigned for her brother-in-law and supported him, at one point even showing outright optimism that through his victory, members of the Kennedy family would once again occupy the White House.
    She and her children withdrew from public view after his funeral, and she married Aristotle Onassis in 1968.
    More Details Hide Details Following her second husband's death in 1975, she had a career as a book editor for the final two decades of her life. She is remembered for her contributions to the arts and preservation of historic architecture, as well as for her style, elegance, and grace. She was a fashion icon; her famous ensemble of pink Chanel suit and matching pillbox hat has become symbolic of her husband's assassination and one of the most iconic images of the 1960s. She ranks as one of the most popular First Ladies and in 1999 was named on Gallup's list of Most Admired Men and Women in 20th century America. Jacqueline Lee Bouvier was born on July 28, 1929, at Southampton Hospital in Southampton, New York, to Wall Street stockbroker John Vernou "Black Jack" Bouvier III (1891–1957) and socialite Janet Norton Lee (1907–1989). Bouvier's mother was of Irish ancestry, and her father's ancestry included French, Scottish, and English. Named after her father, Bouvier was baptized at the Church of St. Ignatius Loyola in Manhattan; she was raised in the Catholic faith.
  • 1967
    During the Vietnam War in November 1967, Life magazine dubbed Kennedy "America's unofficial roving ambassador" when she and David Ormsby-Gore, former British ambassador to the United States during the Kennedy administration, traveled to Cambodia, where they visited the religious complex of Angkor Wat with Chief of State Norodom Sihanouk.
    More Details Hide Details According to historian Milton Osbourne, her visit was "the start of the repair to Cambodian-US relations, which had been at a very low ebb".
  • 1966
    Kennedy was subject to significant media attention in 1966–1967, when she and Robert Kennedy tried to block the publication of William Manchester's authorized account of President Kennedy's death, despite its having been commissioned by her. They sued its publishers, Harper & Row, in December 1966; the suit was settled the following year with Manchester removing passages detailing President Kennedy's family life.
    More Details Hide Details White viewed the ordeal as validation of the measures the Kennedy family, Jackie in particular, were prepared to take to preserve President Kennedy's public image.
  • 1964
    She purchased a house for herself and the children in Georgetown, but sold it later in 1964 and bought a 15th floor apartment at 1040 Fifth Avenue on Manhattan in the hopes of having more privacy.
    More Details Hide Details In the following years, Kennedy attended selected memorial dedications to her late husband. She also oversaw the establishment of the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, which is the repository for official papers of the Kennedy Administration. Designed by architect I.M. Pei, it is situated next to the University of Massachusetts campus in Boston.
    On January 14, 1964, Kennedy made a televised appearance from the office of the Attorney General, thanking the public for the "hundreds of thousands of messages" she had received since the assassination and said she had been sustained by America's affection for her late husband.
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    Kennedy spent 1964 in mourning and made few public appearances during that time.
    More Details Hide Details In the winter following the assassination, she and the children stayed at Averell Harriman's home in Georgetown.
  • 1963
    On November 29, 1963, a week after her husband's assassination, Kennedy was interviewed in Hyannis Port by Theodore H. White of Life.
    More Details Hide Details In that session, she famously compared the Kennedy years in the White House to King Arthur's mythical Camelot, commenting that the President often played the title song of Lerner and Loewe's musical recording before retiring to bed. She also quoted Queen Guinevere from the musical, trying to express how the loss felt. The era of the Kennedy administration would subsequently often be referred to as the "Camelot Era", although historians have later argued that the comparison is not appropriate, with Robert Dallek stating that Kennedy's "effort to lionize husband must have provided a therapeutic shield against immobilizing grief". Kennedy and her children remained in the White House for two weeks following the assassination. Wanting to "do something nice for Jackie", President Johnson offered an ambassadorship to France to her, aware of her heritage and fondness for the country's culture, but she turned the offer down, as well as follow-up offers of ambassadorships to Mexico and Great Britain. At her request, he renamed the Florida space center the John F. Kennedy Space Center a week after the assassination. Kennedy later publicly praised Johnson for his kindness to her.
    On November 21, 1963, The First Lady and the President left the White House for a political trip to Texas, the first time she had joined her husband on such a trip in the U.S. After a breakfast on November 22, they flew from Fort Worth's Carswell Air Force Base to Dallas' Love Field on Air Force One, accompanied by Texas Governor John Connally and his wife Nellie.
    More Details Hide Details The First Lady was wearing a bright pink Chanel suit and a pillbox hat, which had been personally selected by President Kennedy. A motorcade was to take them to the Trade Mart, where the President was scheduled to speak at a lunch. The First Lady was seated next to her husband in the presidential limousine, with the Governor and his wife seated in front of them. Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson and his wife followed in another car in the motorcade. After the motorcade turned the corner onto Elm Street in Dealey Plaza, the First Lady heard what she thought to be a motorcycle backfiring and did not realize that it was a gunshot until she heard Governor Connally scream. Within 8.4 seconds, two more shots had rung out; yet another shot struck the President in the head. Almost immediately, she reached out across the trunk of the car for something. Her Secret Service agent, Clint Hill, later told the Warren Commission that he thought she had been reaching across the trunk for a piece of the President's skull that had been blown off. Hill ran to the car and leapt onto it, directing her back to her seat. As Hill stood on the back bumper, Associated Press photographer Ike Altgens snapped a photograph that was featured on the front pages of newspapers around the world. She would later testify that she saw pictures "of me climbing out the back.
    Arthur Schlesinger wrote that while President Kennedy always "regarded Jacqueline with genuine affection and pride", their marriage "never seemed more solid than in the later months of 1963".
    More Details Hide Details Aware of her depression, Kennedy's friend Aristotle Onassis invited her to his yacht. Despite President Kennedy initially having reservations, he reportedly believed that it would be "good for her". The trip was widely disapproved of within the Kennedy administration and by much of the general public, as well as in Congress. The First Lady returned to the United States on October 17, 1963. She would later say she regretted being away as long as she was, but had "melancholy after the death of my baby".
    In early 1963, Kennedy was again pregnant, leading her to curtail her official duties.
    More Details Hide Details She spent most of the summer at a home she and her husband had rented on Squaw Island, near the Kennedy compound on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. On August 7, five weeks ahead of her scheduled Caesarean section, she went into labor and gave birth to a boy, Patrick Bouvier Kennedy, via emergency Caesarean section at nearby Otis Air Force Base. His lungs were not fully developed, and he was transferred from Cape Cod to Boston Children's Hospital where he died of hyaline membrane disease two days after birth. Kennedy had remained at Otis Air Force Base to recuperate after the Caesarean delivery; her husband went to Boston to be with their infant son, and was present at his death. He returned to Otis on August 14 to take her home, giving an impromptu speech to thank nurses and airmen that had gathered in her suite, and she presented hospital staff with framed and signed lithographs of the White House.
    On November 22, 1963, she was riding with him in a motorcade in Dallas, Texas, when he was assassinated.
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  • 1962
    At the urging of John Kenneth Galbraith, U.S. Ambassador to India, Kennedy undertook a tour of India and Pakistan with her sister Lee Radziwill in 1962, which was amply documented in photojournalism of the time as well as in Galbraith's journals and memoirs.
    More Details Hide Details She was gifted with a horse called Sardar by the President of Pakistan, Ayub Khan, as he had found out on his visit to the White House that he and the First Lady had a common interest in horses. Life magazine correspondent Anne Chamberlin wrote that Kennedy "conducted herself magnificently” although noting that her crowds were smaller than those that President Dwight Eisenhower and Queen Elizabeth II attracted when they had previously visited these countries. In addition to these well-publicized trips during the three years of the Kennedy administration, she traveled to countries including Afghanistan, Austria, Canada, Colombia, England, Greece, Italy, Mexico, Morocco, Turkey, and Venezuela.
    Kennedy won a special Academy of Television Arts & Sciences Trustees Award for it at the Emmy Awards in 1962, which was accepted on her behalf by Lady Bird Johnson.
    More Details Hide Details Kennedy was the only First Lady to win an Emmy. Throughout her husband's presidency, Kennedy made many official visits to other countries, on her own or with the President – more than any of the preceding First Ladies. Despite the initial worry that she might not have "political appeal", she proved popular among international dignitaries. Before the Kennedys' first official visit to France in 1961, a television special was shot in French with the First Lady on the White House lawn. After arriving in the country, she impressed the public with her ability to speak French, as well as her extensive knowledge of French history. At the conclusion of the visit, Time magazine seemed delighted with the First Lady and noted, "There was also that fellow who came with her." Even President Kennedy joked, "I am the man who accompanied Jacqueline Kennedy to Paris – and I have enjoyed it!"
    On February 14, 1962, Kennedy took American television viewers on a tour of the White House with Charles Collingwood of CBS News.
    More Details Hide Details In the tour she stated that "I feel so strongly that the White House should have as fine a collection of American pictures as possible. It's so important... the setting in which the presidency is presented to the world, to foreign visitors. The American people should be proud of it. We have such a great civilization. So many foreigners don't realize it. I think this house should be the place we see them best." The film was watched by 56 million television viewers in the United States, and was later distributed to 106 countries.
  • 1961
    In 1961, Kennedy spent $45,446 more on fashion than the $100,000 annual salary her husband earned as president.
    More Details Hide Details Although Cassini was her primary designer, she also wore ensembles by French fashion legends such as Chanel, Givenchy, and Dior. As a First Lady, Kennedy preferred to wear clean-cut suits with a skirt hem down to middle of the knee, three-quarter sleeves on notch-collar jackets, sleeveless A-line dresses, above-the-elbow gloves, low-heel pumps, and pillbox hats. Dubbed the "Jackie" look, these clothing items rapidly became fashion trends in the Western world. More than any other First Lady, her style was copied by commercial manufacturers and a large segment of young women. Her influential bouffant hairstyle, described as a "grown-up exaggeration of little girls' hair," was created by Kenneth Battelle, who worked for her from 1954 until 1986. In the years after the White House, Kennedy's style underwent a change, with her new looks consisting of wide-leg pantsuits, large lapel jackets, gypsy skirts, silk Hermès head scarves, and large, round, dark sunglasses. She often chose to wear brighter colors and patterns and even began wearing jeans in public. Beltless, white jeans with a black turtleneck, never tucked in, but pulled down over the hips, was another fashion trend that she set.
    When her husband was sworn in as president on January 20, 1961, 31-year-old Kennedy became the third youngest First Lady in American history (behind Frances Folsom (21) and Julia Gardiner (22).
    More Details Hide Details As a presidential couple, the Kennedys differed from the Eisenhowers by their relative youth and their relationship with the media. Historian Gil Troy has noted that in particular, they "emphasized vague appearances rather than specific accomplishments or passionate commitments" and therefore fit in well in the early 1960s' "cool, TV-oriented culture". The discussion on Kennedy's fashion choices continued during her years in the White House, and she became a trendsetter, hiring American designer Oleg Cassini to design her wardrobe. She was the first First Lady to hire a press secretary, Helen Thomas, and carefully managed her contact with the media, usually shying away from making public statements, and strictly controlling the extent to which her children were photographed. Portrayed by the media as the ideal woman, academic Maurine Beasley has stated that Kennedy "created an unrealistic media expectation for first ladies that would challenge her successors". Nevertheless, by attracting worldwide positive public attention, the First Lady gained allies for the White House and international support for the Kennedy administration and its Cold War policies.
  • 1960
    John F. Kennedy narrowly beat Republican opponent Richard Nixon in the U.S. presidential election on November 8, 1960.
    More Details Hide Details A little over two weeks later, on November 25, Kennedy gave birth to the couple's first son, John F. Kennedy, Jr., via Caesarean section. She spent two weeks recovering in the hospital, during which the most minute details of both her and her son's conditions were reported by the media in what has been considered the first instance of national interest in the Kennedy family.
    On September 29, 1960, the Kennedys appeared together for a joint interview on Person to Person, interviewed by Charles Collingwood.
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    She watched the September 26, 1960, debate between her husband and Vice President Richard Nixon at Hyannis Port with Marian Cannon, wife of Arthur Schlesinger.
    More Details Hide Details Days after the debates, Kennedy contacted Schlesinger, informing him that her husband wanted his aid along with that of John Kenneth Galbraith in preparing for the third debate on October 13 and wished for them to give him new ideas and speeches.
    On July 13, 1960, John Kennedy was nominated by the Democratic Party for President of the United States in Los Angeles at the 1960 Democratic National Convention.
    More Details Hide Details Kennedy did not attend the nomination due to her pregnancy, which had been publicly announced ten days earlier.
    John F. Kennedy announced his candidacy for the presidency and launched his nationwide campaign on January 3, 1960.
    More Details Hide Details In the early months of the election year, Jacqueline Kennedy accompanied her husband to campaign events such as whistle-stops and dinners. But shortly after the campaign began, she became pregnant again and due to her previous high-risk pregnancies was forced to stay at home in Georgetown. Kennedy subsequently participated in the campaign by writing a weekly syndicated newspaper column, Campaign Wife, answering correspondence, and giving interviews to the media. Despite not participating on the campaign trail, Kennedy's fashion choices became subject to intense media attention. On the one hand, she was admired for her personal style: frequently featured in women's magazines alongside film stars and named as one of the twelve best-dressed women of the world. On the other, her preference for French designers and her spending on her wardrobe brought her negative press. In order to downplay her wealthy background, Kennedy stressed the amount of work she was doing for the campaign and declined to publicly discuss her clothing choices.
  • 1959
    In July 1959, historian Arthur M. Schlesinger visited the Kennedy Compound in Hyannis Port, having his first conversation with Kennedy and finding her to have "tremendous awareness, an all-seeing eye and a ruthless judgement".
    More Details Hide Details That year, her husband traveled to fourteen states, with Kennedy taking long breaks from the trips so she could spend time with their daughter. She also counseled her husband on improving his wardrobe in preparation for his intended presidential campaign the following year. In particular, she traveled to Louisiana to visit Edmund Reggie and to help her husband garner support in the state for his presidential bid.
  • 1958
    In November 1958, John Kennedy was reelected to a second term.
    More Details Hide Details He credited Kennedy's help with securing his victory due to her visibility in both ads and stumping, calling her "simply invaluable".
    She and John Kennedy were at the time campaigning for his re-election to the Senate, and posed with their infant daughter for the cover of the April 21, 1958, issue of Life.
    More Details Hide Details They traveled together during the campaign, trying to narrow the geographical gap between them that had persisted for the first five years of the marriage. Soon enough, John Kennedy started to notice the value she had for his campaign, Kenneth O'Donnell remembering "the size of the crowd was twice as big" when she accompanied her husband, also recalling her as "always cheerful and obliging". But her husband's mother observed Kennedy as not being "a natural-born campaigner" due to her shyness and being uncomfortable with too much attention.
  • 1957
    Kennedy gave birth to a daughter, Caroline, on November 27, 1957, via Caesarean section.
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  • 1955
    Additionally, Kennedy suffered a miscarriage in 1955 and in August 1956 gave birth to a stillborn daughter, Arabella.
    More Details Hide Details They subsequently sold their Hickory Hill estate to John's brother Robert, who occupied it with his wife Ethel and their growing family, and bought a townhouse on N Street in Georgetown.
  • 1954
    John Kennedy suffered from Addison's Disease and from chronic and at times debilitating back pain due to a war injury; in late 1954, he underwent two spinal operations that almost proved fatal.
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  • 1953
    Bouvier and Kennedy were married on September 12, 1953, at St. Mary's Church in Newport, Rhode Island, in a Mass celebrated by Boston's Archbishop Richard Cushing.
    More Details Hide Details The wedding was considered the social event of the season with an estimated 700 guests at the ceremony and 1,200 at the reception that followed at Hammersmith Farm. The wedding dress, now housed in the Kennedy Library in Boston, Massachusetts, and the dresses of her attendants were created by designer Ann Lowe of New York City. The newlyweds honeymooned in Acapulco, Mexico before settling in their new home, Hickory Hill in McLean, Virginia, a suburb of Washington, D.C. Kennedy developed a warm relationship with her husband's parents, Joe and Rose Kennedy. In the early years of their marriage, the couple faced several personal setbacks.
    Their engagement was officially announced on June 25, 1953.
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  • 1952
    Bouvier and then-U.S. Representative John F. Kennedy belonged to the same social circle, and were formally introduced by a mutual friend, journalist Charles L. Bartlett, at a dinner party in May 1952.
    More Details Hide Details Bouvier was attracted to Kennedy's physical appearance, charm, wit and wealth. The two also shared similarities in both being Catholic and writers, enjoying reading and previously having lived abroad. Kennedy was then busy running for the U.S. Senate but after his election in November, the relationship grew more serious and he proposed marriage to her. Bouvier took some time to accept, as she had been assigned to cover the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in London for The Washington Times-Herald. After a month in Europe, she returned to the United States, accepted the proposal, and resigned from her position at the newspaper.
    In addition to the random "man on the street" vignettes, she sometimes sought interviews with people of interest such as six-year-old Tricia Nixon after her father Richard Nixon was elected to the vice presidency several days after the 1952 presidential election. During this time, Bouvier was also briefly engaged to a young stockbroker, John G. W. Husted, Jr.; the announcement was published in The New York Times in January 1952, after only a month of dating.
    More Details Hide Details She broke off the engagement after three months, as she began to find him "immature and boring" once she got to know him better.
  • 1951
    When she returned to the U.S. in the fall of 1951, Bouvier changed her mind about the Vogue editorship and quit after only one day of work.
    More Details Hide Details According to biographer Barbara Leaming, she made the decision because she was concerned about her marriage prospects, as at the age of 22 she was already considered almost too old to be single in her social circles. Bouvier moved back to Merrywood, and was hired as a part-time receptionist at the Washington Times-Herald. After a week, she approached editor Frank Waldrop requesting more challenging work, and was given the position of an "Inquiring Camera Girl", despite Waldrop's initial concerns about her competence. The position required her to pose witty questions to individuals chosen at random on the street and take their pictures to be published in the newspaper alongside selected quotations from their responses.
    Upon returning home, she transferred to The George Washington University in Washington, D.C., graduating with a Bachelor of Arts degree in French literature in 1951.
    More Details Hide Details During the early years of her marriage to John F. Kennedy, she took continuing education classes in American History at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. While attending George Washington, Bouvier won a twelve-month junior editorship at Vogue magazine, selected over several hundred of girls from across the country. The position entailed six months working in the magazine's New York City office and spending the remaining six in Paris. Before beginning the editorship, Bouvier celebrated her college graduation and the high school graduation of her sister Lee by traveling with her to Europe for the summer. The trip was the subject of her only autobiographical book, One Special Summer, co-authored with her sister; it is also the only one of her published works to feature her drawings.
  • 1936
    They separated in 1936 and divorced four years later, with the press publishing intimate details of the split.
    More Details Hide Details According to her cousin John H. Davis, Bouvier was deeply affected by the divorce, and subsequently had a "tendency to withdraw frequently into a private world of her own". When her mother married Standard Oil heir Hugh Dudley Auchincloss, Jr., Bouvier and her sister did not attend the ceremony as it was arranged quickly and travel was restricted due to World War II. Bouvier gained three step-siblings from Auchincloss' two previous marriages, Hugh "Yusha" Auchincloss III, Thomas Gore Auchincloss, and Nina Gore Auchincloss; she formed the closest bond with Yusha, who became one of her most trusted confidants. The marriage later produced two more children, Janet Jennings Auchincloss (1945–1985) and James Lee Auchincloss (born 1947). After the remarriage, the Bouvier sisters' primary residence was Auchincloss' Merrywood estate in McLean, Virginia, but they also spent time at his other estate, Hammersmith Farm in Newport, Rhode Island, and in their father's homes in New York City and Long Island. Although she retained a relationship with her father, Bouvier also regarded her stepfather as a close paternal figure. He gave her a stable environment and the pampered childhood she never would have experienced otherwise. While Bouvier adjusted to her mother's remarriage, she sometimes felt like an outsider in the WASP social circle of the Auchinclosses, attributing the feeling to her being Catholic as well as being a child of divorce, which was not common in that social group at that time.
  • 1935
    Bouvier was enrolled in the Chapin School in Manhattan in 1935, which she attended for grades 1–6.
    More Details Hide Details While a bright student, she often misbehaved; one of her teachers described her as "a darling child, the prettiest little girl, very clever, very artistic, and full of the devil". Bouvier's mother attributed her behavior to her finishing assignments before classmates and then acting out in boredom. Her behavior improved after the headmistress warned her that none of her positive qualities would matter if she did not behave. Bouvier's parents' marriage was strained by her father's alcoholism and extramarital affairs; the family had also been in constant financial problems since the Wall Street Crash of 1929.
  • 1933
    Her younger sister Lee was born in 1933.
    More Details Hide Details Bouvier spent her early childhood years in Manhattan and at Lasata, the Bouviers' country estate in East Hampton on Long Island. She idolized her father, who likewise favored her over her sister, calling his eldest child "the most beautiful daughter a man ever had". Biographer Tina Flaherty attributes her father's praise to fueling Bouvier's confidence in herself, and her sister Lee has stated that she would not have gained her "independence and individuality" had it not been for the relationship she had with their father and paternal grandfather. From an early age, Bouvier was an enthusiastic equestrienne and successfully competed in the sport; horse-riding would remain a lifelong passion. She also took ballet lessons, was an avid reader, and excelled at learning languages, with French being particularly emphasized in her upbringing.
  • 1929
    Born on July 28, 1929.
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