Jerry Brown
Governor of California
Jerry Brown
Edmund Gerald "Jerry" Brown, Jr. is an American politician, the 39th and current Governor of California, having previously served as California's 34th Governor. Brown served as Governor between 1975 and 1983, and again from 2011. Both before and after his first two terms as Governor, Brown has served in various state, local, and party positions.
Biography
Jerry Brown's personal information overview.
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News
News abour Jerry Brown from around the web
California Governor Calls for Billions of Dollars to Upgrade Infrastructure
Wall Street Journal - 2 days
Jerry Brown said the state has $187 billion in infrastructure needs, including $50 billion in flood-control work after heavy rains and snow nearly collapsed a spillway at Oroville Lake and buckled roads and bridges.
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Wall Street Journal article
California governor proposes spending $437 million on aging dams, flood control
Yahoo News - 3 days
California Governor Jerry Brown on Friday proposed spending $437 million for flood control and emergency response and preparedness, days after damage at the country's tallest dam, located northeast of the state capital, led to the evacuation of nearly 200,000 people downstream. Damage to both the regular spillway and its emergency counterpart at the Oroville Dam earlier this month brought issues with aging infrastructure into sharp relief in a state that relies on a complex system of dams and reservoirs to irrigate farms and provide drinking water for nearly 40 million people.
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Yahoo News article
Gov. Jerry Brown comes out against Measure S
LATimes - 4 days
Gov. Jerry Brown is against a Los Angeles ballot measure that would restrict real estate development, its opponents announced Thursday. “I join with all those who say Measure S goes too far,” Brown said in a statement released by opponents of Measure S. It would impose a moratorium on buildings...
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LATimes article
Oroville Evacuation Order Lifted As Flooding Threats Ease
Huffington Post - 13 days
function onPlayerReadyVidible(e){'undefined'!=typeof HPTrack&&HPTrack.Vid.Vidible_track(e)}!function(e,i){if(e.vdb_Player){if('object'==typeof commercial_video){var a='',o='m.fwsitesection='+commercial_video.site_and_category;if(a+=o,commercial_video['package']){var c='&m.fwkeyvalues=sponsorship%3D'+commercial_video['package'];a+=c}e.setAttribute('vdb_params',a)}i(e.vdb_Player)}else{var t=arguments.callee;setTimeout(function(){t(e,i)},0)}}(document.getElementById('vidible_1'),onPlayerReadyVidible); The nearly 200,000 people evacuated Sunday from the area surrounding the Oroville Dam in Oroville, California, are now free to return home, Butte County Sheriff Kory Honea announced Tuesday afternoon. Following successful efforts to lower Oroville Lake’s water level and address erosion in its spillways, officials reduced the evacuation order to an evacuation warning, allowing more than 188,000 residents to return to their homes and businesses. While the ...
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Huffington Post article
Oroville Dam Crisis Shows Why We Must Invest In Infrastructure
Huffington Post - 14 days
function onPlayerReadyVidible(e){'undefined'!=typeof HPTrack&&HPTrack.Vid.Vidible_track(e)}!function(e,i){if(e.vdb_Player){if('object'==typeof commercial_video){var a='',o='m.fwsitesection='+commercial_video.site_and_category;if(a+=o,commercial_video['package']){var c='&m.fwkeyvalues=sponsorship%3D'+commercial_video['package'];a+=c}e.setAttribute('vdb_params',a)}i(e.vdb_Player)}else{var t=arguments.callee;setTimeout(function(){t(e,i)},0)}}(document.getElementById('vidible_1'),onPlayerReadyVidible); WASHINGTON ― Every few years an actual or threatened disaster highlights the state of America’s crumbling infrastructure. President Barack Obama, for example, pointed to a 2007 bridge collapse in Minneapolis, which left 13 people dead and dozens of others injured, in his push for more federal funding to overhaul roads, bridges and waterways. Another potentially catastrophic situation arose in California over the weekend. Nearly 200,000 people were told ...
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Huffington Post article
Gov. Jerry Brown asks President Trump for a disaster declaration after winter storms
LATimes - 16 days
Essential Politics: California politicians speak out on 9th Circuit Court ruling, Sen. Kamala Harris proposes attorney access bill prompted by travel ban Feb. 11, 2017, 3 a.m. This is Essential Politics, our daily look at California political and government news. Here's what we're watching right...
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LATimes article
California's New Attorney General Isn't Interested In Secession Talk
Huffington Post - 19 days
function onPlayerReadyVidible(e){'undefined'!=typeof HPTrack&&HPTrack.Vid.Vidible_track(e)}!function(e,i){if(e.vdb_Player){if('object'==typeof commercial_video){var a='',o='m.fwsitesection='+commercial_video.site_and_category;if(a+=o,commercial_video['package']){var c='&m.fwkeyvalues=sponsorship%3D'+commercial_video['package'];a+=c}e.setAttribute('vdb_params',a)}i(e.vdb_Player)}else{var t=arguments.callee;setTimeout(function(){t(e,i)},0)}}(document.getElementById('vidible_1'),onPlayerReadyVidible); California Attorney General Xavier Becerra (D) dismissed recent interest in the state seceding from the United States, but vowed to challenge President Donald Trump’s encroachments on California policy.   Supporters of secession are currently collecting signatures in hopes of getting the so-called “Calexit” initiative on the 2018 statewide ballot. The idea has been discussed for years due to California’s size, economic strength and tendency to move faster ...
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Huffington Post article
California governor, Trump ratchet up war of words
Fox News - 20 days
Tensions between the Trump administration and California leaders are escalating into an all-out political war, as Gov. Jerry Brown and his allies vow to fight the president tooth-and-nail over everything from sanctuary cities to environmental policies.
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Fox News article
Trump Attacks 'Out Of Control' California In Sanctuary Fight
Huffington Post - 21 days
function onPlayerReadyVidible(e){'undefined'!=typeof HPTrack&&HPTrack.Vid.Vidible_track(e)}!function(e,i){if(e.vdb_Player){if('object'==typeof commercial_video){var a='',o='m.fwsitesection='+commercial_video.site_and_category;if(a+=o,commercial_video['package']){var c='&m.fwkeyvalues=sponsorship%3D'+commercial_video['package'];a+=c}e.setAttribute('vdb_params',a)}i(e.vdb_Player)}else{var t=arguments.callee;setTimeout(function(){t(e,i)},0)}}(document.getElementById('vidible_1'),onPlayerReadyVidible); President Donald Trump turned up the heat this weekend on the country’s most populous state, calling California “out of control” and soft on immigrants. He vowed to cut funding to California if officials vote to declare it a sanctuary state for undocumented immigrants, and warned that California and his administration are on a “collision course.” California “is, as you know, out of control in many ways,” Trump told Fox News host Bill O’Reilly in an inte ...
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Huffington Post article
The First 100 Days
Huffington Post - 24 days
As extraordinary as it sounds, Donald J. Trump is now the 45th president of the United States. Which is mind-boggling. Like making John Goodman the cover model for this year's Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue. Kim Kardashian -- appointed chief scientist at the Atomic Energy Lab. Colin Kaepernick in charge of WikiLeaks. The liberals' last best hopes were dashed on Inauguration Day when the Mango Mussolini put his hand on the Bible and didn't burst into flames. The preacher said the rain that started to fall as DJT took the oath was a good omen in the Bible. Yeah, tell that to Noah. The speech was darker than the Cleveland Browns' offseason. Kind of a cross between Nixon and Voldermort. "It's Mourning in America." Trump will be a president for all Americans except the Muslims, Mexicans, losers, whiners, idiots and nasty women, especially the fat disgusting ones. But now our attention turns not to the real estate developer's vitriolic tweets but his diabolic feats. What is the ...
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Huffington Post article
Gov. Jerry Brown still has $15 million in campaign cash — and makes no promises how he'll spend it
LATimes - 26 days
Essential Politics: State Senate committee moves to assist immigrants, what California's members of Congress are saying about Trump's executive order Feb. 1, 2017, 10:20 a.m. This is Essential Politics, our daily look at California political and government news. Here's what we're watching right...
Article Link:
LATimes article
Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Jerry Brown
    FORTIES
  • 2015
    On December 18, 2015, Brown moved into the original Governor's Mansion, now part of Governor's Mansion State Historic Park.
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  • 2014
    There was only one gubernatorial debate. When asked to schedule another, Brown declined. During the debate in Sacramento on September 4, 2014, Kashkari accused Brown of failing to improve California's business climate.
    More Details Hide Details His leading example was the Tesla Motors factory investment, creating 6,500 manufacturing jobs, going to Nevada rather than California. Brown responded that the cash payment upfront required by the investment would have been unfair to California taxpayers. A range of issues were debated, including recent legislation for a ban on plastic bags at grocery stores that Brown promised to sign and Kashkari thought unimportant. Brown said that if he were elected to a fourth and final term, he would continue transferring power to local authorities, particularly over education and criminal justice policy, and would resist fellow Democrats' "gold rush for new programs and spending." In the general election, Brown was re-elected by 3,645,835 votes (59.2%) to Kashkari's 2,511,722 (40.8%). His stated goals for his unprecedented fourth term in office are to construct the California High-Speed Rail, to create tunnels to shore up the state's water system and to curb carbon dioxide emissions. He still has $20 million in campaign funds he can use to advance ballot measures in case the legislature does not support his plans.
    Brown announced his bid for re-election on February 27, 2014.
    More Details Hide Details On June 3, he came first in the primary election by over 1.5 million votes. He received 54.3% of the vote and advanced to the general election with Republican Neel Kashkari, who took 19.38% of the vote.
    On September 16, 2014, Gov. Brown signed a historical package of groundwater legislation.
    More Details Hide Details The plan will regulate local agencies and also implement management plans to achieve water sustainability within 20 years.
    In July 2014, Brown traveled to Mexico to hold meetings with Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto and other Central American leaders about the ongoing children's immigration crisis.
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    Brown was re-elected in 2014, with sixty percent of the vote.
    More Details Hide Details As a consequence of the 28-year gap between his second and third terms, Brown has been both the sixth-youngest California governor (the youngest since 1863), and the oldest California governor in history. Brown was born in San Francisco, California, the only son of four children born to District Attorney of San Francisco and later Governor of California, Edmund Gerald "Pat" Brown Sr., and his spouse, Bernice Layne Brown. Brown's father was of half Irish and half German descent. Brown's great-grandfather August Schuckman, who was a German immigrant, settled in California in 1852 during the California Gold Rush.
  • 2012
    In the November 2012 general elections, voters approved Brown's proposed tax increases in the form of Proposition 30.
    More Details Hide Details Prop 30 raised the state personal income tax increase over seven years for California residents with an annual income over US$250,000 and increased in the state sales tax by .25 percent over four years. It allowed the state to avoid nearly $6 billion in cuts to public education.
    In September 2012, Brown signed legislation sponsored by California State Senator Ted Lieu that prohibits protesters at funerals within 300 feet, with convicted violators punishable with fines and jail time; the legislation was in response to protests conducted by the Westboro Baptist Church.
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    On June 28, 2012, Governor Brown signed a budget that made deep cuts to social services with the assumption that voters would pass $8 billion in tax hikes in November 2012 to close California's $15.7-billion budget deficit. "This budget reflects tough choices that will help get California back on track," Governor Brown said in a statement.
    More Details Hide Details Governor Brown has stated: "We need budget cuts. We need the continued growth of the economy for a long period of time. We’re suffering from the mortgage meltdown that killed 600,000 jobs in the construction industry. … We’re recovering from a national recession slowly—over 300,000 jobs gained since the recession. We’ve got a million to go. That needs to continue, but that depends not only on Barack Obama and the Congress and the Federal Reserve, but also on Chancellor Angela Merkel, China, the European Union, and the self-organizing quality of the world economy."
  • 2011
    Brown was sworn in for his third term as governor on January 3, 2011, succeeding Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger.
    More Details Hide Details Brown is working on a budget that would shift many government programs from the state to the local level, a reversal of trends from his first tenure as governor.
  • THIRTIES
  • 2009
    Proposition 8, a contentious voter-approved amendment to the state constitution that banned same-sex marriage was upheld in May 2009 by the California Supreme Court.
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  • 2008
    First indicating his interest in early 2008, Brown formed an exploratory committee in order to seek a third term as governor in 2010, following the expiration of Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger's term.
    More Details Hide Details Brown's Republican opponent in the election was former eBay president Meg Whitman. Brown was endorsed by the Los Angeles Times, The Sacramento Bee, the San Francisco Chronicle, the San Jose Mercury News, and the Service Employees International Union. Brown won the race 53.8% to Whitman's 40.9%.
    In June 2008, Brown filed a fraud lawsuit claiming mortgage lender Countrywide Financial engaged in "unfair and deceptive" practices to get homeowners to apply for risky mortgages far beyond their means."
    More Details Hide Details Brown accused the lender of breaking the state's laws against false advertising and unfair business practices. The lawsuit also claimed the defendant misled many consumers by misinforming them about the workings of certain mortgages such adjustable-rate mortgages, interest-only loans, low-documentation loans and home-equity loans while telling borrowers they would be able to refinance before the interest rate on their loans adjusted. The suit was settled in October 2008 after Bank of America acquired Countrywide. The settlement involved the modifying of troubled 'predatory loans' up to $8.4 billion.
  • 2005
    A bachelor as governor and mayor, Brown attracted attention for dating high-profile women, the most notable of whom was singer Linda Ronstadt. In March 2005, Brown announced his engagement to his girlfriend since 1990, Anne Gust, former chief administrative officer for The Gap. They were married on June 18, 2005 in a ceremony officiated by Senator Dianne Feinstein in the Rotunda Building in downtown Oakland.
    More Details Hide Details They had a second, religious ceremony later in the day in the Roman Catholic Church in San Francisco where Brown's parents had been married. Brown and Gust live in the Oakland Hills in a home purchased for $1.8 million, as reported by The Huffington Post. Beginning in 1995, Brown hosted a daily call-in talk show on the local Pacifica Radio station, KPFA-FM, in Berkeley broadcast to major US markets. Both the radio program and Brown's political action organization, based in Oakland, were called We the People. His programs, usually featuring invited guests, generally explored alternative views on a wide range of social and political issues, from education and health care to spirituality and the death penalty. The official gubernatorial portrait of Jerry Brown, commemorating his first period as Governor of California was painted by Don Bachardy and unveiled in 1984. The painting has long been controversial due to its departure from the traditional norms of portraiture.
  • 2004
    In 2004, Brown expressed interest to be a candidate for the Democratic nomination for Attorney General of California in the 2006 election, and in May 2004, he formally filed to run.
    More Details Hide Details He defeated his Democratic primary opponent Los Angeles City Attorney Rocky Delgadillo 63% to 37%. In the general election, Brown defeated Republican State Senator Charles Poochigian 56.3% to 38.2%, one of the largest margins of victory in any statewide California race. In the final weeks leading up to Election Day, Brown's eligibility to run for attorney general was challenged in what Brown called a "political stunt by a Republican office seeker" (Contra Costa County Republican Central Committee chairman and state GOP vice-chair candidate Tom Del Beccaro). Plaintiffs claimed Brown did not meet eligibility according to California Government Code §12503, "No person shall be eligible to the office of Attorney General unless he shall have been admitted to practice before the Supreme Court of the state for a period of at least five years immediately preceding his election or appointment to such office." Legal analysts called the lawsuit frivolous because Brown was admitted to practice law in the State of California on June 14, 1965, and had been so admitted to practice ever since. Although ineligible to practice law because of his voluntary inactive status in the State Bar of California from January 1, 1997 to May 1, 2003, he was nevertheless still admitted to practice. Because of this difference the case was eventually thrown out.
  • TWENTIES
  • 1998
    Brown continued his predecessor Elihu Harris's public policy of supporting downtown housing development in the area defined as the Central Business District in Oakland's 1998 General Plan.
    More Details Hide Details Since Brown worked toward the stated goal of bringing an additional 10,000 residents to Downtown Oakland, his plan was known as "10K." It has resulted in redevelopment projects in the Jack London District, where Brown purchased and later sold an industrial warehouse which he used as a personal residence, and in the Lakeside Apartments District near Lake Merritt. The 10k plan has touched the historic Old Oakland district, the Chinatown district, the Uptown district, and Downtown. Brown surpassed the stated goal of attracting 10,000 residents according to city records, and built more affordable housing than previous mayoral administrations. Brown had campaigned on fixing Oakland's schools, but "bureaucratic battles" dampened his efforts. He concedes he never had control of the schools, and his reform efforts were "largely a bust". He focused instead on the creation of two charter schools, the Oakland School for the Arts and the Oakland Military Institute. Another area of disappointment was overall crime. Brown sponsored nearly two dozen crime initiatives to reduce the crime rate, although crime decreased by 13 percent overall, the city still suffered a "57 percent spike in homicides his final year in office, to 148 overall".
  • 1995
    In 1995, with Brown’s political career at a low point, in the motion picture Jade, the fictional Governor of California tells an assistant district attorney to drop a case, “unless you want as much of a future in this state as Jerry Brown.” The assistant DA responds “Who’s Jerry Brown?”
    More Details Hide Details What would become Brown's re-emergence into politics after six years was in Oakland, California, an "overwhelmingly minority city of 400,000." Brown ran as an independent "having left the Democratic Party, blasting what he called the 'deeply corrupted' two-party system." Prior to taking office, Brown campaigned to get the approval of the electorate to convert Oakland's "weak mayor" political structure, which structured the mayor as chairman of the city council and official greeter, to a "strong mayor" structure, where the mayor would act as chief executive over the non-political city manager and thus the various city departments, and break tie votes on the Oakland City Council. He won with 59% of the vote in a field of ten candidates. The political left had hoped for some of the more progressive politics from Brown's earlier governorship, but found Brown "more pragmatic than progressive, more interested in downtown redevelopment and economic growth than political ideology". As mayor, he invited the U.S. Marine Corps to use Oakland harbor lands for mock military exercises as part of Operation Urban Warrior.
  • 1992
    Changing his mind, Brown ran for the Democratic nomination for president in 1992, once again finishing second in the popular vote, carrying six states and coming second in the convention, though substantially behind Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas.
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    After travelling abroad, Brown returned to California and served as Chairman of the California Democratic Party (1989–1991), choosing to resign to run for the Senate again in 1992.
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  • 1991
    In early 1991, Brown abruptly resigned his post and announced that he would run for the Senate seat held by the retiring Alan Cranston.
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  • 1990
    Citing various recent scandals on Capitol Hill, particularly the recent House banking scandal and the large congressional pay-raises from 1990, he promised to put an end to Congress being a "Stop-and-Shop for the moneyed special interests".
    More Details Hide Details As Brown campaigned in various primary states, he would eventually expand his platform beyond a policy of strict campaign finance reform. Although he focused on a variety of issues throughout the campaign, he highlighted his endorsement of living wage laws and opposition to free trade agreements such as NAFTA; he mostly concentrated on his tax policy, which had been created specifically for him by Arthur Laffer, the famous supporter of supply-side economics who created the Laffer curve. This plan, which called for the replacement of the progressive income tax with a flat tax and a value added tax, both at a fixed 13 percent rate, was decried by his opponents as regressive. Nevertheless, it was endorsed by The New York Times, The New Republic, and Forbes, and its raising of taxes on corporations and elimination of various loopholes which tended to favor the very wealthy, proved to be popular with voters. This was, perhaps, not surprising, as various opinion polls taken at the time found that as many as three-quarters of all Americans believed the current tax code to be unfairly biased toward the wealthy. He "seemed to be the most left-wing and right-wing man in the field... calling for term limits, a flat tax, and the abolition of the Department of Education." Brown scored surprising wins in Connecticut and Colorado and seemed poised to overtake Clinton.
    Although Brown greatly expanded the party's donor base and enlarged its coffers, with a focus on grassroots organizing and get out the vote drives, he was criticized for not spending enough money on TV ads, which was felt to have contributed to Democratic losses in several close races in 1990.
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    Brown decided to run for another term as governor, and was able to do so due to a grandfather clause in a term-limit law passed in 1990 for California state office.
    More Details Hide Details The law limited a governor to two terms; however, the four living governors when the law was passed (which consisted of himself, Brown's father Pat, his predecessor Ronald Reagan, and his successor George Deukmejian, who was in office when the law was enacted) were still eligible for the election. Running against Meg Whitman in 2010, Brown became the 39th governor in 2011; on October 7, 2013, he became the longest-serving governor in California history, surpassing Earl Warren.
  • TEENAGE
  • 1988
    Upon his return from abroad in 1988, Brown announced that he would stand as a candidate to become chairman of the California Democratic Party, and won against investment banker Steve Westly.
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  • 1984
    Jackson, who had made a pair of anti-semitic comments about Jews in general and New York City's Jews in particular while running for president in 1984, was still despised in Jewish communities.
    More Details Hide Details Jackson also had ties to Louis Farrakhan, infamous for his own anti-semitic statements, and with Yasir Arafat, the chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization. Brown's polling numbers suffered. On April 7, he lost narrowly to Bill Clinton in Wisconsin (37%–34%), and dramatically in New York (41%–26%). Although Brown continued to campaign in a number of states, he won no further primaries. Although overwhelmingly outspent, Brown won upset victories in seven states and his votes won to money raised ratio was by far the best of any candidate in the race. He still had a sizable number of delegates, and a big win in his home state of California would deprive Clinton of sufficient support to win the Democratic nomination, possibly bringing about a brokered convention. After nearly a month of intense campaigning and multiple debates between the two candidates, Clinton managed to defeat Brown in this final primary by a margin of 48% to 41%. Although Brown did not win the nomination, he was able to boast of one accomplishment: at the following month's Democratic National Convention, he received the votes of 596 delegates on the first ballot, more than any other candidate but Clinton. He spoke at the convention, and to the national viewing audience, yet without endorsing Clinton, through the device of seconding his own nomination. There was animosity between the Brown and Clinton campaigns, and Brown was the first political figure to criticize Bill Clinton over what became the Whitewater controversy.
  • 1982
    After his Senate defeat in 1982, many considered Brown's political career to be over.
    More Details Hide Details Brown traveled to Japan to study Buddhism, studying with Christian/Zen practitioner Hugo Enomiya-Lassalle under Yamada Koun-roshi. In an interview he explained, "Since politics is based on illusions, zazen definitely provides new insights for a politician. I then come back into the world of California and politics, with critical distance from some of my more comfortable assumptions." He also visited Mother Teresa in Calcutta, India, where he ministered to the sick in one of her hospices. He explained, "Politics is a power struggle to get to the top of the heap. Calcutta and Mother Teresa are about working with those who are at the bottom of the heap. And to see them as no different than yourself, and their needs as important as your needs. And you're there to serve them, and doing that you are attaining as great a state of being as you can."
    Republican George Deukmejian, a Brown critic, narrowly won the governorship in 1982, succeeding Brown, and was re-elected overwhelmingly in 1986.
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    In 1982, Brown chose not to seek a third term as governor; instead, he ran for the United States Senate for the seat being vacated by Republican S.I. Hayakawa.
    More Details Hide Details He was defeated by Republican San Diego Mayor Pete Wilson by a margin of 52% to 45%. After his Senate defeat, Brown was left with few political options.
    Brown chose not to run for a third term in 1982, and instead ran for the United States Senate, but lost to San Diego Mayor Pete Wilson.
    More Details Hide Details He was succeeded as governor by George Deukmejian, then state attorney general, on January 3, 1983. In 1980, Brown challenged Carter for renomination. His candidacy had been anticipated by the press ever since he won re-election as governor in 1978 over the Republican Evelle Younger by 1.3 million votes, the largest margin in California history. But Brown had trouble gaining traction in both fundraising and polling for the presidential nomination. This was widely believed to be the result of the more prominent candidate Senator Ted Kennedy of Massachusetts. Brown's 1980 platform, which he declared to be the natural result of combining Buckminster Fuller's visions of the future and E. F. Schumacher's theory of "Buddhist economics", was much expanded from 1976. His "era of limits" slogan was replaced by a promise to, in his words, "Protect the Earth, serve the people, and explore the universe."
  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1979
    Governor Jerry Brown's New Age public image was parodied in the 1979 single, "California Über Alles", by the punk rock band Dead Kennedys.
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    On the subject of the 1979 energy crisis, Brown decried the "Faustian bargain" that he claimed Carter had entered into with the oil industry, and declared that he would greatly increase federal funding of research into solar power.
    More Details Hide Details He endorsed the idea of mandatory non-military national service for the nation's youth, and suggested that the Defense Department cut back on support troops while beefing up the number of combat troops. Brown opposed Kennedy's call for universal national health insurance and opposed Carter's call for an employer mandate to provide catastrophic private health insurance. As an alternative, he suggested a program of tax credits for those who do not smoke or otherwise damage their health, saying: "Those who abuse their bodies should not abuse the rest of us by taking our tax dollars." Brown also called for expanding the use of acupuncture and midwifery. As Brown's campaign began to attract more members of what some more conservative commentators described as "the fringe", including activists like Jane Fonda, Tom Hayden, and Jesse Jackson, his polling numbers began to suffer. Brown received only 10 percent of the vote in the New Hampshire primary, and he was soon forced to announce that his decision to remain in the race would depend on a good showing in the Wisconsin primary. Although he had polled well there throughout the primary season, an attempt to film a live speech in Madison, the state's capital, into a special effects-filled, 30-minute commercial (produced and directed by Francis Ford Coppola) was disastrous.
    Three main planks of his platform were a call for a constitutional convention to ratify the Balanced Budget Amendment, a promise to increase funds for the space program as a "first step in bringing us toward a solar-powered space satellite to provide solar energy for this planet," and, in the wake of the 1979 Three Mile Island accident, opposition to nuclear power.
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  • 1978
    Through his first term as governor, Brown had not appointed any openly gay people to any position, but he cited the failed 1978 Briggs Initiative, which sought to ban homosexuals from working in California's public schools, for his increased support of gay rights.
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    Brown won re-election in 1978 against Republican state Attorney General Evelle J. Younger.
    More Details Hide Details Brown appointed the first openly gay judge in the United States when he named Stephen Lachs to serve on the Los Angeles County Superior Court in 1979. In 1981, he also appointed the first openly lesbian judge in the United States, Mary C. Morgan to the San Francisco Municipal Court. Brown completed his second term having appointed a total of five gay judges, including Rand Schrader and Jerold Krieger.
    His actions in response to the proposition earned him praise from Proposition 13 author Howard Jarvis who went as far as to make a television commercial for Brown just before his successful re-election bid in 1978.
    More Details Hide Details The controversial proposition immediately cut tax revenues and required a two-thirds supermajority to raise taxes. Proposition 13 "effectively destroyed the funding base of local governments and school districts, which thereafter depended largely on Sacramento for their revenue". Max Neiman, a professor at the Institute of Governmental Studies at University of California, Berkeley, credited Brown for "bailing out local government and school districts" but felt it was harmful "because it made it easier for people to believe that Proposition 13 wasn't harmful." In an interview in 2014, Brown indicated that a "war chest" would have helped his campaign for an alternative to Proposition 13.
    When Proposition 13 passed in June 1978, he heavily cut state spending, and along with the Legislature, spent much of the $5 billion surplus to meet the proposition's requirements and help offset the revenue losses which made cities, counties, and schools more dependent on the state.
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    Brown was re-elected governor in 1978, and ran against fellow Democrat and incumbent President Jimmy Carter in the 1980 primaries.
    More Details Hide Details While challengers to incumbent presidents seldom gain traction, the challenge by Senator Ted Kennedy of Massachusetts did, leaving Brown without any significant support. Brown declined to run for a third term in 1982, instead running for the United States Senate in 1982. However, Brown was defeated by Republican San Diego Mayor Pete Wilson (who would later become governor), and many considered his political career to be over.
  • 1977
    He also signed AB 607, which banned homosexuals from receiving civil marriage licenses, in 1977.
    More Details Hide Details In 1981, Brown, who had established a reputation as a strong environmentalist, was confronted with a serious medfly infestation in the San Francisco Bay Area. He was advised by the state's agricultural industry, and the US Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection service (APHIS), to authorize airborne spraying of the region. Initially, in accordance with his environmental protection stance, he chose to authorize ground-level spraying only. Unfortunately, the infestation spread as the medfly reproductive cycle out-paced the spraying. After more than a month, millions of dollars of crops had been destroyed and billions of dollars more were threatened. Governor Brown then authorized a massive response to the infestation. Fleets of helicopters sprayed malathion at night, and the California National Guard set up highway checkpoints and collected many tons of local fruit; in the final stage of the campaign, entomologists released millions of sterile male medflies in an attempt to disrupt the insects' reproductive cycle.
    Like his father, Brown strongly opposed the death penalty and vetoed it as governor, which the legislature overrode in 1977.
    More Details Hide Details He also appointed judges who opposed capital punishment. One of these appointments, Rose Bird as the Chief Justice of the California Supreme Court, was later recalled by voters in 1987 after a strong campaign financed by business interests upset by her "pro-labor" and "pro-free speech" rulings. The death penalty was only "a trumped-up excuse" to use against her, even though the Bird Court consistently upheld the constitutionality of the death penalty. In 1960, he lobbied his father, then governor, to spare the life of Caryl Chessman and reportedly won a 60-day stay for him. Brown was both in favor of a Balanced Budget Amendment and opposed to Proposition 13, the latter of which would decrease property taxes and greatly reduce revenue to cities and counties.
  • 1976
    Brown first ran for the Democratic nomination for president in March 1976, after the primary season had begun, and over a year after some candidates had started campaigning.
    More Details Hide Details Brown declared: "The country is rich, but not so rich as we have been led to believe. The choice to do one thing may preclude another. In short, we are entering an era of limits." Brown's name began appearing on primary ballots in May and he won in Maryland, Nevada, and his home state of California. He missed the deadline in Oregon, but he ran as a write-in candidate and finished in third behind Jimmy Carter and Senator Frank Church of Idaho. Brown is often credited with winning the New Jersey and Rhode Island primaries, but in reality, uncommitted slates of delegates that Brown advocated in those states finished first. With support from Louisiana Governor Edwin Edwards, Brown won a majority of delegates at the Louisiana delegate selection convention; thus Louisiana was the only southern state to not support Southerners Carter or Alabama Governor George Wallace. Despite this success, he was unable to stall Carter's momentum, and his rival was nominated on the first ballot at the 1976 Democratic National Convention. Brown finished third with roughly 300 delegate votes, narrowly behind Congressman Morris Udall and Carter.
    Brown ran for his party's nomination in the 1976 Presidential election, finishing second in the popular vote, and a distant third in the convention vote, which was won by Governor Jimmy Carter of Georgia.
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  • 1975
    In 1975, Brown obtained the repeal of the "depletion allowance", a tax break for the state's oil industry, despite the efforts of lobbyist Joe Shell, a former intraparty rival to Richard M. Nixon.
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  • 1974
    In the General Election on November 5, 1974, Brown was elected Governor of California over California State Controller Houston I. Flournoy; Republicans ascribed the loss to anti-Republican feelings from Watergate, the election being held only ninety days after President Richard Nixon resigned from office.
    More Details Hide Details Brown succeeded Republican Governor Ronald Reagan, who retired after two terms. After taking office, Brown gained a reputation as a fiscal conservative. The American Conservative later noted he was "much more of a fiscal conservative than Governor Reagan." His fiscal restraint resulted in one of the biggest budget surpluses in state history, roughly $5 billion. For his personal life, Brown refused many of the privileges and perks of the office, forgoing the newly constructed 20,000-square-foot governor's residence in the suburb of Carmichael and instead renting a modest apartment at the corner of 14th and N Streets, adjacent to Capitol Park in downtown Sacramento. Instead of riding as a passenger in a chauffeured limousine as previous governors had done, Brown walked to work and drove in a Plymouth Satellite sedan. As governor, Brown held a strong interest in environmental issues. He appointed J. Baldwin to work in the newly created California Office of Appropriate Technology, Sim Van der Ryn as State Architect, Stewart Brand as Special Advisor, John Bryson as chairman of the California State Water Board. Brown also reorganized the California Arts Council, boosting its funding by 1300 percent and appointing artists to the council and appointed more women and minorities to office than any other previous California governor. In 1977, he sponsored the "first-ever tax incentive for rooftop solar" among many environmental initiatives.
    In 1974, Brown ran in a highly contested Democratic primary for Governor of California against Speaker of the California Assembly Bob Moretti, San Francisco Mayor Joseph L. Alioto, Representative Jerome R. Waldie, and others.
    More Details Hide Details Brown won the primary with the name recognition of his father, Pat Brown, whom many people admired for his progressive administration.
    Brown also drafted and helped to pass the California Political Reform Act of 1974, Proposition 9, passed by 70% of California's voters in June 1974.
    More Details Hide Details Among other provisions, it established the California Fair Political Practices Commission.
    Elected governor in 1974 at age 36, Brown was the youngest California governor in 111 years.
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  • 1970
    In 1970, Brown was elected California Secretary of State.
    More Details Hide Details Brown argued before the California Supreme Court and won cases against Standard Oil of California, International Telephone and Telegraph, Gulf Oil, and Mobil for election law violations. In addition, he forced legislators to comply with campaign disclosure laws. While holding this office, he discovered the use of falsely notarized documents by then-President Richard Nixon to fraudulently earn a tax deduction for donation of his pre-presidential papers.
  • 1969
    Returning to California, Brown took the state bar exam and passed on his second attempt. He then settled in Los Angeles and joined the law firm of Tuttle & Taylor. In 1969, Brown ran for the newly created Los Angeles Community College Board of Trustees, which oversaw community colleges in the city, and placed first in a field of 124.
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  • OTHER
  • 1964
    Brown went on to Yale Law School and graduated with a Juris Doctor in 1964.
    More Details Hide Details After law school, Brown worked as a law clerk for California Supreme Court Justice Mathew Tobriner.
  • 1960
    Brown left the novitiate after three years, enrolling at the University of California, Berkeley in 1960, where he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in Classics in 1961.
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  • 1955
    In 1955, Brown entered Santa Clara University for a year, and left to attend Sacred Heart Novitiate, a Jesuit novice house, intent on becoming a Catholic priest.
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    Brown was a member of the California Cadet Corps at St. Ignatius High School, where he graduated in 1955.
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  • 1938
    Born on April 7, 1938.
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