Joachim Peiper
SS officer
Joachim Peiper
Joachim Peiper, also known as Jochen Peiper, was a field officer in the Waffen-SS during World War II and personal adjutant to Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler between November 1940 and August 1941. He saw combat on both the Eastern Front against the Red Army and the Western Front against the Allies. By 1945, he was an SS-Standartenführer and the Waffen-SS's youngest regimental colonel.
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  • 1976
    Age 61
    On receipt of these threats, Peiper, who remained in Traves, sent his family back to Germany. During the night of 13/14 July 1976, Peiper's home was attacked.
    More Details Hide Details In the ruin, Peiper's charred corpse was found together with a .22 caliber rifle and a pistol. The perpetrators were never identified. On the 14th of July the French celebrate Bastille Day, the founding of the modern nation. Because of the murders perpetrated by his unit at Malmedy and other locations, his death sentence and subsequent release, Peiper remained a controversial figure while he lived and after his death. He was a competent, personally courageous soldier and highly respected among his peers. His men were fiercely loyal to him, and he was considered by many to be a "charismatic leader." After the end of the war, he continued to be held in high regard by his surviving comrades, many of whom talked of Der Peiper with admiration and respect. The respect he had garnered among his SS peers helped him to obtain his release from prison after the war ended and to obtain employment.
    In 1976, a Communist historian, investigating the Gestapo archives, found the Peiper file.
    More Details Hide Details On 21 June, tracts denouncing his presence were distributed in Traves. A day later, an article in the left-wing publication L'Humanité revealed Peiper's presence in Traves and he became the subject of death threats.
  • 1974
    Age 59
    In 1974, he was identified by a former Communist resistance member of the region who issued a report for the French Communist Party.
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  • 1972
    Age 57
    In 1972 he moved to Traves in Haute-Saône, France, where he owned property.
    More Details Hide Details At that time he was a self-employed translator for the publisher Stuttgarter Motor-Buch Verlag. Under the pen name of "Rainer Buschmann", he translated books devoted to military history from English to German. Residing in France since 1972, Peiper led a quiet and discreet life; however, he continued to use his given name.
  • 1969
    Age 54
    In 1969, Peiper was a freelance contributor to the magazine Auto, Motor und Sport.
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  • 1964
    Age 49
    Separate charges were filed against Peiper in December 1964 by Simon Wiesenthal.
    More Details Hide Details The investigations, led by the Attorney General of Stuttgart, involved Peiper being accused of having arrested Jews in Borgo San Dalmazzo and of having deported Jews from Northern Italy. However, neither Klempner nor Wiesenthal were ever able to present the evidence claimed by the Attorney General. In 1967, the case was dismissed for lack of evidence. Peiper was later called as a witness during the Werner Best trial. He did not deny having had close contact with Himmler, but he managed to avoid being directly implicated in Nazi war crimes by claiming memory failure.
    On 23 June 1964, criminal charges were filed against Peiper at the Central Office of the State Justice Administration for the Investigation of National Socialist Crimes in Ludwigsburg to do with the Boves massacre.
    More Details Hide Details The charges included statements from two former Italian partisans who recognised Peiper from a book on the Battle of the Bulge and a photograph of Peiper taken as the village burned below his position. The plaintiffs were represented by Robert W. Kempner, who had been a member of the American council of prosecutors during the Nuremberg trials.
    In 1964, Peiper learned that the village of Boves had installed a memorial naming his command as perpetrators of the massacre.
    More Details Hide Details He immediately got in touch with others from his unit to coordinate a defense strategy. Mostly it consisted of blaming the Communists for manufacturing false accusations and insisting that the destruction of the village was due to a fierce battle with partisans. In the course of the investigation, they had to file statements. Peiper claimed his unit massacred no civilians in Boves. He stated that he sent members of his unit to search for the two kidnapped officers taken by partisans into the nearby Bisalta mountains. A platoon was ambushed and, while attempting to rescue it, the Germans came under heavy fire from the partisans. It was the response of the German artillery to this fighting that triggered the fires reported in the village. Peiper claimed that the artillery section remained in Boves to destroy the remaining weapons and ammunition.
  • 1962
    Age 47
    He was mentioned in the proceedings against Karl Wolff, Himmler's senior adjutant, which began in early 1962 and concluded in 1964 with a 15-year sentence.
    More Details Hide Details Werner Grothmann, Peiper's successor as Himmler's adjutant, was also under investigation. In both of these proceedings, the court heard testimony from notorious former SS member Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski covering Himmler's pre-invasion designs to "rid Russia of 30 million Slavic people" or his pronouncements, following the Minsk killings, that he was "determined to eliminate the Jews" (Peiper was with Himmler at that time, but had gone to a field assignment following his brother's death).
  • 1960
    Age 45
    On 30 December 1960 Peiper filed suit to compel Porsche to fulfil its promises.
    More Details Hide Details In court documents Peiper’s attorney stated that Peiper was not a war criminal and that the Allies had used the trials to defame the German people. He asserted that the Nuremberg trial and the "Malmedy massacre" trial were merely propaganda. Citing documents published by the anti-Communist historian Freda Utley, he asserted that the Malmedy massacre trial defendants had been tortured by the Americans. At the request of the court, Porsche and Peiper reached an agreement to terminate the employment contract, and Peiper received six months of wages as compensation. HIAG's official periodical capitalized on the award and wrote that Peiper had been "unfairly sentenced" for war crimes. Peiper became a car sales trainer, and utilizing his network of former SS members, contacted Max Moritz, a former SS mechanic. Moritz had become an authorized Volkswagen dealer for Germany. At the beginning of the 1960s the perception that the public opinion had of the Nazi crimes started to change. The German economic recovery did not allow SS men to hide themselves, and holding a high position in society could raise questions that people like Peiper preferred to avoid. The Eichmann and Auschwitz trials in the first half of the 1960s (which got a large audience in West Germany) put a new light on this period. The prosecution was now initiated by the West German authorities themselves, and no longer by the Allies. On the other hand, the statute of limitations for the prosecution of Nazi crimes had been extended several times, which made those who had been involved in these crimes uncomfortable.
  • 1957
    Age 42
    On 17 January 1957, he began work at Porsche in Stuttgart in its technical division.
    More Details Hide Details He would later represent the company at car exhibitions. He was later put in charge of auto exports to the United States but his wartime criminal conviction prevented him from obtaining a visa for travel to the United States. This would not allow him to maintain this new position. As he advanced within Porsche, he was accused by Italian union workers of the Boves Massacre in Italy during World War II. Ferry Porsche personally intervened and promised Peiper a senior management position, but this offer was derailed by the trade unions, who objected to allowing persons convicted of war crimes to serve in the upper management of the company. The strong antipathy to Peiper, his association with Ferry Porsche and the related negative impact on sales in Porsche's biggest market, the United States, forced Porsche's management to dismiss him.
  • 1954
    Age 39
    Ultimately the sentences of the Malmedy defendants were commuted to life imprisonment and then to time served. Peiper's sentence was commuted to 35 years in 1954 and he was released in December 1956, the last of the Malmedy condemned to be freed.
    More Details Hide Details He had served 11 and a half years in prison. HIAG, an organisation of former Waffen-SS members, had already helped Peiper’s wife find a job near the Landsberg Prison. They then worked to achieve the conditional release of Peiper himself. To obtain his release from prison, Peiper had to prove that he could obtain a job. Through the intermediary of Dr. Albert Prinzing, a former SS-Hauptsturmführer in the Sicherheitsdienst, he got a job at the car manufacturer Porsche. Following his release from Landsberg Prison, Peiper was careful not to associate too closely with former Waffen-SS men and their organization, HIAG, at least publicly. However, privately, he maintained contact with and was closely involved with many former SS members. In 1959, for example, he attended the national meeting of the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients. He drove down with HIAG's official historian Walter Harzer with the express hope of seeing Kurt "Panzer" Meyer. He missed Meyer, but was able to see Sepp Dietrich and Heinz Lammerding at the closed-door meeting.
  • 1951
    Age 36
    A popular Wehrmacht ex-general Heinz Guderian actively campaigned for Peiper. For example, he wrote to one of his subordinates in 1951:
    More Details Hide Details At the moment I'm negotiating with General Handy Heidelberg because he wants to hang the unfortunate Peiper. McCloy is powerless, because the Malmedy trial is being handled by Eucom, and is not subordinate to McCloy. As a result, I have decided to cable President Truman and ask him if he is familiar with this idiocy.
  • 1950
    Age 35
    Investigations were opened in the early 1950, including several Senate committees, on one of which was Joseph McCarthy, prepared to launch his sensationalist career.
    More Details Hide Details Receiving encouragement and information from right-wing and anti-semitic circles, MacCarthy dominated the proceedings and grabbed headlines. He was also probably encouraged by the right-wing, anti-semitic judge, LeRoy van Roden, who saw the trials as being a Jewish effort to take revenge on the Germans, and who also served on the investigating commissions. In its investigation of the trial, the Senate Committee on Armed Services came to the conclusion of improper pre-trial procedures, including a mock trial, but not torture as sometimes stated, had indeed affected the trial process. There was little or no doubt that some of the accused were indeed guilty of the massacre.
  • 1946
    Age 31
    Together with 42 other defendants, Joachim Peiper was sentenced to death by hanging on 16 July 1946.
    More Details Hide Details The sentences generated significant controversy in some German circles, including the church, leading the commander of the U.S. Army in Germany to commute some of the death sentences to life imprisonment. In addition, the Germans' defense attorney, U.S. military attorney Lt. Col. Willis M. Everett, appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, claiming that the defendants had been found guilty by means of "illegal and fraudulently procured confessions" and were subjects of mock trial. The turmoil raised by this case caused the Secretary of the Army, Kenneth Royall, to create a commission chaired by Judge Gordon A. Simpson of Texas to investigate. The commission was interested in the Malmedy massacre trial and in other cases judged at Dachau. The commission arrived in Europe on 30 July 1948 and issued its report on 14 September. In this report, it notably recommended that the twelve remaining death sentences be commuted to life imprisonment. The commission confirmed the accuracy of Everett's accusations regarding mock trials and neither disputed nor denied his charges of torture of the defendants. The commission expressed the opinion that the pre-trial investigation had not been properly conducted and that the members felt that no death sentence should be executed where such a doubt existed.
  • 1945
    Age 30
    In December 1945, Peiper was transferred to the prison at Schwäbisch Hall, where 1,000 former members of the Leibstandarte were assembled. On 16 April 1946, approximately 300 prisoners were moved from Schwäbisch Hall to Dachau, where they were put on trial. The trial took place at Dachau from 16 May to 16 July 1946 before a military tribunal of senior American officers, operating under rules established by the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal.
    More Details Hide Details The 74 defendants included SS-Oberstgruppenführer Sepp Dietrich, 6th SS Panzer Army commanding general, his chief of staff SS-Brigadeführer Fritz Krämer, SS-Gruppenführer Hermann Prieß, I SS Panzer Corps commander, and Joachim Peiper, commander of the 1st SS Panzer Regiment (the unit to which the crimes were attributed). Before the trial, occupation authorities reclassified the defendants from prisoners of war to Civilian Internees. The accusations were mainly based on the sworn and written statements provided by the defendants in Schwäbish Hall. To counter the evidence given in the men's sworn statements and by prosecution witnesses, the lead defense attorney, Lieutenant Colonel Willis M. Everett tried to show that the statements had been obtained by inappropriate methods. Everett called Lieutenant Colonel Hal McCown to testify about Peiper's troops' treatment of American prisoners at La Gleize. McCown, who, along with his command, had been captured by Peiper at La Gleize, testified that wounded American soldiers in Peiper's custody had received equal priority with German wounded in receiving medical treatment. He testified that during his occupation of the town, Peiper had at all times behaved in a professional and honorable manner.
    Although he was actively sought by American forces (due to his alleged involvement in the Malmedy massacre), Peiper was not identified until 21 August 1945.
    More Details Hide Details This was the day after he was transferred to the interrogation camp of the 3rd US Army in Freising. During the 1st SS Panzer Division's advance on 17 December 1944, his armored units and halftracks confronted a lightly armed convoy of about 30 American vehicles at the Baugnez crossroads near Malmedy. The troops, mainly elements of the American 285th Field Artillery Observation Battalion, were quickly overcome and captured. Along with other American POWs previously captured, they were ordered to stand in a meadow when for unknown reasons the Germans opened fire on the prisoners with machine guns, killing 84 soldiers, and leaving the bodies in the snow. The survivors were able to reach American lines later that day, and their story spread rapidly throughout the American front lines. Author Richard Gallagher reported that during the briefing held before the operation, Peiper clearly stated that no quarter should be given nor prisoners taken and that no pity should be shown towards the Belgian civilians. However, Lieutenant Colonel Hal McCown, commander of the 2nd Battalion 119 Infantry Regiment, testified about the treatment his unit was given after being captured on 21 December by Peiper's Kampfgruppe at Froidcour between La Gleize and Stoumont. McCown said he met Peiper in person and based on his observations, American prisoners were at no time mistreated by the SS and the food given to them was nearly as good as that used by the Germans themselves.
    Through July 1945 he was held in a POW camp at Feuchtwangen in Bavaria.
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    At the end of January 1945, Peiper was in the Berlin area.
    More Details Hide Details On 4 February, he met for the last time with Himmler at his provisional headquarters. Peiper then went to the Panzergrenadier school in Krhanice until 14 February. From there he joined his unit in the southwest of the area of Farnad. His unit took part in Operation Spring Awakening which failed. Although Peiper’s unit inflicted a large number of casualties, due to his aggressive style of command he lost many men and numerous old companions. On 1 May, as other units of the LSSAH were forced to retreat into Austria, the men were informed of Adolf Hitler’s death. A few days later, all SS units were ordered to retreat to the west. On 8 May, the LSSAH received the order to cross the Enns River and surrender to the American troops. Accompanied by Paul Gühl, Peiper tried to escape captivity and make his way home. On 22 May, Peiper and Gühl were captured near Schliersee.
    In January 1945, the Swords were added to his Knight's Cross.
    More Details Hide Details The proposal was drafted by Wilhelm Mohnke. The great fame of Peiper as a Waffen-SS commander during the "Battle of the Bulge" was born.
  • 1944
    Age 29
    Peiper’s mechanized column did not reach his first day's objective until midnight that same day. As a result, Peiper first attacked shortly before daybreak on 17 December 1944, almost 18 hours later than expected.
    More Details Hide Details Hustling through the remains of the American front lines, he quickly took Honsfeld. Peiper had planned to advance through Loseheimergroben, but the 12th and 277th Volksgrenadier Divisions failed to gain control on the first day as planned. In the early morning of 17 December, they quickly captured Honsfeld and of fuel for his vehicles. Peiper advanced towards Büllingen, keeping to the plan to move west, and then turned south to detour around Hünningen. He continued west on his assigned route until he had to deflect shortly before Ligneuville because the assigned road was impassable. This bypass forced him towards the Baugnez crossroads where his armored units encountered a lightly armed column of U.S. artillery observers, who were quickly neutralized. Peiper's unit became infamous for the murder of U.S. prisoners of war at the crossroads in what became known as the Malmedy massacre as noted below. Moving ahead, he crossed Ligneuville and reached the heights of Stavelot on the left bank of the Amblève River at nightfall of the second day of operation Wacht am Rhein. While the little city was defended only by a few U.S. troops and could have been easily taken the same day, for reasons unknown he held back and assaulted at dawn of the next day. Valuable time was lost, allowing the Americans to reorganise. After heavy fighting, his Kampfgruppe eventually managed to cross the bridge on the River Amblève, and from there he found the going increasingly difficult.
    He would eventually be dispatched to the rear and from September 1944 forward was in a military hospital near the Tegernsee in Upper Bavaria.
    More Details Hide Details This was not far from his family home. He stayed there until 7 October. During the autumn, the German forces had to counter the attempts of the Western Allies to cross the Westwall, while Hitler was looking for an opportunity to seize the initiative on the Western Front. The result was the Operation Wacht am Rhein. In a desperate attempt to defeat the Allies on the Western Front, the German armies were to break through the US lines in the Ardennes, to cross the River Meuse and take Antwerp, cutting the Allied forces in two. The main role in the breakthrough was devoted to the 6th Panzer Army under the command of Sepp Dietrich. He would have to pierce the American lines between Aachen and the Schnee Eifel and seize bridges on the Meuse on both sides of Liège. Within the 6th Panzer Army a mobile striking role was assigned to the 1st SS Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler (LSSAH) under the command of SS-Oberführer Wilhelm Mohnke. The division was split into four Kampfgruppe with Peiper commanding the most substantial, which included all the armored sections of the division. Peiper was given the use of the newest tank, the 70 ton Tiger II or King Tiger, which would be taking part in its third battle on the western front since its introduction, and with its 7 inches of armor made it impervious to allied anti-tank weapons.
    As with most of the Waffen SS divisions engaged in Normandy, the LSSAH lost its operational ability and was described in the official tables of the available units prepared by the OKW on 16 September 1944 not as a division but as a Kampfgruppe.
    More Details Hide Details Peiper was not in command of his panzer regiment during the counter-attacks near Avranches. Suffering from a nervous breakdown he had been discreetly evacuated to a military hospital in the area of Sées at 70 km of the frontline. According to the official diagnosis, he was suffering from jaundice.
    Peiper ordered the five shot on 28 May 1944 and had the other young recruits marched past the corpses; but the executions actually had a negative impact on the morale of the regiment.
    More Details Hide Details The stay in the Belgian Limburg was devoted mainly to drills and refit, made more difficult due to the lack of materiel and gasoline. The Allied landing in Normandy necessitated the return of the LSSAH to the Western Front. On 17 June, the division began its move to the area of Caen, but some parts of the panzer regiment had to stay in Belgium awaiting new tanks. Furthermore, the move of the division was made under difficult conditions due to the trains transporting Hungarian Jews to the concentration camps and Allied air attacks which caused disruptions in the rail traffic. The whole division did not reach its rally zone before 6 July 1944. On 28 June, the 1st SS Panzer Regiment of Peiper arrived at the front and was immediately engaged in combat. As with the other German units of the area, they essentially fought a defensive battle until the Avranches breakthrough at the end of July and beginning of August. Having gone to the front with 19,618 men, the LSSAH lost 25% of its men and all its tanks.
    On 20 January 1944, Peiper was withdrawn from the front and left his unit.
    More Details Hide Details He went directly to the headquarters of Hitler, who presented him with the Oak Leaves to be added to his Knight's Cross. Shortly afterwards, on his 29th birthday, Peiper was promoted to Obersturmbannführer. However, Peiper was physically and mentally exhausted. A medical examination carried out by SS doctors in Dachau reached the conclusion that he needed rest. Therefore, he went to see his wife in Bavaria. In March 1944, the LSSAH was withdrawn from the Eastern Front. The transfer of all its units was not completed before 24 May. Peiper joined his unit in April. The battles in the east had caused heavy losses of men and materiel. The new recruits were not of the same caliber as the pre-war volunteers, who'd been recruited according to strict criteria. In Belgium, five young recruits accused of stealing poultry and ham from civilians were sentenced to death by a court-martial. The verdict seemed out of proportion to the offence, especially when looking at similar cases.
  • 1943
    Age 28
    Peiper's aggressiveness and regiment command appointment caused resentment by some against him. In the mean time, brutal combat involving his unit continued. On 5 and 6 December 1943, the unit killed 2280 Russian soldiers and took only three prisoners.
    More Details Hide Details During heavy fighting, the village of Pekartschina was completely burned with flamethrowers and its inhabitants killed.
    Beginning November 1943, Peiper’s unit arrived on the Eastern Front, where it took part in combat in the area of Zhytomyr.
    More Details Hide Details On 20 November, Georg Schönberger was killed in action, and Peiper took his place as commander of the 1st SS Panzer Regiment; a position he held until the end of the war. Under his command, the regiment fought through the winter and was engaged in numerous night assaults against the Red Army. His panzer unit played an essential role in stalling the Soviet offensive in the area of Zhytomyr. Peiper led actions by attacking the rear of enemy lines and captured four division headquarters. For this action he was awarded the Oak Leaves of the Knight's Cross.
    In July 1943, the LSSAH took part in Operation Citadel in the area of Kursk, with Peiper's unit distinguishing itself in the fighting.
    More Details Hide Details After the failure of the operation, on 17 July, the LSSAH was withdrawn from the Eastern Front and transferred to the area of Cuneo in Northern Italy. After Italian forces capitulated to the Allies, the LSSAH was moved to Italy for two months to assist in disarming the Italian military and prevent them from attacking German forces. Beginning in August, Peiper’s battalion quarters were near Cuneo. On 10 September, they received orders to disarm Italian garrisons in Alessandria and Asti. On 19 September, partisans in the village of Boves captured two of Peiper's men. Faustino Dolmazzo, an advisor to the partisans, reported that when Peiper arrived in Boves, the Germans appointed two Italians, one the village priest, to arrange the men's freedom. Peiper promised the Germans would not engage in any reprisals. The two men were freed, but the Germans then set fire to the houses in the village and killed 22 men when they tried to flee. The burned bodies of the two Italian intermediaries were found among the victims.
    On 9 March 1943, Peiper was awarded Germany's highest decoration, the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross.
    More Details Hide Details Himmler sent personal congratulations over the radio: "Heartfelt congratulations for the Knight's Cross my dear Jochen! I am proud of you!" During this period, the Nazi propaganda praised Peiper as an outstanding leader. The official Waffen-SS newspaper, Das Schwarze Korps ("The Black Corps"), described Peiper's actions in Kharkov in glowing terms such as "the master of the situation in all its phases" and extolled Peiper's "quick decision making", "caring" attitude and "bold and unorthodox orders" backed by "intellectual work and instinctive safety". The paper noted the "unconditional trust of his men" and emphasized that he was "a born leader, one filled with the highest sense of responsibility for the life of every single one of his men, but who was also able to be hard if necessary". The descriptions of his tactical skills propelled Peiper to become an icon of the Waffen-SS after the war, with former battalion members describing him in glowing language. Peiper was seen as an officer who obeyed orders without much discussion and expected the same from his men.
    On 6 May 1943, Peiper was awarded the German Cross in Gold for his achievements in February 1943 around Kharkov, where his unit gained the nickname the "Blowtorch Battalion". Reportedly, the nickname derived from the torching and slaughter of two Soviet villages where their inhabitants were either shot or burned. Ukrainian sources, including surviving witness Ivan Kiselev, who was 14 at the time of the massacre, described the killings at the villages of Yefremovka and Semyonovka on 17 February 1943.
    More Details Hide Details On 12 February Waffen-SS troops of the LSSAH occupied the two villages, where retreating Soviet forces had wounded two SS officers. In retaliation, five days later LSSAH troops killed 872 men, women and children. Some 240 of these were burned alive in the church of Yefremovka. In August 1944, when Sturmbannführer Jacob Hanreich was captured south of Falaise in France and interrogated by the Allies, he stated that Peiper was "particularly eager to execute the order to burn villages". Hanreich had previously served with Leibstandarte but was with SS Division Hitlerjugend at the time of his capture. The blowtorch became an unofficial symbol of the unit and was painted on the battalion's vehicles.
    Meanwhile, on the Eastern Front, the German situation had seriously worsened, especially in the battle for Stalingrad. Peiper’s battalion left its quarters in France on 31 January 1943 for Lyubotin, near Kharkov.
    More Details Hide Details It was immediately dispatched to the front. During the Third Battle of Kharkov, Peiper led the 3rd Battalion of the 2nd Panzergrenadier Regiment, which broke through Soviet lines to rescue the encircled 320th Infantry Division. Leading the ambulances back to the German lines, he found his route blocked by a Soviet ski battalion that had destroyed the main bridge across the Udy River. His unit fought through the city and repaired the bridge, securing an exit route for the ambulances back to the German lines. The repaired bridge, however, would not support the unit's heavy-armored half-tracks and assault guns. Peiper ordered his men back behind the Soviet lines to find another exit, and they returned to the German lines with few casualties. The rescue culminated with a fiery battle with the Soviet forces at the village of Krasnaya Polyana. Upon entering the village, however, Peiper's troops made a terrible discovery. All the men in his small rearguard medical detachment left there had been killed and then mutilated. An SS Sergeant in Peiper's ration supply company, Otto Sierk, claimed that Peiper responded in kind: "In the village, the two petrol trucks were burnt and 25 Germans killed by partisans and Russian soldiers. As a revenge, Peiper ordered the burning down of the whole village and the shooting of its inhabitants". (Sierk's testimony was obtained on 17 November 1944 by the Western Allies, and has just been recently declassified).
    On 30 January 1943, he was promoted to SS-Obersturmbannführer.
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  • 1942
    Age 27
    At the end of 1942, Peiper received permission to visit his family.
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    In July 1942, Peiper again met with Himmler and did not rejoin his battalion until August 1942.
    More Details Hide Details During its stay in France, the LSSAH was reorganised into a Panzergrenadier division and Peiper was promoted to commander of its 3rd Battalion. Peiper took advantage of the unit's time in France to recruit young officers who matched his attitude and willingness to fight.
    In May 1942, Peiper learned of the death of his brother Hans-Hasso.
    More Details Hide Details During the same month, the LSSAH was transferred to France for rest and refit. En route to France, Peiper left his unit and met with Himmler at his headquarters on 1 June. The meeting included a dinner attended by Reichsführer-SS secretary Rudolf Brandt and Heinz Lammerding, a member of the staff headquarters SS Totenkopf division.
  • 1941
    Age 26
    Peiper may have been dispatched to the LSSAH earlier as an observer for the Reichsführer-SS, but available records show that he formally transferred to the LSSAH before October 1941.
    More Details Hide Details When he rejoined the LSSAH, it was engaged on the Eastern Front near the Black Sea. Peiper spent several days at its headquarters when an injury to a unit commander gave Peiper an opportunity to take command of the 11th Company. The 11th Company fought at Mariupol and Rostov-on-Don. Peiper was noted for his fighting spirit, although his unit suffered high casualties as a consequence of his aggressive tactics. The company killed a number of prisoners of war. During its combat action, the LSSAH was followed by Einsatzgruppe D, responsible for organising the extermination of Jews and communists. Einsatzgruppe D continued its operations even when winter weather suspended active military operations. It shared the same winter quarters at Taganrog on the Azov Sea as the LSSAH and, on occasion, the division assisted Einsatzgruppe D with its operations.
    Although no longer Himmler's official first adjutant, Peiper continued to write in Himmler’s diary until mid-September 1941.
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    In February 1941, Himmler told Peiper about the German plan, Operation Barbarossa, to invade the Soviet Union.
    More Details Hide Details The operation began on 22 June 1941. Behind the front lines, the Einsatzgruppen, under the control of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Reich Main Security Office), conducted a war against "the Untermenschen", murdering communists, Jews, gypsies and partisans. Peiper's duties as first adjutant included providing Himmler with statistics from the Einsatzgruppen units about the mass killings on the Eastern Front. During the later summer of 1941, Werner Grothmann became Himmler's first adjutant. Although Peiper was transferred to a combat unit, he remained in close contact with Himmler. In their ongoing correspondence through to the end of the war, Himmler addressed Peiper as "my dear Jochen".
    In January 1941, Peiper accompanied Himmler when he inspected Ravensbrück and Dachau concentration camps.
    More Details Hide Details In March 1941, together with Karl Wolff and Fritz Bracht, they visited Auschwitz. Himmler and his staff then travelled to Norway, Austria, Poland, the Balkans and Greece. This trip included a visit to the Łódź ghetto, about which Peiper later wrote: "It was a macabre image: we saw how the Jewish Ghetto police, who wore hats without rims and were armed with wooden clubs, inconsiderately made room for us. The Jewish elders also presented Himmler with a bouquet of flowers."
  • 1940
    Age 25
    Shortly afterward, on 14 November 1940, Peiper was appointed first adjutant to Himmler.
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    In October 1940, Peiper accompanied Himmler to Madrid where Himmler met with Franco.
    More Details Hide Details After passing through Metz, they stopped in Dax, where Himmler met with Theodor Eicke, the commander of the SS Totenkopf division.
    On 10 July 1940, he accompanied Himmler to the Berghof, where Reich leaders discussed the war and Hitler's plans.
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    Peiper returned to his duties as Himmler's adjutant on 21 June 1940.
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    On 17 May 1940, Peiper accompanied Himmler as he followed Waffen-SS troops during the Battle of France.
    More Details Hide Details In Hasselt, Peiper obtained permission to join a combat unit and became a platoon leader in the 3rd Battalion of the 11th Company of 1st SS Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler (LSSAH). After seizing an artillery battery on the hills of Wattenberg, Peiper was awarded the Iron Cross and promoted to Hauptsturmführer.
    In April 1940, Peiper accompanied Himmler on trips to the Buchenwald and Flossenbürg concentration camps, followed by a visit to Poland to meet with SS and Police Leader Wilhelm Rediess and Brigadeführer Otto Rasch.
    More Details Hide Details In early May, Himmler, accompanied by Peiper, met with SS and Police Leader Odilo Globocnik in Lublin, with Peiper noting in Himmler's appointment calendar Globocnik's plans to use Jewish forced labor for a massive fortification project.
  • 1939
    Age 24
    On 13 December 1939, Peiper and Himmler witnessed the gassing of a resident of a psychiatric facility in Owinsk near Poznań.
    More Details Hide Details In post-war interrogations, Peiper described the experience in a detached, factual manner.
    After Poland was defeated, Peiper assisted Himmler in developing policies and plans for controlling the Polish population. Later, Peiper accompanied Himmler to Feldherrnhalle commemorative ceremonies in Munich on 9 October 1939.
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    Peiper and Hinrichsen were married on 26 June 1939 in a ceremony following SS customs.
    More Details Hide Details The couple lived in Berlin until the first allied air raids on Berlin, when Sigi was sent to Rottach, Upper Bavaria, near Himmler's second residence. The couple later had three children: Hinrich, Elke and Silke. On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland. As one of his adjutants, Peiper joined Himmler's entourage on board the Reichsführer-SS's special train. Peiper was with Himmler on 20 September in Bydgoszcz Blomberg when they witnessed the execution of 20 Poles. Peiper later wrote that the experience left Himmler "speechless" for several days. As Peiper later told Ernst Schäfer, Hitler had previously ordered Himmler to eliminate the Polish intellectuals.
  • 1938
    Age 23
    On 4 July 1938, Peiper was appointed to an administrative post as an adjutant to Heinrich Himmler, under the command of Karl Wolff.
    More Details Hide Details Peiper worked in Himmler’s anteroom in the SS-Hauptamt at Prinz-Albrecht-Straße. As a member of the Reichsführer-SS staff, Peiper was close to many high ranking SS officers. He became one of Himmler's favourite adjutants. Peiper later served on Himmler's personal staff and accompanied him on a state visit to Italy. On his twenty-fourth birthday, Peiper was promoted to Obersturmführer. Around this time, he met Sigurd (Sigi) Hinrichsen, a secretary on Himmler’s personal staff and a close friend of Hedwig Potthast, Himmler’s mistress.
    He remained with the unit until June 1938.
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  • 1936
    Age 21
    On 20 April 1936, Peiper was promoted to SS-Untersturmführer and was posted to the Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler under the command of Sepp Dietrich.
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    He graduated from Junkerschule in January 1936; he then attended training at the Dachau concentration camp in February and March 1936.
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  • 1935
    Age 20
    In April 1935, Peiper enrolled in the newly created SS-Junkerschule Bad Tölz under the command of Paul Hausser.
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    In January 1935, he was sent to a camp for Hitler Youth, SA and SS members near Jüterbog.
    More Details Hide Details After he completed the course, he was promoted to SS-Unterscharführer.
    In his 1935 résumé, Peiper wrote: "As a result of a personal exhortation by the Reichsführer-SS, Himmler, I have decided to strive for a career as an active senior SS officer.
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  • 1934
    Age 19
    In 1934, during the annual Nuremberg Rally, Peiper was promoted to SS-Sturmmann and later gained the attention of Heinrich Himmler.
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    On 23 January 1934, he was promoted to SS-Mann with SS number 132,496.
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  • 1933
    Age 18
    To gain skill at horseriding, he followed the advice of a family friend, General Walther von Reichenau, and enlisted in the 7th SS Reiterstandarte on 12 October 1933.
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  • 1926
    Age 11
    Peiper did not obtain the grades needed to continue to university. In 1926, Peiper followed his other brother Horst and joined the Scout movement, developing an interest in a military career.
    More Details Hide Details Peiper’s brother Horst joined the SS, eventually reaching the rank of Hauptsturmführer. Horst participated in the Battle of France with the 3rd SS Division Totenkopf before being transferred to Poland, where he died in an accident. Peiper turned 18 years old on the day that Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany. He volunteered to join the Hitler Youth together with his oldest brother Horst. Peiper wanted to join a cavalry division of the German Reichswehr.
  • 1915
    Age 0
    In 1915, he retired from active duty for health reasons after contracting malaria.
    More Details Hide Details After the war, Waldemar Peiper joined the Freikorps and took part in the Silesian Uprisings.
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