Joseph Johnson
British publisher
Joseph Johnson
Joseph Johnson was an influential 18th-century London bookseller and publisher. His publications covered a wide variety of genres and a broad spectrum of opinions on important issues. Johnson is best known for publishing the works of radical thinkers such as Mary Wollstonecraft, William Godwin, and Joel Barlow, as well as religious dissenters such as Joseph Priestley, Anna Laetitia Barbauld, and Gilbert Wakefield.
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One Hospitalized, One Jailed Following 4-Car Accident - Patch.com
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Sgt. Joseph Johnson with the Fairfax City Police Department confirmed there was a four-car vehicle accident near the intersection of Route 123 and Fairfax Boulevard earlier Tuesday morning. One person involved in the accident has been
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TRM's Davis named top performer - Brewton Standard
Google News - over 5 years
Darrin Abrams, McIntosh: Had 11 tackles 2 sacks, 2 fumble recoveries and a forced fumble in a 39-7 victory over Cottage Hill Christian. Joseph Johnson, Marion County: The defensive back swiped three passes to spark the Red Raiders to a season-opening
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Boro battle to earn point - Essex Enquirer
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David Cobb opened the scoring for the visitors on 11 minutes when he cut in from the left and put in a right foot shot across Lamar Joseph-Johnson in the home goal. Boro's Nick Reynolds equalised on 18 minutes when he converted a Joe Oates left wing
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Church News - Corsicana Daily Sun
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45, Elder Joseph Johnson Sr., pastor, invites all to “Restoration and Reviving” pre-anniversary services Aug. 29, 2011 thru Sept. 2, 2011 at 7:30 pm The guest speakers are: Monday, Youth Pastor Roosevelt of Mt. Horeb Baptist Church; Tuesday,
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Bat Night Events On August 27 at Mammoth Cave National Park and Around the World - National Parks Traveler
Google News - over 5 years
Joseph Johnson, a doctoral student at the University of Kentucky, examines a bat as part of the research he is conducting at Mammoth Cave National Park. NPS photo. This year has been designated as International Year of the Bat, and August 27 was chosen
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Funeral for teen slain in Downsview apartment - Toronto Sun
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Joseph Johnson said he couldn't have asked for any more from a big brother. He was “always there” for me and my other siblings, he said, adding he admired his brother and wanted to be just like him. “Jordan, I love you, I miss you, but I shall never
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THE STORY OF A POW SURVIVES - The Register-Guard
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Three days before Memorial Day, 87-year-old Joseph Johnson Duncan's ashes were interred at Roseburg National Cemetery in a graveside service attended by a half-dozen relatives, amid a sea of 4500 tiny, fluttering American flags planted minutes before
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Cops: Joliet woman shot her boyfriend - Chicago Sun-Times
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Police were called after Joseph Johnson, 30, was shot in the upper left arm just after 10 pm in the driveway of 403 Summit St. “Officers spoke with Taschiana F. Newman, 30, who claimed Johnson had abused her earlier in the day, so she shot him when he
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Take Drastic Action For Change, Johnson Tells Jonathan - Leadership Newspapers
Google News - over 5 years
The President of African Children Rescue Foundation (ACFR), Dr. Joseph Johnson has said that President Goodluck Jonathan needed to take drastic decision in order to be a successful leader. He stated this yesterday at the award/founder's day celebration
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Nearly 2000 slip, slide at Celina's first water slide fest - Celina Record
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Harvey said Parks and Recreation Director Cody Webb and Public Works Director Joseph Johnson contributed a lot of effort to make sure the event was a success. At dark the day finished with a major firework show from Western Enterprises
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Deputy Judge Advocate General appointed - Media Newswire (press release)
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Chief District Court Judge Russell Joseph Johnson has been appointed Deputy Judge Advocate General of the Armed Forces, Attorney-General Chris Finlayson announced today. (Media-Newswire.com) - Chief District Court Judge Russell Joseph Johnson has been
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Massachusetts man builds replica of rare 1936 Mercedes - The Patriot Ledger
Google News - over 5 years
Joseph Johnson, 73, of Marshfield, spent almost two decades building a replica of a 1936 Mercedes-Benz 540K in his Marshfield garage. Johnson, who sold the car, plans on building another one for himself. By Taylor Bigler It looks as if it was plucked
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Residents, business owners gear up to contest Columbus' annexation plan - The Commercial Dispatch
Google News - over 5 years
Joseph Johnson poses in front of his North Lehmberg Road home. Johnson said he understands the need for the city to expand. / Kelly Tippett Columbus Nissan is one of dozens of businesses the city is planning to annex, increasing their taxes
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Third trial set for man convicted twice of murder - 7Online WSVN-TV
Google News - over 5 years
Family members of Jose Martinez said, back in 2004, Martinez and Gregory Joseph Johnson, the man accused of taking his life, were business partners whose relationship went sour because of financial and personal issues. According to police, on Nov
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Tennessee residents busted in Michigan, facing charges in Stanhope wallet theft - Dailyrecord.com
Google News - over 5 years
Patrolman Joseph Johnson was called to the store on Route 183 on June 28 for a report of an employee's wallet being stolen, Sgt. Charles Zweigle said. The worker told Johnson that someone had entered the management office and taken her wallet out of
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150 Years Ago, the First Moves of Bull Run - Patch.com
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Union General Robert Patterson crossed the Potomac with 3500 men in the hopes of pinning Confederate General Joseph Johnson down. Johnson sent about 380 men north to greet Patterson, and while the Union forces eventually won the skirmish and forced the
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Miss Johnson, York to marry on July 30 - Northside Sun
Google News - over 5 years
Megan Marie Johnson, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Michael Joseph Johnson of Lexington, Ky., is engaged to Thomas Benton York, son of Mr. and Mrs. Frank Snyder York III. The bride-elect is the granddaughter of Geraldine Gosney Rosenberger and the late Paul
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Fugitive search: Joseph Johnson - WLFI.com
Google News - over 5 years
LAFAYETTE, Ind. (WLFI) - Lafayette police are asking for your help finding a convicted drug dealer. 25-year-old Joseph Jamal Johnson is the subject of this week's Fugitive Search. Johnson is 5'8" and weighs 240 pounds. He has black hair and brown eyes
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La Crosse man charged with exposing himself - La Crosse Tribune
Google News - over 5 years
A 14-year-old girl told La Crosse police investigators Joseph Johnson, 46, repeatedly asked her questions while the two were using computers Sunday at the La Crosse Library on Main Street, according to reports. The girl said she ignored Johnson,
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Joseph Johnson
    LATE_ADULTHOOD
  • 1809
    Age 70
    According to Chard, Johnson's obituaries, both those written by his friends and those not, "consistently stress his generosity and his principles", particularly his integrity. William Godwin's obituary of 21 December 1809 in the Morning Chronicle was particularly eloquent, calling Johnson an "ornament to his profession" and praising his modesty, his warm heart, and the integrity and clarity of his mind.
    More Details Hide Details Johnson published more books in more fields than any other publisher of his time: "virtually every giant of the second half of the eighteenth century in medicine, science, religion, philosophy, political thought, education, and poetry published at least one work with Johnson". Johnson's publications helped to "demystify medicine" for the public and were integral to the scientific revolution. His periodical, the Analytical Review, can be seen as a precursor to the New Statesman. By the end of his career, Johnson had acquired a majority or monopoly share in the ownership of the works of: Shakespeare, Milton, Alexander Pope, Joseph Addison, Richard Steele, Samuel Johnson, and all of the major novelists of the period (except Samuel Richardson). Johnson was known for fostering the development of new writers without worrying about maximizing profits, and for printing works on principle, even if he knew they would make little money. His risky publication of Joel Barlow's Advice to the Privileged Orders (1792), for example, sold 600 copies and barely broke even. He was also instrumental in the creation of the female professional writer, a role that began opening to women only at the end of the 18th century in Britain. By nurturing the writings of Anna Laetitia Barbauld, Charlotte Smith, Mary Hays, Mary Wollstonecraft, and Maria Edgeworth, he gave women the opportunity to demonstrate that they could be both successful and significant authors.
  • 1808
    Age 69
    Although not as active in routine business, Johnson still took an interest in political events. For example, he spearheaded the efforts of the booksellers of London and Westminster to appeal a new copyright law in 1808.
    More Details Hide Details Moreover, although Johnson did not publish controversial political works after his imprisonment, he still undertook important publishing ventures. For example, he administered the publication of a forty-five volume work entitled The British Essayists, edited by Alexander Chalmers; the complete works of Samuel Johnson; and a ten-volume set of Shakespeare. Johnson published in more congers during the last decade of his life than at any other time. He also occasionally published important new authors, such as the political economist Thomas Malthus, whose Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) sparked a long debate between idealists and pragmatists. His emphasis on educational books continued or even increased as his interest in publishing contentious political works diminished. He also continued to support his friends, as with Godwin, who needed financial rescue after his play, Faulkener, cost him £800. Johnson's authors became increasingly frustrated with him towards the end of his life, Wakefield calling him "heedless, insipid, and inactive" and Lindsey describing him as "a worthy and most honest man, but incorrigably neglectful often to his own detriment". Priestley, by then in Pennsylvania, eventually broke off his forty-year relationship with the publisher, when his book orders were delayed several years and Johnson failed to communicate with him regarding the publication of his works. Most of the authors who became upset with Johnson were those writing religious or literary works, the riskiest publishing ventures.
  • 1806
    Age 67
    In January 1806, Johnson's premises were wracked by a second fire, destroying the building and all of his stock.
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  • FIFTIES
  • 1794
    Age 55
    Despite having retained Thomas Erskine as his lawyer, who had successfully defended Hardy and Horne Tooke at the 1794 Treason Trials, and character references from George Fordyce, Aikin, and Hewlett, Johnson was fined £50 and sentenced to six months imprisonment at King's Bench Prison in February 1799.
    More Details Hide Details Braithwaite speculates: Johnson's friends accused Erskine of using the trial as a political platform and not thinking of the best interests of his client. Johnson's imprisonment was not harsh; being relatively wealthy, Johnson rented a home for himself within the prison, where he continued to hold his weekly soirées. Although Johnson still believed in the free exchange of ideas and was not embittered by his stay in prison, his publishing habits changed dramatically. After he was released, Johnson published very few political works and none were controversial. Other booksellers followed suit, and Johnson's friend, Unitarian minister Theophilus Lindsey, wrote that "Johnson's fate deters them all". Johnson lost authors after the trial and experienced a noticeable decline in business. Furthermore, he gained fewer new authors, his stalwarts like Priestley began to complain that he was not attending to their business, and he was forced to cease publishing the Analytical Review.
    In 1794 Johnson even considered emigrating to America with Priestley to escape the increasing pressure he felt from conservatives and the government.
    More Details Hide Details Following the publication of Paine's provocative Rights of Man in 1791, a sedition law was passed in Britain and, in 1798, Johnson and several others were put on trial for selling Gilbert Wakefield's A Reply to Some Parts of the Bishop Llandaff's Address to the People of Great Britain, a Unitarian work attacking the privileged position of the wealthy. The indictment against Johnson, written on a six-foot parchment roll, read in part: Braithwaite explains, "an English jury, in effect, was being asked to consider whether Joseph Johnson's intentions as a bookseller were really as dangerous and radical as those of Thomas Paine". An issue of the Analytical Review was even offered as evidence against Johnson.
  • 1793
    Age 54
    However, in 1793, Johnson published William Wordsworth's An Evening Walk and Descriptive Sketches; he remained Wordsworth's publisher until a disagreement separated them in 1799.
    More Details Hide Details Johnson also put out Samuel Taylor Coleridge's Fears of Solitude (1798). They were apparently close enough friends for Coleridge to leave his books at Johnson's shop when he toured Europe. Johnson had a working relationship with illustrator William Blake for nearly twenty years: Johnson commissioned around 100 engravings from Blake—more than any other publisher—including the second edition of Wollstonecraft's Original Stories from Real Life (1791) and Darwin's Botanic Garden. Johnson may also have had some connection with Blake as a writer, judging from galley proofs of his French Revolution (1791). Yet, in An Island in the Moon, Blake represents Johnson as "a bookseller without aesthetic values whose repetitive questions reveal his ignorance". As part of his endeavour to expose the public to more foreign-language works, Johnson facilitated the translation of educational texts, serious fiction, and philosophy (he was less interested in translating popular novels). In particular, he promoted the translation of the works of persecuted French Girondins, such as Condorcet's Outlines of an Historical View of the Progress of the Human Mind (1795) and Madame Roland's An Appeal to Impartial Posterity (1795), which he had released in English within weeks of its debut in France. His publication of a translation of Constanin Volney's deistic Les Ruines, ou méditations sur les révolutions des empires (1791) quickly became a bestseller. Johnson also had some of the most prominent French children's literature translated, such as the works of Madame de Genlis.
  • 1791
    Age 52
    As radicalism took hold in Britain in the 1790s, Johnson became increasingly involved in its causes: he was a member of the Society for Constitutional Information, which was attempting to reform Parliament; he published works defending Dissenters after the religiously motivated Birmingham Riots in 1791; and he testified on behalf of those arrested during the 1794 Treason Trials.
    More Details Hide Details Johnson published works championing the rights of slaves, Jews, women, prisoners, Dissenters, chimney sweeps, abused animals, university students forbidden from marrying, victims of press gangs, and those unjustly accused of violating the game laws. Political literature became Johnson's mainstay in the 1790s: he published 118 works, which amounted to 57% of his total political output. As Chard notes, "hardly a year went by without at least one anti-war and one anti-slave trade publication from Johnson". In particular, Johnson published abolitionist works, such as minister and former slave-ship captain John Newton's Thoughts Upon the African Slave Trade (1788), Barbauld's Epistle to William Wilberforce (1791), and Captain John Gabriel Stedman's Narrative, of a Five Years' Expedition, Against the Revolted Negroes of Surinam (1796) (with illustrations by Blake). Most importantly he helped organize the publication of The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano (1789), the autobiography of former slave Olaudah Equiano.
    At one dinner in 1791, Godwin records that the conversation focused on "monarch, Tooke, Samuel Johnson, Voltaire, pursuits, and religion" Godwin's.
    More Details Hide Details Although the conversation was stimulating, Johnson apparently only served his guests simple meals, such as boiled cod, veal, vegetables, and rice pudding. Many of the people that met at these dinners became fast friends, as did Fuseli and Bonnycastle; Godwin and Wollstonecraft eventually married. The friendship between Johnson and Mary Wollstonecraft was pivotal in both of their lives, and illustrates the active role that Johnson played in developing writing talent. In 1787, Wollstonecraft was in financial straits: she had just been dismissed from a governess position in Ireland and had moved back to London. She had resolved to be an author in an era that afforded few professional opportunities to women. After Unitarian schoolteacher John Hewlett suggested to Wollstonecraft that she submit her writings to Johnson, an enduring and mutually supportive relationship blossomed between Johnson and Wollstonecraft. He dealt with her creditors, secured lodgings for her, and advanced payment on her first book, Thoughts on the Education of Daughters (1787), and her first novel, Mary: A Fiction (1788). Johnson included Wollstonecraft in the exalted company of his weekly soirées, where she met famous personages, such as Thomas Paine and her future husband, William Godwin. Wollstonecraft, who is believed to have written some 200 articles for his periodical, the Analytical Review, regarded Johnson as a true friend. After a disagreement, she sent him the following note the next morning:
  • FORTIES
  • 1784
    Age 45
    Barbauld wrote to her brother in 1784 that "our evenings, particularly at Johnson's, were so truly social and lively, that we protracted them sometimes till—but I am not telling tales."
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    In 1784, Johnson issued John Haygarth's An Inquiry How to Prevent Small-Pox, which furthered the understanding and treatment of smallpox.
    More Details Hide Details Johnson published several subsequent works by Haygarth that promoted inoculation (and later vaccination) for the healthy, as well as quarantining for the sick. He also published the work of James Earle, a prominent surgeon, whose significant book on lithotomy was illustrated by William Blake, and Matthew Baillie's Morbid Anatomy (1793), "the first text of pathology devoted to that science exclusively by systematic arrangement and design". Not only did Johnson publish the majority of Priestley's theological works, but he also published his scientific works, such as Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air (1774–77) in which Priestley announced his discovery of oxygen. Johnson also published the works of Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Antoine Lavoisier, both of whom made their own claims of having discovered oxygen. When Lavoisier began to publish works in France on the "new chemistry" that he had developed (which included today's modern notions of element and compound), Johnson had these translated and printed immediately, despite his association with Priestley who argued strenuously against Lavoisier's new system. Johnson was the first to publish an English edition of Lavoisier's early writings on chemistry and he kept up with the ongoing debate. These works did well for Johnson and increased his visibility among men of science.
  • THIRTIES
  • 1777
    Age 38
    In 1777 Johnson published the remarkable Laws Respecting Women, as they Regard Their Natural Rights, which is an explication, for the layperson, of exactly what its title suggests.
    More Details Hide Details As Tyson comments, "the ultimate value of this book lies in its arming women with the knowledge of their legal rights in situations where they had traditionally been vulnerable because of ignorance". Johnson published Laws Respecting Women anonymously, but it is sometimes credited to Elizabeth Chudleigh Bristol, known for her bigamous marriage to the 2nd Duke of Kingston-upon-Hull after having previously privately married Augustus John Hervey, afterwards 3rd Earl of Bristol. This publication foreshadowed Johnson's efforts to promote works about women's issues—such as A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792)—and his support of women writers. Johnson also contributed significantly to children's literature. His publication of Barbauld's Lessons for Children (1778–79) spawned a revolution in the newly emerging genre. Its plain style, mother-child dialogues, and conversational tone inspired a generation of authors, such as Sarah Trimmer. Johnson encouraged other women to write in this genre, such as Charlotte Smith, but his recommendation always came with a caveat of how difficult it was to write well for children. For example, he wrote to Smith, "perhaps you cannot employ your time and extraordinary talents more usefully for the public & your self, than in composing books for children and young people, but I am very sensible it is extreamly difficult to acquire that simplicity of style which is their great recommendation". He also advised William Godwin and his second wife, Mary Jane Clairmont, on the publication of their Juvenile Library (started in 1805).
  • 1770
    Age 31
    After 1770, Johnson began to publish a wider array of books, particularly scientific and medical texts.
    More Details Hide Details One of the most important was John Hunter's A Natural History of the Human Teeth, Part I (1771), which "elevated dentistry to the level of surgery". Johnson also supported doctors when they questioned the efficacy of cures, such as with John Millar in his Observations on Antimony (1774), which claimed that Dr James's Fever Powder was ineffective. This was a risky publication for Johnson, because this patent medicine was quite popular and his fellow bookseller John Newbery had made his fortune from selling it.
    By August 1770, just seven months after fire had destroyed his shop and goods, Johnson had re-established himself at 72 St. Paul's Churchyard—the largest shop on a street of booksellers—where he was to remain for the rest of his life.
    More Details Hide Details How Johnson managed this feat is unclear; he later cryptically told a friend that "his friends came about him, and set him up again". An early 19th-century biography states that "Mr. Johnson was now so well known, and had been so highly respected, that on this unfortunate occasion, his friends with one accord met, and contributed to enable him to begin business again". Chard speculates that Priestley assisted him since they were such close friends. Immediately upon reopening his business, Johnson started publishing theological and political works by Priestley and other Dissenters. Starting in the 1770s, Johnson published more specifically Unitarian works, as well as texts advocating religious toleration; he also became personally involved in the Unitarian cause. He served as a conduit for information between Dissenters across the country and supplied provincial publishers with religious publications, thereby enabling Dissenters to spread their beliefs easily. Johnson participated in efforts to repeal the Test and Corporation Acts, which restricted the civil rights of Dissenters. In one six-year period of the 1770s, Johnson was responsible for publishing nearly one-third of the Unitarian works on the issue. He continued his support in 1787, 1789, and 1790, when Dissenters introduced repeal bills in Parliament, and he published much of the pro-repeal literature written by Priestley and others.
    Johnson was on the verge of real success when his shop was ravaged by fire on 9 January 1770.
    More Details Hide Details As one London newspaper reported it: At the time Fuseli had been living with Johnson and he also lost all of his possessions, including the first printing of his Remarks on the Writings and Conduct of J. J. Rousseau. Johnson and Payne subsequently dissolved their partnership. It was an amicable separation, and Johnson even published some of Payne's works in later years.
  • TWENTIES
  • 1768
    Age 29
    In 1768 Johnson went into partnership with John Payne (Johnson was probably the senior partner); the following year they published 50 titles.
    More Details Hide Details Under Johnson and Payne, the firm published a wider array of works than under Johnson and Davenport. Although Johnson looked to his business interests, he did not publish works only to enrich himself. Projects that encouraged free discussion appealed to Johnson; for example, he helped Priestley publish the Theological Repository, a financial failure that nevertheless fostered open debate of theological questions. Although the journal lost Johnson money in the 1770s, he was willing to begin publishing it again in 1785 because he endorsed its values. The late 1760s was a time of growing radicalism in Britain, and although Johnson did not participate actively in the events, he facilitated the speech of those who did, e.g., by publishing works on the disputed election of John Wilkes and the agitation in the American colonies. Despite his growing interest in politics, Johnson (with Payne) still published primarily religious works and the occasional travel narrative. As Tyson writes, "in the first decade of his career Johnson's significance as a bookseller derived from a desire to provide dissent (religious and political) a forum".
  • 1767
    Age 28
    However, in the summer of 1767, Davenport and Johnson parted ways; scholars have speculated that this rupture occurred because Johnson's religious views were becoming more unorthodox.
    More Details Hide Details Newly independent, with a solid reputation, Johnson did not need to struggle to establish himself as he had early in his career. Within a year, he published nine first editions himself as well as thirty-two works in partnership with other booksellers. He was also a part of "the select circle of bookmen that gathered at the Chapter Coffee House", which was the centre of social and commercial life for publishers and booksellers in 18th-century London. Major publishing ventures had started at the Chapter and important writers "clubbed" there.
  • 1765
    Age 26
    In July 1765, Johnson moved his business to the more visible 8 Paternoster Row and formed a partnership with B. Davenport, of whom little is known aside from his association with Johnson.
    More Details Hide Details Chard postulates that they were attracted by mutual beliefs because the firm of Johnson and Davenport published even more religious works, including many that were "rigidly Calvinistic".
  • 1764
    Age 25
    Fuseli's early 19th-century biographer writes that when Fuseli met Johnson in 1764, Johnson "had already acquired the character which he retained during life,—that of a man of great integrity, and encourager of literary men as far as his means extended, and an excellent judge of their productions".
    More Details Hide Details Fuseli became and remained Johnson's closest friend. The second and possibly more consequential friendship was with Joseph Priestley, the renowned natural philosopher and Unitarian theologian. This friendship led Johnson to discard the Baptist faith of his youth and to adopt Unitarianism, as well as to pursue forms of political dissent. Johnson's success as a publisher can be explained in large part through his association with Priestley, as Priestley published dozens of books with him and introduced him to many other Dissenting writers. Through Priestley's recommendation, Johnson was able to issue the works of many Dissenters, especially those from Warrington Academy: the poet, essayist, and children's author Anna Laetitia Barbauld; her brother, the physician and writer, John Aikin; the naturalist Johann Reinhold Forster; the Unitarian minister and controversialist Gilbert Wakefield; the moralist William Enfield; and the political economist Thomas Malthus. Tyson writes that "the relationship between the Academy and the bookseller was mutually very useful. Not only did many of the tutors send occasional manuscripts for publication, but also former pupils often sought him out in later years to issue their works." By printing the works of Priestley and other of the Warrington tutors, Johnson also made himself known to an even larger network of Dissenting intellectuals, including those in the Lunar Society, which expanded his business further. Priestley, in turn, trusted Johnson enough to handle the logistics of his induction into the Royal Society.
  • 1763
    Age 24
    Two of his early publications were a kind of day planner: The Complete Pocket-Book; Or, Gentleman and Tradesman's Daily Journal for the Year of Our Lord, 1763 and The Ladies New and Polite Pocket Memorandum Book.
    More Details Hide Details Such pocketbooks were popular and Johnson outsold his rivals by publishing his both earlier and cheaper. Johnson continued to sell these profitable books until the end of the 1790s, but as a religious Dissenter, he was primarily interested in publishing books that would improve society. Therefore, religious texts dominated his book list, although he also published works relating to Liverpool (his home town) and medicine. However, as a publisher Johnson attended to more than the selling and distributing of books, as scholar Leslie Chard explains: As Johnson became successful and his reputation grew, other publishers began including him in congers—syndicates that spread the risk of publishing a costly or inflammatory book among several firms. In his late twenties, Johnson formed two friendships that were to shape the rest of his life. The first was with the painter and writer Henry Fuseli, who was described as "quick witted and pugnacious".
  • 1761
    Age 22
    Upon completing his apprenticeship in 1761, Johnson opened his own business, but he struggled to establish himself, moving his shop several times within one year.
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  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1738
    Born
    Born on November 15, 1738.
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Original Authors of this text are noted here.
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