Manuel L. Quezon
Filipino politician
Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel Luis Quezón y Molina served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. He was the first Filipino to head a government of the Philippines (as opposed to other historical states). Quezón is considered by most Filipinos to have been the second president of the Philippines, after Emilio Aguinaldo (1897–1901).
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Women of martial law -
Google News - over 5 years
The Concerned Women of the Philippines, headed by Manuel Quezon's daughter, Nini Avanceña Quezon, used their old family names as symbolic capital to speak out against abuses. The religious, too, were particularly attracted to human rights work;
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National Artist Edith Tiempo's legacy 'an eternal flame' - ABS CBN News
Google News - over 5 years
"The passing of Edith Tiempo and Kerima Polotan leaves all writers diminished," Manuel Quezon III, undersecretary of presidential communications development and strategic planning, said on his Twitter account. "#Philippines just lost two literary
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Mulanay cleans coasts, plants trees in honor of Aquino, Quezon -
Google News - over 5 years
Lucena City, Quezon, Philippines—More than 5000 residents of Quezon's coastal town of Mulanay, 272 kilometers southeast of Manila, on Friday and Saturday commemorated the 133rd birthday of the late President Manuel Quezon and the
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Palace boys chided for slow action on Freedom of Information bill -
Google News - over 5 years
The Senate committee on public information, along with groups pushing for the bill, quizzed Secretary Ramon Carandang and Undersecretary Manuel Quezon III on the Palace's failure to include the measure on its list of priorities. “With all due respect,
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Koko vows to work for justice, electoral refoms - Philippine Star
Google News - over 5 years
In his speech, Pimentel said he is “awed by the thought that the voices of some of the country's leading political figures – Manuel Quezon, Sergio Osmeña, Manuel Roxas, Jose P. Laurel, Claro M. Recto, Lorenzo Tañada, Jose Diokno, Jovito Salonga and
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Quezon residents run for ailing coconut industry -
Google News - over 5 years
The fun run also kicked off the weeklong commemoration of the 133rd birth anniversary of the late President Manuel Quezon, with a special focus on the province's coconut industry. In 2007, the provincial government and the Philippine Coconut Authority
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QC gov't acts to save house of founding father -
Google News - over 5 years
Former Inquirer columnist and now Palace Undersecretary Manuel Quezon III did not reply to inquiries by text message. The city government itself has yet to receive official word from the family about the supposed planned sale. “They haven't officially
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PH parliament asked to grill proponents of Aurora free port - allvoices
Google News - over 5 years
The No to Apeco movement said even generations of farmers who have been cultivating lands under President Manuel Quezon's Proclamation 467 and Proclamation 723 of Governor-general Frank Murphy during the American occupation are also objects of
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Quezon kin stopped from selling home - Manila Standard Today
Google News - over 5 years
THE Quezon City government is trying to stop the heirs of the late President Manuel Quezon from selling their 3678-square-meter ancestral home for P100 million, an official said Tuesday. City administrator Victor Endriga said he was
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Is President Aquino for or against it? -
Google News - over 5 years
Communications Undersecretary Manuel Quezon III explained that the study group and the stakeholders have yet to reach a consensus and craft a final draft, that's why Mr. Aquino did not mention it in his Sona. The study group is composed of Quezon,
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Charisma and leadership - BusinessWorld Online
Google News - over 5 years
Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King, and Manuel Quezon were considered charismatic figures. But others also claim that charisma can be inherited and that there are families who are charismatic. There is the Kennedy family in the United States;
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Fishers asked PH lawmakers to probe colleague on Aurora free port project - allvoices
Google News - over 5 years
“Mr. Senate President please take into account that generations of farmers have been cultivating lands under President Manuel Quezon's Proclamation 467 and Proclamation 723 of Governor-general Frank Murphy during the American occupation,
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Senators, COA question PCSO's mega-PR budget - ABS CBN News
Google News - over 5 years
Later, he was shown pictures of several cars and a house in Don Manuel, Quezon City, which he admitted were his and his family's. He said the house was an inheritance from his in-laws, while the cars were from an acquisition plan or through the
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BIR files P18-M tax evasion raps vs ex-PCSO ad manager Manuel Garcia -
Google News - over 5 years
Garcia, of Luskot Street, Barangay Don Manuel, Quezon City, understated his gross annual income by P29.02 million from 2006 to 2010, according to Henares. Quisumbing, the chair and CEO of Quizgem, said he gave at least P16.1 million to Garcia,
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Baler town eyed as next heritage zone - Philippine Star
Google News - over 5 years
BALER, Aurora ,Philippines – This historic town, the hometown of the late Commonwealth President Manuel Quezon and Sen. Edgardo Angara, has been hailed by the National Historical Commission of the Philippines as (NHCP) as possibly the country's next
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Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Manuel L. Quezon
  • 1944
    Age 65
    Quezon suffered from tuberculosis and spent his last years in hospitals, such as at a Miami Beach Army hospital in April, 1944.
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  • 1942
    Age 63
    Early in November 1942, Quezon held conferences with President Roosevelt to work out a plan for the creation of a joint commission to study the economic conditions of post-war Philippines. Eighteen months later, the United States Congress would pass an Act creating the Philippine Rehabilitation Commission as an outcome of such talks between the two Presidents. By 1943, the Philippine Government-in-exile was faced with a serious crisis.
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    On June 2, 1942, President Quezon addressed the United States House of Representatives, impressing upon them the vital necessity of relieving the Philippine front.
    More Details Hide Details Before the Senate, later, the Philippine President reiterated the same message and urged the senators to adopt the slogan "Remember Bataan". Despite his precarious state of health, President Quezon roamed the States to deliver timely and rousing speeches calculated to keep the Philippine war uppermost in the minds of the American nation. On the occasion of his first birthday celebration in the United States, Manuel Quezon broadcast a radio message to the Philippine residents in Hawaii, who contributed to the celebration by purchasing four million pesos worth of World War II bonds. Further showing the Philippine government's cooperation with the war effort, Quezon officially offered the U.S Army a Philippine infantry regiment, which was authorized by the U.S. Department of War to train in California. He also had the Philippine government acquire Elizalde's yacht, which, renamed Bataan and totally manned by the Philippine officers and crew, was donated to the United States for use in the war.
  • 1941
    Age 62
    The Sixth Annual Report of the United States High Commission to the Philippine Island to the President and Congress of the United States, Covering the Fiscal Year July 1, 1941 to June 30, 1942 Washington D.C. October 20, 1942
    More Details Hide Details Executive Orders of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, Manila, Bureau of Printing 1945 In a notable humanitarian act, Quezon, in cooperation with United States High Commissioner Paul V. McNutt, facilitated the entry into the Philippines of Jewish refugees fleeing fascist regimes in Europe. Quezon was also instrumental in promoting a project to resettle the refugees in Mindanao. After the Japanese invasion of the Philippines during World War II, he evacuated to Corregidor, where he was formally inaugurated for his second term, then the Visayas and Mindanao, and upon the invitation of the US government, was further evacuated to Australia and then to the United States, where he established the Commonwealth government in exile with headquarters in Washington, D.C.. There, he served as a member of the Pacific War Council, signed the declaration of the United Nations against the Axis Powers, and wrote his autobiography (The Good Fight, 1946).
    In the 1941 presidential elections, Quezon was re-elected over former Senator Juan Sumulong with nearly 82% of the vote.
    More Details Hide Details The outbreak of World War II and the Japanese invasion resulted in periodic and drastic changes to the government structure. Executive Order 390, December 22, 1941 abolished the Department of the Interior and established a new line of succession. Executive Order 396, December 24, 1941 further reorganized and grouped the cabinet, with the functions of Secretary of Justice assigned to the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines. Sources:
  • 1940
    Age 61
    A controversial immigration law that set an annual limit of 50 immigrants per country which affected mostly Chinese and Japanese nationals escaping the Sino-Japanese War was passed in 1940. Since the law bordered on foreign relations it required the approval of the U.S. President which was nevertheless obtained. When the result of the 1939 census was published, the National Assembly updated the apportionment of legislative districts, which became the basis for the 1941 elections. On August 7, 1939, the United States Congress enacted a law embodying the recommendations submitted by the Joint Preparatory Commission on Philippine Affairs.
    More Details Hide Details Because the new law required an amendment of the Ordinance appended to the Constitution, a plebiscite was held on August 24, 1939. The amendment was carried by 1,339,453 votes against 49,633.
    Speaker Yulo and Assemblyman Dominador Tan traveled to the United States to obtain President Franklin D. Roosevelt's approval, which was given on December 2, 1940.
    More Details Hide Details Two days later President Quezon proclaimed the amendments. Quezon had originally been barred by the Philippine constitution from seeking re-election. However, in 1940, constitutional amendments were ratified allowing him to seek re-election for a fresh term ending in 1943.
    On April 1, 1940, President Quezon officially authorized the printing and publication of the grammar and dictionary prepared by the Institute of the National Language.
    More Details Hide Details Likewise, the Chief Executive decreed that the national language was to be compulsorily taught in all the schools during the forthcoming academic term. For its part, the National Assembly enacted Law No. 570 raising the national language elaborated by the institute to the status of official language of the Philippines, at par with English and Spanish, effective July 4, 1946, upon the establishment of the Philippine Republic. Coincident with the local elections for the 1940, another plebiscite was held this time to ratify the proposed amendments to the Constitution regarding the restoration of the bicameral legislature, the presidential term, which was to be fixed at four years with one re-election; and the establishment of an independent Commission on Elections. With the Nacionalista Party, which had proposed said amendment in their convention, working hard under the leadership of its party president, Speaker Jose Yulo, the amendments were overwhelmingly ratified by the electorate.
  • 1938
    Age 59
    In 1938, President Quezon enlarged the composition of the Council of State through Executive Order No. 44.
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  • 1937
    Age 58
    On December 1937, Quezon issued a proclamation approving the constitution made by the Institute and declaring that the adoption of the national language would take place two years hence.
    More Details Hide Details With the presidential approval, the Institute of National Language started to work on a grammar and dictionary of the language.
    In 2015, the Board of the International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation approved a posthumously bestowal of the Wallenberg Medal upon President Quezon and to the people of the Philippines for having reached-out, between 1937 and 1941, to the victims of the Holocaust.
    More Details Hide Details President Benigno Aquino III, and María Zeneida Quezon Avanceña, who is 94 years old and the daughter of the former President, were duly informed about this recognition. Quezon, was born in Baler in the district of El Príncipe (now Baler, Aurora). His parents were Lucio Quezon (died 1898) and María Dolores Molina (June 7, 1840 – 1893), both of whom were Spanish-Mestizos with distant ethnic Tagalog origins. His father was a primary grade school teacher from Paco, Manila and a retired Sergeant of the Spanish colonial army, while his mother was a primary grade school teacher in their hometown. Although both his parents must have contributed to his education, he received most of his primary education from the public school established by the Spanish government in his village, as part of the establishment of the free public education system in the Philippines, as he himself testified during his speech delivered in the House of Representatives of the United States during the discussion of Jones Bill, in 1914. He later boarded at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran where he completed secondary school.
  • 1936
    Age 57
    Turning his attention to the matter of education in the country, President Quezon by virtue of Executive Order No. 19, dated February 19, 1936, created the National Council of Education, with Rafael Palma, former President of the University of the Philippines, as its first chairman.
    More Details Hide Details Funds retained from the early approved Residence Certificate Law were devoted to the maintenance of the public schools all over the nation and the opening of many more to meet the needs of the young people. Indeed, by this time there were already 6,511 primary schools; 1,039 intermediate schools; 133 secondary and special schools; and five junior colleges. The total number of pupils enrolled was 1,262,353, who were placed under the charge of 28,485 schools teachers That year's appropriation for public education amounted to 14,566,850 pesos. The private institutions of learning, for their part, accommodated more than ninety seven thousand students, thus considerably aiding the government in solving the annual school crisis. To implement the pertinent constitutional provision, the Office of Adult Education was also created. President Quezon initiated women's suffrage in the Philippines during the Commonwealth Era. As a result of the prolonged debate between the proponents of women's suffrage and their opponents, the Constitution finally provided that the issue be resolved by the women themselves in a plebiscite. If no less than 300,000 of them were to affirmatively vote in favor of the grant within two years, it would be deemed granted the country's women. Complying with this mandate, the government ordered a plebiscite to be held for the purpose on April 3, 1937.
  • 1935
    Age 56
    According to the 1935 Constitution, the official term of President Quezon was to expire on December 30, 1943 and Vice-President Sergio Osmeña would automatically succeed him in the Presidency.
    More Details Hide Details This eventuality was brought to the attention of President Quezon by Osmeña himself, who wrote the former to this effect. Aside from replying to this letter informing Vice-President Osmeña that it would not be wise and prudent to effect any such change under the circumstances, President Quezon issued a press release along the same line. Osmeña then requested the opinion of U.S. Attorney General Homer Cummings, who upheld Osmeña's view as more in keeping with the law. Quezon, however, remained adamant. He accordingly sought President Roosevelt's decision. The latter choose to remain aloof from the controversy, suggesting instead that the Philippine officials themselves solve the impasse. A cabinet meeting was then convened by President Quezon. Aside from Quezon and Osmeña, others present in this momentous meeting were the resident Commissioner Joaquin Elizalde, Brig. Gen. Carlos P. Romulo, and his cabinet secretaries, Andres Soriano and Jaime Hernandez. Following a spirited discussion, the Cabinet supported Elizalde's opinion favoring the decision, and announced his plan to retire in California.
    President Quezon was given the power under the reorganization act, to appoint the first all-Filipino Supreme Court of the Philippines in 1935.
    More Details Hide Details From 1901 to 1935, although a Filipino was always appointed chief justice, the majority of the members of the Supreme Court were Americans. Complete Filipinization was achieved only with the establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines in 1935. Claro M. Recto and José P. Laurel were among Quezon's first appointees to replace the American justices. The membership in the Supreme Court increased to 11: a chief justice and ten associate justices, who sat en banc or in two divisions of five members each. To meet the demands of the newly established government set-up and in compliance with the provisions of the Tydings-McDuffie Act, as well as the requirements of the Constitution, President Quezon, true to his pledge of "More Government and less politics", initiated a reorganization of the government bodies. To this effect, he established the Government Survey Board to study the existing institutions and in the light of the changed circumstances, make the necessary recommendations.
    Quezon was inaugurated in November 1935.
    More Details Hide Details He is recognized as the second President of the Philippines. However, in January 2008, House Representative Rodolfo Valencia of Oriental Mindoro filed a bill seeking instead to declare General Miguel Malvar as the second Philippine President, having directly succeeded Aguinaldo in 1901.
  • 1934
    Age 55
    José Yulo who was Quezon's Secretary of Justice from 1934 to 1938 was elected Speaker.
    More Details Hide Details The Second National Assembly embarked on passing legislation strengthening the economy. Unfortunately the cloud of the Second World War loomed over the horizon. Certain laws passed by the First National Assembly were modified or repealed to meet existing realities.
  • 1933
    Age 54
    When the Commonwealth Government was established, President Quezon implemented the Rice Share Tenancy Act of 1933.
    More Details Hide Details The purpose of this act was to regulate the share-tenancy contracts by establishing minimum standards. Primarily, the Act provided for better tenant-landlord relationship, a 50–50 sharing of the crop, regulation of interest to 10% per agricultural year, and a safeguard against arbitrary dismissal by the landlord. However, because of one major flaw of this law, no petition for the Rice Share Tenancy Act was ever presented. The major flaw of this law was that it could be used only when the majority of municipal councils in a province petitioned for it. Since landowners usually controlled such councils, no province ever asked that the law be applied. Therefore, Quezon ordered that the act be mandatory in all Central Luzon provinces. However, contracts were good for only one year. By simply refusing to renew their contract, landlords were able to eject tenants. As a result, peasant organizations clamored in vain for a law that would make the contract automatically renewable for as long as the tenants fulfilled their obligations.
  • 1922
    Age 43
    In 1922, Quezon became the leader of the Nacionalista Party alliance
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  • 1919
    Age 40
    He headed the first Independent Mission to the U.S. Congress in 1919 and secured the passage of the Tydings–McDuffie Act in 1934.
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  • 1918
    Age 39
    Quezon was married to his first cousin, Aurora Aragón Quezon, on December 17, 1918.
    More Details Hide Details The couple had four children: María Aurora "Baby" Quezon (1919–1949), María Zeneida "Nini" Quezon-Avancena (born 1921), Luisa Corazón Paz "Nenita" Quezon (died 1923) and Manuel L. "Nonong" Quezon, Jr. (1926–1998). His adopted grandson, Manuel L. "Manolo" Quezon III (born 1970), a prominent writer and current undersecretary of the Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office, was named after him. He obtained nearly 68% of the vote against his two main rivals, Emilio Aguinaldo and Gregorio Aglipay.
  • 1916
    Age 37
    Quezon returned to Manila in 1916 to be elected into the Philippine Senate as Senator and later elected by his peers as Senate President, serving continuously until 1935 (19 years), becoming the longest serving.
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  • 1909
    Age 30
    From 1909 to 1916, he served as one of the Philippines' two resident commissioners to the U.S. House of Representatives, lobbying for the passage of the Philippine Autonomy Act or Jones Law.
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  • 1907
    Age 28
    In 1907, he was elected to the first Philippine Assembly – later became the House of Representatives – where he served as majority floor leader and chairman of the committee on rules as well as the chairman also of the committee on appropriations.
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  • 1906
    Age 27
    He worked for a time as a clerk and surveyor, entering government service as an appointed fiscal (treasurer) for Mindoro and later Tayabas. He became a councilor and was elected governor of Tayabas in 1906 after a hard-fought election.
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  • 1900
    Age 21
    However, after surrendering in 1900 wherein he made his first break in the American press, Quezon returned to the university and passed the bar examinations in 1903, achieving fourth place.
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  • 1899
    Age 20
    In 1899, Quezon cut short his law studies at the University of Santo Tomás in Manila to participate in the struggle for independence against the United States, led by Emilio Aguinaldo.
    More Details Hide Details During the Philippine–American War he was an Aide-de-camp to Emilio Aguinaldo. He rose to the rank of Major and fought in the Bataan sector.
  • 1898
    Age 19
    In 1898, his father Lucio and his brother Pedro were ambushed and killed by armed men while on their way home to Baler from Nueva Ecija.
    More Details Hide Details Some historians believe they were murdered by bandits who also robbed them, while others believe the killings could have been related to their loyalty to the Spanish government.
  • 1878
    Born on August 19, 1878.
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