Margaret Murray
British Egyptologist
Margaret Murray
Margaret Alice Murray was a prominent British Egyptologist and anthropologist. Primarily known for her work in Egyptology, which was "the core of her academic career," she is also known for her propagation of the Witch-cult hypothesis, the theory that the witch trials in the Early Modern period of Christianized Europe and North America were an attempt to extinguish a surviving pre-Christian, pagan religion devoted to a Horned God.
Margaret Murray's personal information overview.
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Rochester dance studio offers nourishment for the sole - Foster's Daily Democrat
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It's a good balance between working hard and having fun, according to Margaret Murray, whose daughter Abigail attends the school. The school is predominantly female, but it also strives to break down gender stigmas. About 10 percent of their hip hop
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Musical programs, peace program and other events - St. Augustine Record
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For further information call Malinda Peeples, 692-2307 or 806-3939; or Margaret Murray, 692-3561. * Angel food ministries, a nationwide organization with a mission to extinguish hunger throughout the United States is offering a variety of foods at
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Wright Family Reunion Oct. 15 - Rockbridge Weekly
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Robert Daniel & Margaret Murray Wright: Willie Josephine & Joshua Reitzel, Henry Deskins Wright, Lacy Monroe Wright, Earl Hicks Wright,,Ether E. Wright, Arthur Glen Wright, Callie Danie Wright Minor, Allene & Eli Martin Greene
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The ballot and black women - Daily Kos
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Founders of the NACWC included Harriet Tubman, Margaret Murray Washington, Frances EW Harper, Ida Bell Wells-Barnett, and Mary Church Terrell. Its two leading members were Josephine Ruffin and Mary Church Terrell. Their original intention was "to
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SEA event scheduled for Monday - St. Augustine Record
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For further information contact Malinda Peeples, 692-2307 or 806-3939; or Margaret Murray, 692-3561. * Restoration Time Deliverance Center, Food Outreach Operation Distribution (FOOD) caring hands food will be available on the fourth Saturday in August
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Россия: Есть ли у программы "Анонимные алкоголики" шанс на успех в России? -
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Как рассказала членам Хельсинкской комиссии директор международной научно-исследовательской программы Национального института США по исследованию алкогольной зависимости и алкоголизма Маргарет Мюррей (Margaret Murray), "движение "Анонимные алкоголики"
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Russia: Can the AA 12-Step Program Thrive in Russia? - EurasiaNet
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Margaret Murray, the director of the International Research Program at the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, told members of the Helsinki Commission that AA “has been an extremely important mainstay of [alcoholism] treatment in the
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International Cultural Exchange Services seeks host families for foreign ... - Green Bay Press Gazette
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For more information, contact ICES Regional Administrator Margaret Murray at (608) 548-2787, or email her at mmurray, or contact the local area representative, Trudy Lervolino, at (920) 216-5891
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The following students made the superintendent's honor roll for the fourth ... - Annapolis Capital
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... Conor McManamon, Megan Meade, Benjamin MeKeal, Ronald Mentzer, Kayla Messinese, Casi Mewborn, Jennifer Milligan, Danielle Minor, Alexander Molster, Rachel Mondi, Rachel Monias, Margaret Murray, Haley Muse, Sarah Myers, Kylie Myles, Hannah Naegeli,
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Rogue River's Wolvin takes home gold at senior games - Mail Tribune
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55-and-older squad along with Margaret Murray, Mary Lutkenhaus, Sarah McNeil, Melanie Morton, Jana Skladan, Lubo Skladan and Carol Stevenson. The team sealed its gold success by beating Beach Biddies of Virginia 25-15, 18-25, 15-7, and Beat Volley of
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Ronald L. Marli - Pike County Courier
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He was married to Margaret (Murray) Marli in 1965 in Staten Island. Survivors include his wife; son Ronald L. Marli, Jr. of Brooklyn, NY; daughter Tara Ann Marli of Tulsa, Okla., two brothers Robert Marli of Scottsdale, Ariz., and Thomas Marli of
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School days at Linton Camp set to be relived on stage - Bradford Telegraph and Argus
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Margaret Murray, 83, of Wyke, spent two years at the school after being evacuated there from her home in Girlington in 1940 aged 12. She said: “We got homesick at times, but there was so much going on, they kept us busy. “It was beautiful there
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Religious Notes - St. Augustine Record
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For further information contact Malinda Peeples, 692-2307 or 806-3939; or Margaret Murray, 692-3561. "Pen Dragon: Sword of His Father," a movie described as having "action galore and a strong message of hope" will be shown from 6 to 10 pm Saturday at
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Olsen Sees Mixed Results At Assessment -
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Olsen's second “Needing Improvement” score in the performance portion of the evaluation came from Margaret Murray came during an assessment of Olsen's communication practices. In this instance, Murray also noted the food safety concerns regarding the
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Police visited nightclub 20 times in a month -
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Gatecrasher in Birmingham was the regional hotspot for police calls, clocking up 272 recorded visits in 2010, according to figures released under the Freedom of Information Act. Gatecrasher spokeswoman Margaret Murray today said she believed the
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Change In Expulsion Policy Approved On Monday -
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School Committee member Margaret Murray appeared to be the largest proponent of the policy change, citing several concerns ranging from a lack of information regarding statistics on exclusionary disciplines versus statistics on expulsions and a recent
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Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Margaret Murray
  • 1963
    Age 99
    Murray's work was increasingly criticised following her death in 1963, with the definitive academic rejection of the Murrayite witch-cult theory occurring during the 1970s.
    More Details Hide Details During these decades, a variety of scholars across Europe and North America – such as Alan Macfarlane, Erik Midelfort, William Monter, Robert Muchembled, Gerhard Schormann, Bente Alver and Bengt Ankarloo – published in-depth studies of the archival records from the witch trials, leaving no doubt that those tried for witchcraft were not practitioners of a surviving pre-Christian religion. In 1971, the English historian Keith Thomas stated that on the basis of this research, there was "very little evidence to suggest that the accused witches were either devil-worshippers or members of a pagan fertility cult". He stated that Murray's conclusions were "almost totally groundless" because she ignored the systematic study of the trial accounts provided by Ewen and instead used sources very selectively to argue her point. In 1975, the historian Norman Cohn commented that Murray's "knowledge of European history, even of English history, was superficial and her grasp of historical method was non-existent", adding that her ideas were "firmly set in an exaggerated and distorted version of the Frazerian mould". That same year, the historian of religion Mircea Eliade described Murray's work as "hopelessly inadequate", containing "numberless and appalling errors". In 1996, the feminist historian Diane Purkiss stated that although Murray's thesis was "intrinsically improbable" and commanded "little or no allegiance within the modern academy", she felt that male scholars like Thomas, Cohn, and Macfarlane had unfairly adopted an androcentric approach by which they contrasted their own, male and methodologically sound interpretation against Murray's "feminised belief" about the witch-cult.
    To mark her hundredth birthday, on 13 July 1963 a group of her friends, former students, and doctors gathered for a party at nearby Ayot St. Lawrence.
    More Details Hide Details Two days later, her doctor drove her to UCL for a second birthday party, again attended by many of her friends, colleagues, and former students; it was the last time that she visited the university. In Man, the journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, it was noted that Murray was "the only Fellow of the Institute to their centenary within living memory, if not in its whole history". That year she published two books; one was The Genesis of Religion, in which she argued that humanity's first deities had been goddesses rather than male gods. The second was her autobiography, My First Hundred Years, which received predominantly positive reviews.
  • 1962
    Age 98
    Amid failing health, in 1962 Murray moved into the Queen Victoria Memorial Hospital in Welwyn, Hertfordshire, where she could receive 24-hour care; she lived here for the final 18 months of her life.
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  • 1961
    Age 97
    For the autumn 1961 issue of Folklore, the society published a festschrift to Murray to commemorate her 98th birthday.
    More Details Hide Details The issue contained contributions from various scholars paying tribute to her – with papers dealing with archaeology, fairies, Near Eastern religious symbols, Greek folk songs – but notably not about witchcraft, potentially because no other folklorists were willing to defend her witch-cult theory.
  • 1960
    Age 96
    In 1960, she donated her collection of papers – including correspondences with a wide range of individuals across the country – to the Folklore Society Archive, where it is now known as "the Murray Collection".
    More Details Hide Details Crippled with arthritis, Murray had moved into a home in North Finchley, north London, where she was cared for by a retired couple who were trained nurses; from here she occasionally took taxis into central London to visit the UCL library.
  • 1957
    Age 93
    In May 1957, Murray had championed the archaeologist Thomas Charles Lethbridge's controversial claims that he had discovered three pre-Christian chalk hill figures on Wandlebury Hill in the Gog Magog Downs, Cambridgeshire.
    More Details Hide Details Privately she expressed concern about the reality of the figures. Lethbridge subsequently authored a book championing her witch-cult theory in which he sought the cult's origins in pre-Christian culture.
  • 1955
    Age 91
    Murray remained President for two terms, until 1955.
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  • 1954
    Age 90
    In her 1954 presidential address, "England as a Field for Folklore Research", she lamented what she saw as the English people's disinterest in their own folklore in favour of that from other nations.
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  • 1953
    Age 89
    In 1953, Murray was appointed to the presidency of the Folklore Society following the resignation of former president Allan Gomme.
    More Details Hide Details The Society had initially approached John Mavrogordato for the post, but he had declined, with Murray accepting the nomination several months later.
    She served as President of the Folklore Society from 1953 to 1955, and published widely over the course of her career.
    More Details Hide Details Born to a wealthy middle-class English family in Calcutta, British India, Murray divided her youth between India, Britain, and Germany, training as both a nurse and a social worker. Moving to London, in 1894 she began studying Egyptology at UCL, developing a friendship with department head Flinders Petrie, who encouraged her early academic publications and appointed her Junior Professor in 1898. In 1902–03 she took part in Petrie's excavations at Abydos, Egypt, there discovering the Osireion temple and the following season investigated the Saqqara cemetery, both of which established her reputation in Egyptology. Supplementing her UCL wage by giving public classes and lectures at the British Museum and Manchester Museum, it was at the latter in 1908 that she led the unwrapping of Khnum-nakht, one of the mummies recovered from the Tomb of the Two Brothers – the first time that a woman had publicly unwrapped a mummy. Recognising that British Egyptomania reflected the existence of a widespread public interest in Ancient Egypt, Murray wrote several books on Egyptology targeted at a general audience.
  • 1949
    Age 85
    Murray's interest in popularising Egyptology among the wider public continued; in 1949 she published Ancient Egyptian Religious Poetry, her second work for John Murray's "The Wisdom of the East" series.
    More Details Hide Details That same year she also published The Splendour That Was Egypt, in which she collated many of her UCL lectures. The book adopted a diffusionist perspective that argued that Egypt influenced Greco-Roman society and thus modern Western society. This was seen as a compromise between Petrie's belief that other societies influenced the emergence of Egyptian civilisation and Grafton Elliot Smith's highly unorthodox and heavily criticised hyperdiffusionist view that Egypt was the source of all global civilisation. The book received a mixed reception from the archaeological community. box A distant cousin — what we would have called an elderly lady of eighty — was bringing greetings from even more distant relatives in Australia and suddenly forgot, as happens to many people half her age and a third of the age of Ma Murray, one name. 'How stupid of me, Cousin Margaret,' she said, 'how stupid the name has quite gone out of my head.' Ma Murray focused her eyes on this old lady twenty years her junior — cold eyes in which feeling seemed extinguished in the neutrality of eternity — and said gently and kindly, 'Not stupidity, my dear.
  • 1937
    Age 73
    Intrigued by the site, in March and April 1937 she returned in order to carry out a small excavation in several cave dwellings at the site, subsequently writing both an excavation report and a guidebook on Petra.
    More Details Hide Details Back in England, from 1934 to 1940, Murray aided the cataloguing of Egyptian antiquities at Girton College, Cambridge, and also gave lectures in Egyptology at the university until 1942. During the Second World War, Murray evaded the Blitz of London by moving to Cambridge, where she volunteered for a group (probably the Army Bureau of Current Affairs or The British Way and Purpose) who educated military personnel to prepare them for post-war life. Based in the city, she embarked on research into the town's Early Modern history, examining documents stored in local parish churches, Downing College, and Ely Cathedral; she never published her findings. After the war ended she returned to London, settling into a bedsit room in Endsleigh Street, which was close to University College London (UCL) and the Institute of Archaeology (then an independent institution, now part of UCL); she continued her involvement with the former and made use of the latter's library. On most days she visited the British Museum in order to consult their library, and twice a week she taught adult education classes on Ancient Egyptian history and religion at the City Literary Institute; upon her retirement from this position she nominated her former pupil, Veronica Seton-Williams, to replace her.
  • 1935
    Age 71
    The historian Philip Heselton suggested that the New Forest coven – the oldest alleged Wiccan group – was founded circa 1935 by esotericists aware of Murray's theory and who may have believed themselves to be reincarnated witch-cult members.
    More Details Hide Details It was Gerald Gardner, who claimed to be an initiate of the New Forest coven, who established the tradition of Gardnerian Wicca and popularised the religion; according to Simpson, Gardner was the only member of the Folklore Society to "wholeheartedly" accept Murray's witch-cult hypothesis. The duo knew each other, with Murray writing the foreword to Gardner's 1954 book Witchcraft Today, although in that foreword she did not explicitly specify whether she believed Gardner's claim that he had discovered a survival of her witch-cult. In 2005, Noble suggested that "Murray's name might be all but forgotten today if it were not for Gerald Gardner". box As historians challenged and demolished this theory in the 1960s and 1970s, many Wiccans were shocked. Some accepted that the theory was not actually legitimate, instead portraying the Murrayite story as a mythical history for the Craft and seeking to emphasise the religion's other historical antecessors.
    During Murray's 1935 trip to Palestine, she had taken the opportunity to visit Petra in neighbouring Jordan.
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    The journal folded in 1935, perhaps due to Murray's retirement.
    More Details Hide Details Murray then spent some time in Jerusalem, where she aided the Petries in their excavation at Tall al-Ajjul, a Bronze Age mound south of Gaza.
  • 1933
    Age 69
    In 1933, Petrie had retired from UCL and moved to Jerusalem in Mandatory Palestine with his wife; Murray therefore took over as editor of the Ancient Egypt journal, renaming it Ancient Egypt and the East to reflect its increasing research interest in the ancient societies that surrounded and interacted with Egypt.
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  • 1927
    Age 63
    Although having reached legal retirement age in 1927, and thus unable to be offered another five-year contract, Murray was reappointed on an annual basis each year until 1935.
    More Details Hide Details At this point, she retired, expressing the opinion that she was glad to leave UCL, for reasons that she did not make clear.
    Murray joined the Folklore Society in February 1927, and was elected to the society's council a month later, although stood down in 1929.
    More Details Hide Details Murray reiterated her witch-cult theory in her 1933 book, The God of the Witches, which was aimed at a wider, non-academic audience. In this book, she cut out or toned down what she saw as the more unpleasant aspects of the witch-cult, such as animal and child sacrifice, and began describing the religion in more positive terms as "the Old Religion".
  • 1924
    Age 60
    In 1924, UCL promoted Murray – then aged sixty-two – to the position of assistant professor, and in 1927 she was awarded an honorary doctorate for her career in Egyptology.
    More Details Hide Details That year, Murray was tasked with guiding Mary of Teck, the Queen consort, around the Egyptology department during the latter's visit to UCL. The pressures of teaching had eased by this point, allowing Murray to spend more time travelling internationally; in 1920 she returned to Egypt and in 1929 visited South Africa, where she attended the meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, whose theme was the prehistory of southern Africa. In the early 1930s she travelled to the Soviet Union, where she visited museums in Leningrad, Moscow, Kharkov, and Kiev, and then in late 1935 she undertook a lecture tour of Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Estonia.
  • 1921
    Age 57
    From 1921 to 1927, Murray led archaeological excavations on Malta, assisted by Edith Guest and Gertrude Caton Thompson.
    More Details Hide Details She excavated the Bronze Age megalithic monuments of Santa Sofia, Santa Maria tal-Bakkari, Għar Dalam, and Borġ in-Nadur, all of which were threatened by the construction of a new aerodrome. In this she was funded by the Percy Sladen Memorial Fund. Her resulting three-volume excavation report came to be seen as an important publication within the field of Maltese archaeology. During the excavations, she had taken an interest in the island's folklore, resulting in the 1932 publication of her book Maltese Folktales, much of which was a translation of earlier stories collected by Father Magri and her friend Liza Galea. In 1932 Murray returned to Malta to aid in the cataloguing of the Bronze Age pottery collection held in Malta Museum, resulting in another publication, Corpus of the Bronze Age Pottery of Malta. On the basis of her work in Malta, Louis C. G. Clarke, the curator of the Cambridge Museum of Ethnology and Anthropology, invited her to lead excavations on the island of Minorca from 1930 to 1931. With the aid of Guest, she excavated the megalithic sites of Trapucó and Sa Torrera, resulting in the publication of Cambridge Excavations in Minorca. Murray also continued to publish works on Egyptology for a general audience, such as Egyptian Sculpture (1930) and Egyptian Temples (1931), which received largely positive reviews. In the summer of 1925 she led a team of volunteers to excavate Homestead Moat in Whomerle Wood near to Stevenage, Hertfordshire; she did not publish an excavation report and did not mention the event in her autobiography, with her motives for carrying out the excavation remaining unclear.
    She articulated these views more fully in her 1921 book The Witch-Cult in Western Europe, published by Oxford University Press after receiving a positive peer review by Henry Balfour, and which received both criticism and support on publication.
    More Details Hide Details Many reviews in academic journals were critical, with historians claiming that she had distorted and misinterpreted the contemporary records that she was using, but the book was nevertheless influential. As a result of her work in this area, she was invited to provide the entry on "witchcraft" for the fourteenth edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica in 1929. She used the opportunity to propagate her own witch-cult theory, failing to mention the alternate theories proposed by other academics. Her entry would be included in the encyclopedia until 1969, becoming readily accessible to the public, and it was for this reason that her ideas on the subject had such a significant impact. It received a particularly enthusiastic reception by occultists such as Dion Fortune, Lewis Spence, Ralph Shirley, and J. W. Brodie Innes, perhaps because its claims regarding an ancient secret society chimed with similar claims common among various occult groups.
  • 1917
    Age 53
    Murray's interest in folklore led her to develop an interest in the witch trials of Early Modern Europe. In 1917, she published a paper in Folklore, the journal of the Folklore Society, in which she first articulated her version of the witch-cult theory, arguing that the witches persecuted in European history were actually followers of "a definite religion with beliefs, ritual, and organization as highly developed as that of any cult in the end".
    More Details Hide Details She followed this up with papers on the subject in the journals Man and the Scottish Historical Review.
  • 1916
    Age 52
    It was at Seligman's recommendation that she was invited to become a member of the Institute in 1916.
    More Details Hide Details In 1914, Petrie launched the academic journal Ancient Egypt, published through his own British School of Archaeology in Egypt (BSAE), which was based at UCL. Given that he was often away from London excavating in Egypt, Murray was left to operate as de facto editor much of the time. She also published many research articles in the journal and authored many of its book reviews, particularly of the German-language publications which Petrie could not read. The outbreak of the First World War in 1914, in which the United Kingdom went to war against Germany and the Ottoman Empire, meant that Petrie and other staff members were unable to return to Egypt for excavation. Instead, Petrie and Murray spent much of the time reorganising the artefact collections that they had attained over the past decades. To aid Britain's war effort, Murray enrolled as a volunteer nurse in the Volunteer Air Detachment of the College Women's Union Society, and for several weeks was posted to Saint-Malo in France. After being taken ill herself, she was sent to recuperate in Glastonbury, Somerset, where she became interested in Glastonbury Abbey and the folklore surrounding it which connected it to the legendary figure of King Arthur and to the idea that the Holy Grail had been brought there by Joseph of Aramathea. Pursuing this interest, she published the paper "Egyptian Elements in the Grail Romance" in the journal Ancient Egypt, although few agreed with her conclusions and it was criticised for making unsubstantiated leaps with the evidence by the likes of Jessie Weston.
  • 1911
    Age 47
    From at least 1911 until his death in 1940, Murray was a close friend of the anthropologist Charles Gabriel Seligman of the London School of Economics, and together they co-authored a variety of papers on Egyptology that were aimed at an anthropological audience.
    More Details Hide Details Many of these dealt with subjects that Egyptological journals would not publish, such as the "Sa" sign for the uterus, and thus were published in Man, the journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute.
  • 1905
    Age 41
    Murray was dedicated to public education, hoping to infuse Egyptomania with solid scholarship about Ancient Egypt, and to this end authored a series of books aimed at a general audience. In 1905 she published Elementary Egyptian Grammar which was followed in 1911 by Elementary Coptic (Sahidic) Grammar.
    More Details Hide Details In 1913, she published Ancient Egyptian Legends for John Murray's "The Wisdom of the East" series. She was particularly pleased with the increased public interest in Egyptology that followed Howard Carter's discovery of the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun in 1922.
    She published her findings in 1905 as Saqqara Mastabas I, although would not publish translations of the inscriptions until 1937 as Saqqara Mastabas II.
    More Details Hide Details Both The Osireion at Abydos and Saqqara Mastabas I proved to be very influential in the Egyptological community, with Petrie recognising Murray's contribution to his own career. On returning to London, Murray took an active role in the feminist movement, volunteering and financially donating to the cause and taking part in feminist demonstrations, protests, and marches. Joining the Women's Social and Political Union, she was present at large marches like the Mud March of 1907 and the Women's Coronation Procession of June 1911. She concealed the militancy of her actions in order to retain the image of respectability within academia. Murray also pushed the professional boundaries for women throughout her own career, and mentored other women in archaeology and throughout academia. As women could not use the men's common room, she successfully campaigned for UCL to open a common room for women, and later ensured that a larger, better-equipped room was converted for the purpose; it was later renamed the Margaret Murray Room. At UCL, she became a friend of fellow female lecturer Winifred Smith, and together they campaigned to improve the status and recognition of women in the university, with Murray becoming particularly annoyed at female staff who were afraid of upsetting or offending the male university establishment with their demands. Feeling that students should get nutritious yet affordable lunches, for many years she sat on the UCL Refectory Committee.
  • 1903
    Age 39
    During the 1903–04 field season, Murray returned to Egypt, and at Petrie's instruction began her investigations at the Saqqara cemetery near to Cairo, which dated from the period of the Old Kingdom.
    More Details Hide Details Murray did not have legal permission to excavate the site, and instead spent her time transcribing the inscriptions from ten of the tombs that had been excavated during the 1860s by Auguste Mariette.
  • 1902
    Age 38
    At this point, Murray had no experience in field archaeology, and so during the 1902–03 field season, she travelled to Egypt to join Petrie's excavations at Abydos.
    More Details Hide Details Petrie and his wife, Hilda Petrie, had been excavating at the site since 1899, having taken over the archaeological investigation from French Coptic scholar Émile Amélineau. Murray at first joined as site nurse, but was subsequently taught how to excavate by Petrie and given a senior position. This led to some issues with some of the male excavators, who disliked the idea of taking orders from a woman. This experience, coupled with discussions with other female excavators (some of whom were active in the feminist movement) led Murray to adopt openly feminist viewpoints. While excavating at Abydos, Murray uncovered the Osireion, a temple devoted to the god Osiris which had been constructed by order of Pharaoh Seti I during the period of the New Kingdom. She published her site report as The Osireion at Abydos in 1904; in the report, she examined the inscriptions that had been discovered at the site to discern the purpose and use of the building.
  • 1898
    Age 34
    In 1898 she was appointed to the position of Junior Lecturer, responsible for teaching the linguistic courses at the Egyptology department; this made her the first female lecturer in archaeology in the United Kingdom.
    More Details Hide Details In this capacity, she spent two days a week at UCL, devoting the other days to caring for her ailing mother. As time went on, she came to teach courses on Ancient Egyptian history, religion, and language. Among Murray's students — to whom she referred as "the Gang" — were several who went on to produce noted contributions to Egyptology, including Reginald Engelbach, Georgina Aitken, Guy Brunton, and Myrtle Broome. She supplemented her UCL salary by teaching evening classes in Egyptology at the British Museum.
  • 1895
    Age 31
    Murray soon got to know Petrie, becoming his copyist and illustrator and producing the drawings for the published report on his excavations at Qift, Koptos. In turn, he aided and encouraged her to write her first research paper, "The Descent of Property in the Early Periods of Egyptian History", which was published in the Proceedings of the Society for Biblical Archaeology in 1895.
    More Details Hide Details Becoming Petrie's de facto though unofficial assistant, Murray began to give some of the linguistic lessons in Griffith's absence.
  • 1894
    Age 30
    Murray began her studies at UCL at age 30 in January 1894, as part of a class composed largely of other women and older men.
    More Details Hide Details There, she took courses in the Ancient Egyptian and Coptic languages which were taught by Francis Llewellyn Griffith and Walter Ewing Crum respectively.
  • 1893
    Age 29
    In 1893 she then travelled to Madras, Tamil Nadu, where her sister had moved to with her new husband.
    More Details Hide Details Encouraged by her mother and sister, Murray decided to enroll at the newly opened department of Egyptology at University College London (UCL) in Bloomsbury, Central London. Having been founded by an endowment from Amelia Blanford Edwards, one of the co-founders of the Egypt Exploration Fund (EEF), the department was run by the pioneering early archaeologist Sir William Flinders Petrie, and based in the Edwards Library of UCL's South Cloisters.
  • 1891
    Age 27
    When her father retired and moved to England, she moved into his house in Bushey Heath, Hertfordshire, living with him until his death in 1891.
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  • 1887
    Age 23
    In 1887, she returned to England, moving to Rugby, Warwickshire, where her uncle John had moved, now widowed.
    More Details Hide Details Here she took up employment as a social worker dealing with local underprivileged people.
  • 1873
    Age 9
    In 1873, the girls' mother arrived in Europe and took them with her to Bonn in Germany, where they both became fluent in German.
    More Details Hide Details In 1875 they returned to Calcutta, staying there till 1877. They then moved with their parents back to England, where they settled in Sydenham, South London. There, they spent much time visiting The Crystal Palace, while their father worked at his firm's London office. In 1880, they returned to Calcutta, where Margaret remained for the next seven years. She became a nurse at the Calcutta General Hospital, which was run by the Sisters of the Anglican Sisterhood of Clower, and there was involved with the hospital's attempts to deal with a cholera outbreak.
  • 1870
    Age 6
    In 1870, Margaret and her sister Mary were sent to Britain, there moving in with their uncle John, a vicar, and his wife Harriet at their home in Lambourn, Berkshire.
    More Details Hide Details Although John provided them with a strongly Christian education and a belief in the inferiority of women, both of which she would reject, he awakened Murray's interest in archaeology through taking her to see local monuments.
  • 1863
    Margaret Murray was born on 13 July 1863 in Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, then a major military city in British India.
    More Details Hide Details A member of the wealthy British imperial elite, she lived in the city with her family: parents James and Margaret Murray, an older sister named Mary, and her paternal grandmother and great-grandmother. James Murray, born in India of English descent, was a businessman and manager of the Serampore paper mills who was thrice elected President of the Calcutta Chamber of Commerce. His wife, Margaret (née Carr), had moved to India from Britain in 1857 to work as a missionary, preaching Christianity and educating Indian women. She continued with this work after marrying James and giving birth to her two daughters. Although most of their lives were spent in the European area of Calcutta, which was walled off from the indigenous sectors of the city, Murray encountered members of indigenous society through her family's employment of 10 Indian servants and through childhood holidays to Mussoorie. The historian Amara Thornton has suggested that Murray's Indian childhood continued to exert an influence over her throughout her life, expressing the view that Murray could be seen as having a hybrid transnational identity that was both British and Indian. During her childhood, Murray never received a formal education, and in later life expressed pride in the fact that she had never had to sit an exam before entering university.
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