Mariam-uz-Zamani Mariam-uz-Zamani
Mughal Empress
Mariam-uz-Zamani Mariam-uz-Zamani
Mariam uz-Zamani Begum Sahiba مرہم از-زمانی بیگم صاحبہMughal Empress Jodhbai. jpg Artistic depiction of Mariam uz-Zamani alias Harkha BaiFull name Rajkumari Hira KunwariBorn October 1, 1542Birthplace AmerDied 1622Buried Mariam's TombConsort to Mirza Jalaluddin Mohammed AkbarDynasty MughalFather Raja BharmalChildren Nooruddin Mohammed Salim urf. Jahangir MirzaReligious beliefs Hinduism Mariam uz-Zamani Begum Sahiba .
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    LATE_ADULTHOOD
  • 1623
    Age 80
    Mariam uz-Zamani died in 1623.
    More Details Hide Details She is Akbar's only wife to be buried close to him, as per her wish. A vav or step well was constructed by her son, Emperor Jahangir, as per her last wishes. The grave itself is underground with a flight of steps leading to it.
    Her tomb, built in 1623-27, is on the Tantpur road now known as in Jyoti Nagar.
    More Details Hide Details Though she remained Hindu after her marriage, she was buried according to Islamic custom, near her husband's mausoleum. Mariam's Tomb is only a kilometre from Tomb of Akbar the Great. The tomb's location reduced its chances of becoming a tourist attraction, but likewise, its lack of visibility meant it fell into a state of disrepair. Later, taken over by ASI, her resting place is now dignified. There are some interesting aspects to the tomb, principally the ASI slab at the entrance which proclaims the tomb to be that of Mariam Uz Zamani, the princess of Amer who married Akbar and later gave birth to Jahangir. Another interesting aspect of the tomb is that the building looks identical from the front and back and unlike other Mughal era structures, the back entrance is not a dummy. The Mosque of Mariam Zamani Begum Sahiba was built by her son Nuruddin Salim Jahangir in her honour and is situated in the Walled City of Lahore, present day Pakistan. It is one of the earliest mosques in Lahore. The mosque also has a distinction of being one of the biggest mosques in present-day Pakistan.
  • 1613
    Age 70
    Mariam-uz-Zamani owned ships that carried pilgrims to and from the Islamic holy city Mecca. In 1613, her ship, the Rahīmī, was seized by Portuguese pirates along with the 600-700 passengers onboard and the cargo.
    More Details Hide Details Rahīmī was the largest Indian ship sailing in the Red Sea and was known to the Europeans as the "great pilgrimage ship". When the Portuguese officially refused to return the ship and the passengers, the outcry at the Moghul court was quite unusually severe. The outrage was compounded by the fact that the owner and the patron of the ship was none other than the revered mother of the current emperor. Mariam-uz-Zamani's son, the Indian emperor Jahangir, ordered the seizure of the Portuguese town Daman. This episode is considered to be an example of the struggle for wealth that would later ensue and lead to colonization of the Indian sub-continent. She was one of the only four members of the court (another was the emperor) and the only woman to have the rank of 12,000 cavalry, and was known to receive a jewel from every nobleman "according to his estate" each year on the occasion of New Year's festival. Like only a few other women at the Mughal court, Mariam-uz-Zamani was granted the right to issue official documents, firmans, usually the exclusive privilege of the emperor. Issuing of such orders was confined to the highest ladies of the harem such as Hamida Banu Begum and in later years to other queens, consorts and princesses such as Nur Jehan, Mumtaz Mahal, Nadira Banu and Jahanara Begum. Mariam Zamani used her wealth and influence to build gardens, wells, mosques and other developments around the countryside, which was followed by Nur Jehan.
  • FORTIES
  • 1585
    Age 42
    Her niece, Manbhawati Bai or Manmati Bai, daughter of her brother Bhagwan Das, married Prince Salim on 13 February 1585.
    More Details Hide Details Man Bai later became mother to Prince Khusrau Mirza and was awarded the title of Shah Begum by Jahangir. Jahangir paid obeisance to his mother by touching her feet. He records these instances with a sense of pride. His reference to his mother was preceded by epithet 'Hazrat', one that is usually reserved for His Majesty himself. These courtesies demonstrate the amount of respect and love he held for his mother, Mariam-uz-Zamani. A number of royal functions took place in the household of Mariam-uz-zamani like Jahangir's solar weighing, Jahangir's marriage to daughter of Jagat Singh, and Shehzada Parviz's wedding to daughter of Sultan Murad Mirza. Akbar developed Hindu inclinations and allowed his Hindu wife to perform the customary rites in the royal palace. Thus, contrary to the usual practice of sultans, Akbar allowed her to remain a Hindu and to maintain a Hindu temple in the royal palace. He himself participated in the puja she performed. She was a devotee of Lord Krishna. Her palace was decorated with paintings of Lord Krishna and frescoes. Though she remained a Hindu, as per her wish, she was buried near her husband's grave.
  • TWENTIES
  • 1569
    Age 26
    An expectant Heer was sent to Sheikh's humble dwelling at Sikri during the period of her pregnancy.On 30 August 1569, the boy was born and received the name Salim, in acknowledgement of his father's faith in the efficacy of the holy man's prayer.A contemporary account Gulshan-i-Ibrahimi by Abul Qaisaim Firishta while writing about Akbar the book stated that "In 1569,the favourite Sultana of Akbar gave birth to a prince named Salim"
    More Details Hide Details Her title, Mariam-uz-zamani, 'the Mary of the Age', has been mistaken sometimes with Akbar's mother, whose title was Mariam-makani, 'dwelling with Mary'. Apart from the title of Mariam-uz-Zamani, Heer also held the titles of Mallika-e-Muezzama referring to someone who is Exceedingly chaste, innocent and honored, Mallika-e-Hind(Hindustan) referring to Queen of India and Wali Nimat Begam which literally means the Gift of God. She held these titles throughout her lifetime and even issued farmans (official documents) using the title of Wali Nimat Mariam-uz-Zamani Begum. Akbar's marriage with Hindu princess Heer Kunwari produced important effects on both on his personal rule of life and on his public policy. The custom of Hindu rulers offering their daughters for marriage to Muslim rulers, though not common, had been prevalent in the country for several centuries. Yet Akbar's marriage to princess of Amber/Amer is significant, as an early indication of his evolving policy of religious eclecticism. The marriage with the Amer princess secured the powerful support of her family throughout the reign, and offered a proof manifest to all the world that Akbar had decided to be the Badshah or Shahenshah of his whole people i.e. Hindus as well as Muslims.
    In the beginning of 1569, Akbar was gladdened by the news that his first Hindu consort, Heer Kunwari was expecting a child, and that he might hope for the first of the three sons promised by Sheikh Salim Chisti, a reputed holy man who lived at Sikri.
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  • TEENAGE
  • 1562
    Age 19
    Akbar's marriage with Heer Kunwari had far-reaching results. It led Akbar to take a much more favorable view of Hinduism and his Hindu subjects. In a marriage of political alliance, Heer Kunwari was married to Akbar on 6 February 1562 at Sambhar near Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.In Akbarnama, Abul Fazl, described Heer Kunwari as "the eldest daughter of Raja Bharmal in whose forehead shone the lights of chastity and intellect among the attendants in the glorious pavilion" Heer Kunwari became one of the chief wives of Emperor Akbar after her marriage.
    More Details Hide Details Mariam, as mother of the heir-apparent, took precedence over all the other wives of Akbar though she was already designated as the Chief Hindu Mughal Queen Consort along with the other two Chief Mughal Empresses. Though she remained a Hindu, Heer Kunwari was honoured with the title Mariam-uz-Zamani ("Mary of the Age") after she gave birth to Jahangir. Despite her being a non-Muslim wife, she held great respect and honour in the Mughal household and held palaces not only in Agra but also in Fatehpur Sikri, Allahabad and Mandu, Madhya Pradesh which houses the famous Nilkanth temple.
    Her tenure, from 6 February 1562 to 27 October 1605, is that of over 43 years.
    More Details Hide Details Her marriage to Akbar led to a gradual shift in his religious and social policy. Akbar's marriage with Rajkumari Heer Kunwari was a very important event in Mughal history. She is widely regarded in modern Indian historiography as exemplifying Akbar's and the Mughal's tolerance of religious differences and their inclusive policies within an expanding multi-ethnic and multi-denominational empire. Heer Kunwari was born as a Rajput princess (Rajkumari) and was the eldest daughter of Raja Bharmal, of Amer (modern day Jaipur). She was the granddaughter of Raja Prithvi Singh of Amer. Rajkumari Heer Kunwari was also the sister of Raja Bhagwan Das of Amer, and the aunt of Raja Man Singh I of Amer, who later became one of the Nine Jewels (Navaratnas) in the court of Akbar. Later, both occupied high offices in Akbar's court.
  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1542
    Born
    Born in 1542.
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