Mircea Eliade
Romanian historian, philosopher, short story writer, journalist, essayist, novelist
Mircea Eliade
Mircea Eliade was a Romanian historian of religion, fiction writer, philosopher, and professor at the University of Chicago. He was a leading interpreter of religious experience, who established paradigms in religious studies that persist to this day. His theory that hierophanies form the basis of religion, splitting the human experience of reality into sacred and profane space and time, has proved influential.
Biography
Mircea Eliade's personal information overview.
{{personal_detail.supertitle}}
{{personal_detail.title}}
{{personal_detail.title}}
Photo Albums
Popular photos of Mircea Eliade
Relationships
View family, career and love interests for Mircea Eliade
News
News abour Mircea Eliade from around the web
Arta traducerii ca pasiune a inimii - Radio Europa Liberă
Google News - over 5 years
În primul rînd e Mircea Eliade din care am scos şase volume, nu numai nuvelistică, ci şi cărţi de specialitate, de istoria religiilor, apoi Petru Cimpoeşu, Laurenţiu Fulga, Radu Tudoran, Ion D. Sîrbu, şi, dacă mă refer la autorii din Basarabia,
Article Link:
Google News article
O jumătate de secol sub semnul Festivalului Enescu - Curierul National
Google News - over 5 years
Şi asupra lui sa abătut - folosind o expresie a lui Mircea Eliade - "teroarea istoriei". Din 1973 sa redus timpul desfăşurării lui, sumarul manifestărilor - diminuat, iar concursul a fost suprimat. Dar chiar şi în aceste condiţii artişti români şi
Article Link:
Google News article
Candidaţii la diplomă s-au făcut de râs: perlele de la Cluj - Ziua de Cluj
Google News - over 5 years
care a scris şi «Maitreyi» (roman al lui Mircea Eliade - n. red.)". Un alt elev susţine că "în Moara cu noroc este un şef de poliţie pe care îl cheamă Pristanda", inserând în nuvelă celebrul personaj din piesa "O scrisoare pierdută" de Ion Luca
Article Link:
Google News article
Subiecte Bac 2011: Care dintre examenele la Limba română au fost mai uşoare? - Realitatea
Google News - over 5 years
Elevii au avut de rezolvat la proba de limba şi literatura română a examenului de bacalaureat sesiunea iunie-iulie, subiecte vizând opere ale scriitorilor Mircea Eliade, Nichita Stănescu şi ILCaragiale. La primul subiect au avut de răspuns la nouă
Article Link:
Google News article
Bac 2011: Candidaţii susţin luni prima probă scrisă - Cotidianul
Google News - over 5 years
În sesiunea de bacalaureat iunie-iulie, elevii au avut de rezolvat subiecte vizând opere ale scriitorilor Mircea Eliade, Nichita Stănescu şi ILCaragiale, informează realitatea.net. Bacalaureatul are trei probe orale şi trei scrise
Article Link:
Google News article
AVALON. Emergenţă statală şi amnios protector - ObservatorCultural.ro
Google News - over 5 years
Un terţ exemplu referitor la creativitatea hermeneutică a lui Ioan Petru Culianu în probleme interesînd istoria românilor este legat direct de proiectul unei noi monografii Mircea Eliade la care exilatul lucra în 1982. Pe vremea aceea, Culianu preda la
Article Link:
Google News article
When Education was Dogma - Transitions Online
Google News - over 5 years
A teacher of Romanian at the prestigious Mircea Eliade High School, Bolocan holds a doctorate in pedagogy. In 1999 she won a national Teacher of the Year award. Until 1991 – closed borders, barbed wire. Immediately after, it was like it never happened
Article Link:
Google News article
AVALON. Teoria schimbării din exterior - ObservatorCultural.ro
Google News - over 5 years
Într-o scrisoare către Mircea Eliade, trimisă în 17 mai 1979, mai tînărul istoric al religiilor constata că „… toată istoria României na fost dictată decît din afară: aşa sa făcut Unirea (din 1859 – nm), aşa a fost şi cu (proclamarea Independenţei în)
Article Link:
Google News article
Enticing unsteady souls into darkness: when 'mutual listening' opens the door ... - Virtue Online
Google News - over 5 years
If Mythic stories provide value, meaning and purpose to our behaviour they thus become the source of the ethical basis for behaviour; says the renowned authority on world religions Mircea Eliade, " ...(myths) establish and justify all human conduct and
Article Link:
Google News article
HAOS la Steaua! Toata lumea fuge de cel mai titrat club din Romania! De ce sta ... - Sport.ro
Google News - over 5 years
Asta pentru ca o parte dintre juniorii Stelei se antreneaza la baza Vointa, iar o alta parte la Liceul „Mircea Eliade”. "Sa fie clar, noi la baza Vointa nu ne lasam copiii. Acolo aveti doar doua terenuri sintetice de antrenament, care sunt de tot rasul
Article Link:
Google News article
Situaţia este dramatică la Steaua! Cantonamente pe banii părinţilor - ProSport
Google News - over 5 years
În această dimineaţă, cu începere de la ora 8.00, la liceul Mircea Eliade s-au reunit grupele de juniori ale Stelei 2003-2004. Aşa cum era de aşteptat, dintr-un total de 38 de copii, la reunire s-au prezentat doar 15. ProSport a aflat ce le-a comunicat
Article Link:
Google News article
COMIXIO RELIGIONIS: Circumcision NOT Jerusalemic - Salem-News.Com
Google News - over 5 years
Mircea Eliade.[31] [1] Campbell, Joseph, The Mythic Image, Princeton University Press, 1990, p. 430. [2] Matteoli, Richard L. The Totemic Analogy in Bible Symbolism, Nemean Press, 2009. A Mandated Report to the social body. [3] Eliade, Mircea, The Myth
Article Link:
Google News article
Ultimul “semn” al lui Mircea Ivănescu - Ziua de Cluj
Google News - over 5 years
Mircea Eliade vorbeşte despre aceste "calităţi" undeva, ca istoric al religiilor. Diferenţa între oameni, una fundamentală, este de a putea sau nu să descifreze la timp "semnele" unei aşa-zise "întâmplări". Să anticipeze sau nu semnele divinităţii
Article Link:
Google News article
The Bible: History or Myth? - Huffington Post
Google News - over 5 years
Twentieth-century scholars Mircea Eliade and Joseph Campbell wrote that certain archetypal religious myths are found across cultures, histories, and religions. Examples include the Cosmic Tree, the Virgin BIrth, and The Resurrection. 6
Article Link:
Google News article
Eleva care a picat Bacul după contestaţii este pasionată de Mircea Eliade şi ... - Adevărul
Google News - over 5 years
Un singur candidat la Bacalaureat, din judeţul Sibiu, a picat examenul în urma contestaţiilor, după ce iniţial promovase. Absolventă a Colegiului Naţional "Gheorghe Bariţiu", Alexandra Maria Mazilu a susţinut examenul de Bacalaureat la Liceul Energetic
Article Link:
Google News article
Mircea Eliade după ce a luat bacalaureatul: “Am scăpat! Am scăpat!!!” - Romania Libera
Google News - over 5 years
Unul dintre cei mai apreciaţi specialişti în istoria religilor, autorul "Nopţii de Sânzâiene" sau a "Huliganilor", Mircea Eliade sa născut la începutul secolului XX. A dat bacalaureatul în jurul anului 1925 la puţin timp după formarea României mari şi
Article Link:
Google News article
Melissa Pritchard - The Southeast Review Online
Google News - over 5 years
Joseph Campbell, Mircea Eliade, Krishnamurti, Mahatma Gandhi, Jesus, Paramahansa Yogananda, Jalaluddin Rumi, Buddha, Lao Tzu, the Dalai Lama, among many others, have all been huge influences on my worldview. Q: In a lot of your writing, particularly in
Article Link:
Google News article
Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Mircea Eliade
    LATE_ADULTHOOD
  • 1986
    Age 78
    Mircea Eliade died at the Bernard Mitchell Hospital in April 1986.
    More Details Hide Details Eight days previously, he suffered a stroke while reading Emil Cioran's Exercises of Admiration, and had subsequently lost his speech function. Four months before, a fire had destroyed part of his office at the Meadville Lombard Theological School (an event which he had interpreted as an omen). Eliade's Romanian disciple Ioan Petru Culianu, who recalled the scientific community's reaction to the news, described Eliade's death as "a mahaparanirvana", thus comparing it to the passing of Gautama Buddha. His body was cremated in Chicago, and the funeral ceremony was held on University grounds, at the Rockefeller Chapel. It was attended by 1,200 people, and included a public reading of Eliade's text in which he recalled the epiphany of his childhood—the lecture was given by novelist Saul Bellow, Eliade's colleague at the University. His grave is located in Oak Woods Cemetery.
  • 1982
    Age 74
    Eliade's Iphigenia was again included in theater programs during the late years of the Nicolae Ceauşescu regime: in January 1982, a new version, directed by Ion Cojar, premiered at the National Theater Bucharest, starring Mircea Albulescu, Tania Filip and Adrian Pintea in some of the main roles.
    More Details Hide Details Dramatizations based on his work include La Țigănci, which has been the basis for two theater adaptations: Cazul Gavrilescu ("The Gavrilescu Case"), directed by Gelu Colceag and hosted by the Nottara Theater, and an eponymous play by director Alexandru Hausvater, first staged by the Odeon Theater in 2003 (starring, among others, Adriana Trandafir, Florin Zamfirescu, and Carmen Tănase). In March 2007, on Eliade's 100th birthday, the Romanian Radio Broadcasting Company hosted the Mircea Eliade Week, during which radio drama adaptations of several works were broadcast. In September of that year, director and dramatist Cezarina Udrescu staged a multimedia performance based on a number of works Mircea Eliade wrote during his stay in Portugal; titled Apocalipsa după Mircea Eliade ("The Apocalypse According to Mircea Eliade"), and shown as part of a Romanian Radio cultural campaign, it starred Ion Caramitru, Oana Pellea and Răzvan Vasilescu. Domnișoara Christina has been the subject of two operas: the first, carrying the same Romanian title, was authored by Romanian composer Șerban Nichifor and premiered in 1981 at the Romanian Radio; the second, titled La señorita Cristina, was written by Spanish composer Luis de Pablo and premiered in 2000 at the Teatro Real in Madrid.
  • 1979
    Age 71
    She also mentioned that, during a 1979 interview, Bellow had expressed admiration for Eliade.
    More Details Hide Details The 1988 film The Bengali Night, directed by Nicolas Klotz and based upon the French translation of Maitreyi, stars British actor Hugh Grant as Allan, the European character based on Eliade, while Supriya Pathak is Gayatri, a character based on Maitreyi Devi (who had refused to be mentioned by name). The film, considered "pornographic" by Hindu activists, was only shown once in India. In addition to The Bengali Night, films based on, or referring to, his works, include: Mircea Eliade et la redécouverte du Sacré (1987), part of the television series Architecture et Géographie sacrées, by Paul Barbă Neagră; Domnişoara Christina (1992), by Viorel Sergovici; Eu Adam (1996), by Dan Pița; Youth Without Youth (2007), by Francis Ford Coppola.
  • 1978
    Age 70
    Eliade is known for his attempt to find broad, cross-cultural parallels and unities in religion, particularly in myths. Wendy Doniger, Eliade's colleague from 1978 until his death, has observed that "Eliade argued boldly for universals where he might more safely have argued for widely prevalent patterns".
    More Details Hide Details His Treatise on the History of Religions was praised by French philologist Georges Dumézil for its coherence and ability to synthesize diverse and distinct mythologies. Robert Ellwood describes Eliade's approach to religion as follows. Eliade approaches religion by imagining an ideally "religious" person, whom he calls homo religiosus in his writings. Eliade's theories basically describe how this homo religiosus would view the world. This does not mean that all religious practitioners actually think and act like homo religiosus. Instead, it means that religious behavior "says through its own language" that the world is as homo religiosus would see it, whether or not the real-life participants in religious behavior are aware of it. However, Ellwood writes that Eliade "tends to slide over that last qualification", implying that traditional societies actually thought like homo religiosus. Eliade argues that religious thought in general rests on a sharp distinction between the Sacred and the profane; whether it takes the form of God, gods, or mythical Ancestors, the Sacred contains all "reality", or value, and other things acquire "reality" only to the extent that they participate in the sacred.
  • 1977
    Age 69
    In 1977, he joined other exiled Romanian intellectuals in signing a telegram protesting the repressive measures newly enforced by the Ceauşescu regime.
    More Details Hide Details Writing in 2007, Romanian anthropologist Andrei Oișteanu recounted how, around 1984, the Securitate unsuccessfully pressured to become an agent of influence in Eliade's Chicago circle. During his later years, Eliade's fascist past was progressively exposed publicly, the stress of which probably contributed to the decline of his health. By then, his writing career was hampered by severe arthritis. The last academic honors bestowed upon him were the French Academy's Bordin Prize (1977) and the title of Doctor Honoris Causa, granted by the University of Washington (1985).
  • 1970
    Age 62
    An unprecedented event occurred with the interview that was granted by Mircea Eliade to poet Adrian Păunescu, during the latter's 1970 visit to Chicago; Eliade complimented both Păunescu's activism and his support for official tenets, expressing a belief that
    More Details Hide Details the youth of Eastern Europe is clearly superior to that of Western Europe. I am convinced that, within ten years, the young revolutionary generation shan't be behaving as does today the noisy minority of Western contesters. Eastern youth have seen the abolition of traditional institutions, have accepted it and are not yet content with the structures enforced, but rather seek to improve them. Păunescu's visit to Chicago was followed by those of the nationalist official writer Eugen Barbu and by Eliade's friend Constantin Noica (who had since been released from jail). At the time, Eliade contemplated returning to Romania, but was eventually persuaded by fellow Romanian intellectuals in exile (including Radio Free Europe's Virgil Ierunca and Monica Lovinescu) to reject Communist proposals.
    He occasionally traveled out of the United States, such as attending the Congress for the History of Religions in Marburg (1960) and visits to Sweden and Norway in 1970.
    More Details Hide Details Initially, Eliade was attacked with virulence by the Romanian Communist Party press, chiefly by România Liberă—which described him as "the Iron Guard's ideologue, enemy of the working class, apologist of Salazar's dictatorship". However, the regime also made secretive attempts to enlist his and Cioran's support: Haig Acterian's widow, theater director Marietta Sadova, was sent to Paris in order to re-establish contacts with the two. Although the move was planned by Romanian officials, her encounters were to be used as evidence incriminating her at a February 1960 trial for treason (where Constantin Noica and Dinu Pillat were the main defendants). Romania's secret police, the Securitate, also portrayed Eliade as a spy for the British Secret Intelligence Service and a former agent of the Gestapo. He was slowly rehabilitated at home beginning in the early 1960s, under the rule of Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej. In the 1970s, Eliade was approached by the Nicolae Ceaușescu regime in several ways, in order to have him return. The move was prompted by the officially sanctioned nationalism and Romania's claim to independence from the Eastern Bloc, as both phenomena came to see Eliade's prestige as an asset.
  • 1968
    Age 60
    He also worked as editor-in-chief of Macmillan Publishers' Encyclopedia of Religion, and, in 1968, lectured in religious history at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
    More Details Hide Details It was also during that period that Mircea Eliade completed his voluminous and influential History of Religious Ideas, which grouped together the overviews of his main original interpretations of religious history.
  • FIFTIES
  • 1966
    Age 58
    In 1966, Mircea Eliade became a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
    More Details Hide Details
  • 1964
    Age 56
    Upon Wach's death before the lectures were delivered, Eliade was appointed as his replacement, becoming, in 1964, the Sewell Avery Distinguished Service Professor of the History of Religions.
    More Details Hide Details Beginning in 1954, with the first edition of his volume on Eternal Return, Eliade also enjoyed commercial success: the book went through several editions under different titles, which sold over 100,000 copies.
  • FORTIES
  • 1956
    Age 48
    In October 1956, he moved to the United States, settling in Chicago the following year.
    More Details Hide Details He had been invited by Joachim Wach to give a series of lectures at Wach's home institution, the University of Chicago. Eliade and Wach are generally admitted to be the founders of the "Chicago school" that basically defined the study of religions for the second half of the 20th century.
  • 1950
    Age 42
    In 1950, Eliade began attending Eranos conferences, meeting Jung, Olga Fröbe-Kapteyn, Gershom Scholem and Paul Radin.
    More Details Hide Details He described Eranos as "one of the most creative cultural experiences of the modern Western world."
  • 1949
    Age 41
    He collaborated with Carl Jung and the Eranos circle after Henry Corbin recommended him in 1949, and wrote for the Antaios magazine (edited by Ernst Jünger).
    More Details Hide Details
  • 1948
    Age 40
    Beginning in 1948, he wrote for the journal Critique, edited by French philosopher Georges Bataille.
    More Details Hide Details The following year, he went on a visit to Italy, where he wrote the first 300 pages of his novel Noaptea de Sânziene (he visited the country a third time in 1952).
  • THIRTIES
  • 1947
    Age 39
    In 1947, he was facing material constraints, and Ananda Coomaraswamy found him a job as a French-language teacher in the United States, at a school in Arizona; the arrangement ended upon Coomaraswamy's death in September.
    More Details Hide Details
  • 1945
    Age 37
    At signs that the Romanian communist regime was about to take hold, Eliade opted not to return to the country. On September 16, 1945, he moved to France with his adopted daughter Giza.
    More Details Hide Details Once there, he resumed contacts with Dumézil, who helped him recover his position in academia. On Dumézil's recommendation, he taught at the École Pratique des Hautes Études in Paris. It was estimated that, at the time, it was not uncommon for him to work 15 hours a day. Eliade married a second time, to the Romanian exile Christinel Cotescu. His second wife, the descendant of boyars, was the sister-in-law of the conductor Ionel Perlea. Together with Emil Cioran and other Romanian expatriates, Eliade rallied with the former diplomat Alexandru Busuioceanu, helping him publicize anti-communist opinion to the Western European public. He was also briefly involved in publishing a Romanian-language magazine, titled Luceafărul ("The Morning Star"), and was again in contact with Mihail Șora, who had been granted a scholarship to study in France, and with Șora's wife Mariana.
    Later, discussing the works of Aldous Huxley, Eliade wrote that the British author's use of mescaline as a source of inspiration had something in common with his own experience, indicating 1945 as a date of reference and adding that it was "needless to explain why that is".
    More Details Hide Details
  • 1944
    Age 36
    Nina Eliade fell ill with uterine cancer and died during their stay in Lisbon, in late 1944.
    More Details Hide Details As the widower later wrote, the disease was probably caused by an abortion procedure she had undergone at an early stage of their relationship. He came to suffer from clinical depression, which increased as Romania and her Axis allies suffered major defeats on the Eastern Front. Contemplating a return to Romania as a soldier or a monk, he was on a continuous search for effective antidepressants, medicating himself with passion flower extract, and, eventually, with methamphetamine. This was probably not his first experience with drugs: vague mentions in his notebooks have been read as indication that Mircea Eliade was taking opium during his travels to Calcutta.
    Also during the war, Eliade traveled to Berlin, where he met and conversed with controversial political theorist Carl Schmitt, and frequently visited Francoist Spain, where he notably attended the 1944 Lusitano-Spanish scientific congress in Córdoba.
    More Details Hide Details It was during his trips to Spain that Eliade met philosophers José Ortega y Gasset and Eugeni d'Ors. He maintained a friendship with d'Ors, and met him again on several occasions after the war.
  • 1943
    Age 35
    In autumn 1943, he traveled to occupied France, where he rejoined Emil Cioran, also meeting with scholar Georges Dumézil and the collaborationist writer Paul Morand.
    More Details Hide Details At the same time, he applied for a position of lecturer at the University of Bucharest, but withdrew from the race, leaving Constantin Noica and Ion Zamfirescu to dispute the position, in front of a panel of academics comprising Lucian Blaga and Dimitrie Gusti (Zamfirescu's eventual selection, going against Blaga's recommendation, was to be the topic of a controversy). In his private notes, Eliade wrote that he took no further interest in the office, because his visits abroad had convinced him that he had "something great to say", and that he could not function within the confines of "a minor culture".
  • 1942
    Age 34
    In 1942, Eliade authored a volume in praise of the Estado Novo, established in Portugal by António de Oliveira Salazar, claiming that "The Salazarian state, a Christian and totalitarian one, is first and foremost based on love".
    More Details Hide Details On July 7 of the same year, he was received by Salazar himself, who assigned Eliade the task of warning Antonescu to withdraw the Romanian Army from the Eastern Front ("his place, I would not be grinding it in Russia"). Eliade also claimed that such contacts with the leader of a neutral country had made him the target for Gestapo surveillance, but that he had managed to communicate Salazar's advice to Mihai Antonescu, Romania's Foreign Minister.
  • 1940
    Age 32
    In October 1940, as the National Legionary State came into existence, the British Foreign Office blacklisted Mircea Eliade, alongside five other Romanians, due to his Iron Guard connections and suspicions that he was prepared to spy in favor of Nazi Germany.
    More Details Hide Details According to various sources, while in Portugal, the diplomat was also preparing to disseminate propaganda in favor of the Iron Guard. In Jurnal portughez, Eliade defines himself as "a Legionary", and speaks of his own "Legionary climax" as a stage he had gone through during the early 1940s. The depolitisation of Eliade after the start of his diplomatic career was also mistrusted by his former close friend Eugène Ionesco, who indicated that, upon the close of World War II, Eliade's personal beliefs as communicated to his friends amounted to "all is over now that Communism has won". This forms part of Ionesco's severe and succinct review of the careers of Legionary-inspired intellectuals, many of them his friends and former friends, in a letter he sent to Tudor Vianu. In 1946, Ionesco indicated to Petru Comarnescu that he did not want to see either Eliade or Cioran, and that he considered the two of them "Legionaries for ever"—adding "we are hyenas to one another".
  • 1938
    Age 30
    When Eliade began coughing blood in October 1938, he was taken to a clinic in Moroeni.
    More Details Hide Details Eliade was simply released on November 12, and subsequently spent his time writing his play Iphigenia (also known as Ifigenia). In April 1940, with the help of Alexandru Rosetti, became the Cultural Attaché to the United Kingdom, a posting cut short when Romanian-British foreign relations were broken. After leaving London he was assigned the office of Counsel and Press Officer (later Cultural Attaché) to the Romanian Embassy in Portugal, where he was kept on as diplomat by the National Legionary State (the Iron Guard government) and, ultimately, by Ion Antonescu's regime. His office involved disseminating propaganda in favor of the Romanian state. In February 1941, weeks after the bloody Legionary Rebellion was crushed by Antonescu, Iphigenia was staged by the National Theater Bucharest—the play soon raised doubts that it owed inspiration to the Iron Guard's ideology, and even that its inclusion in the program was a Legionary attempt at subversion.
    The stance taken by Eliade resulted in his arrest on July 14, 1938 after a crackdown on the Iron Guard authorized by King Carol II.
    More Details Hide Details At the time of his arrest, he had just interrupted a column on Provincia și legionarismul ("The Province and Legionary Ideology") in Vremea, having been singled out by Prime Minister Armand Călinescu as an author of Iron Guard propaganda. Eliade was kept for three weeks in a cell at the Siguranţa Statului Headquarters, in an attempt to have him sign a "declaration of dissociation" with the Iron Guard, but he refused to do so. In the first week of August he was transferred to a makeshift camp at Miercurea-Ciuc.
  • TWENTIES
  • 1937
    Age 29
    He eventually enrolled in the Totul pentru Țară ("Everything for the Fatherland" Party), the political expression of the Iron Guard, and contributed to its 1937 electoral campaign in Prahova County—as indicated by his inclusion on a list of party members with county-level responsibilities (published in Buna Vestire).
    More Details Hide Details
    Nevertheless, by 1937, he gave his intellectual support to the Iron Guard, in which he saw "a Christian revolution aimed at creating a new Romania", and a group able "to reconcile Romania with God".
    More Details Hide Details His articles of the time, published in Iron Guard papers such as Sfarmă Piatră and Buna Vestire, contain ample praises of the movement's leaders (Corneliu Zelea Codreanu, Ion Moţa, Vasile Marin, and Gheorghe Cantacuzino-Grănicerul). The transition he went through was similar to that of his fellow generation members and close collaborators—among the notable exceptions to this rule were Petru Comarnescu, sociologist Henri H. Stahl and future dramatist Eugène Ionesco, as well as Sebastian.
    In summer 1937, through an official decision which came as a result of the accusations, and despite student protests, he was stripped of his position at the University.
    More Details Hide Details Eliade decided to sue the Ministry of Education, asking for a symbolic compensation of 1 leu. He won the trial, and regained his position as Nae Ionescu's assistant.
  • 1936
    Age 28
    Assessments of Eliade's work were in sharp contrast to one another: also in 1936, Eliade accepted an award from the Romanian Writers' Society, of which he had been a member since 1934.
    More Details Hide Details
    In 1936, Eliade was the focus of a campaign in the far right press, being targeted for having authored "pornography" in his Domnișoara Christina and Isabel și apele diavolului; similar accusations were aimed at other cultural figures, including Tudor Arghezi and Geo Bogza.
    More Details Hide Details
  • 1934
    Age 26
    He approved of an ethnic nationalist state centered on the Orthodox Church (in 1927, despite his still-vivid interest in Theosophy, he recommended young intellectuals "the return to the Church"), which he opposed to, among others, the secular nationalism of Constantin Rădulescu-Motru; referring to this particular ideal as "Romanianism", Eliade was, in 1934, still viewing it as "neither fascism, nor chauvinism".
    More Details Hide Details Eliade was especially dissatisfied with the incidence of unemployment among intellectuals, whose careers in state-financed institutions had been rendered uncertain by the Great Depression.
  • 1933
    Age 25
    Eliade's views at the time focused on innovation—in the summer of 1933, he replied to an anti-modernist critique written by George Călinescu:
    More Details Hide Details All I wish for is a deep change, a complete transformation. But, for God's sake, in any direction other than spirituality. He and friends Emil Cioran and Constantin Noica were by then under the influence of Trăirism, a school of thought that was formed around the ideals expressed by Ionescu. A form of existentialism, Trăirism was also the synthesis of traditional and newer right-wing beliefs. Early on, a public polemic was sparked between Eliade and Camil Petrescu: the two eventually reconciled and later became good friends. Like Mihail Sebastian, who was himself becoming influenced by Ionescu, he maintained contacts with intellectuals from all sides of the political spectrum: their entourage included the right-wing Dan Botta and Mircea Vulcănescu, the non-political Petrescu and Ionel Jianu, and Belu Zilber, who was a member of the illegal Romanian Communist Party. The group also included Haig Acterian, Mihail Polihroniade, Petru Comarnescu, Marietta Sadova and Floria Capsali.
    As one of the figures in the Criterion literary society (1933–1934), Eliade's initial encounter with the traditional far right was polemical: the group's conferences were stormed by members of A. C. Cuza's National-Christian Defense League, who objected to what they viewed as pacifism and addressed antisemitic insults to several speakers, including Sebastian; in 1933, he was among the signers of a manifesto opposing Nazi Germany's state-enforced racism.
    More Details Hide Details In 1934, at a time when Sebastian was publicly insulted by Nae Ionescu, who prefaced his book (De două mii de ani) with thoughts on the "eternal damnation" of Jews, Mircea Eliade spoke out against this perspective, and commented that Ionescu's references to the verdict "Outside the Church there is no salvation" contradicted the notion of God's omnipotence. However, he contended that Ionescu's text was not evidence of antisemitism. In 1936, reflecting on the early history of the Romanian Kingdom and its Jewish community, he deplored the expulsion of Jewish savants from Romanian soil, making specific references to Moses Gaster, Heimann Hariton Tiktin and Lazăr Șăineanu.
    In 1933, Mircea Eliade had a physical relationship with the actress Sorana Țopa, while falling in love with Nina Mareș, whom he ultimately married.
    More Details Hide Details The latter, introduced to him by his new friend Mihail Sebastian, already had a daughter, Giza, from a man who had divorced her. Eliade subsequently adopted Giza, and the three of them moved to an apartment at 141 Dacia Boulevard. He left his residence in 1936, during a trip he made to the United Kingdom and Germany, when he first visited London, Oxford and Berlin. After contributing various and generally polemical pieces in university magazines, Eliade came to the attention of journalist Pamfil Șeicaru, who invited him to collaborate on the nationalist paper Cuvântul, which was noted for its harsh tones. By then, Cuvântul was also hosting articles by Ionescu.
    Eliade received his PhD in 1933, with a thesis on Yoga practices.
    More Details Hide Details The book, which was translated into French three years later, had significant impact in academia, both in Romania and abroad. He later recalled that the book was an early step for understanding not just Indian religious practices, but also Romanian spirituality. During the same period, Eliade began a correspondence with the Ceylonese-born philosopher Ananda Coomaraswamy. In 1936–1937, he functioned as honorary assistant for Ionescu's course, lecturing in Metaphysics.
  • 1930
    Age 22
    A piece authored in 1930 saw Eliade defining Julius Evola as a great thinker and offering praise to the controversial intellectuals Oswald Spengler, Arthur de Gobineau, Houston Stewart Chamberlain and the Nazi ideologue Alfred Rosenberg.
    More Details Hide Details Evola, who continued to defend the core principles of mystical fascism, once protested to Eliade about the latter's failure to cite him and Guénon. Eliade replied that his works were written for a contemporary public, and not to initiates of esoteric circles. After the 1960s, he, together with Evola, Louis Rougier, and other intellectuals, offered support to Alain de Benoist's controversial Groupement de recherche et d'études pour la civilisation européenne, part of the Nouvelle Droite intellectual trend. Notably, Eliade was also preoccupied with the cult of Zalmoxis and its supposed monotheism. This, like his conclusion that Romanization had been superficial inside Roman Dacia, was a view celebrated by contemporary partisans of Protochronist nationalism. According to historian Sorin Antohi, Eliade may have actually encouraged Protochronists such as Edgar Papu to carry out research which resulted in the claim that medieval Romanians had anticipated the Renaissance.
    In 1930, while living with Dasgupta, Eliade fell in love with his host's daughter, Maitreyi Devi, later writing a barely disguised autobiographical novel Maitreyi (also known as "La Nuit Bengali" or "Bengal Nights"), in which he claimed that he carried on a physical relationship with her.
    More Details Hide Details
  • 1928
    Age 20
    In autumn 1928, he sailed for Calcutta to study Sanskrit and philosophy under Surendranath Dasgupta, a Bengali Cambridge alumnus and professor at Calcutta University, the author of a five volume History of Indian Philosophy.
    More Details Hide Details Before reaching the Indian subcontinent, Eliade also made a brief visit to Egypt. Once there, he visited large areas of the region, and spent a short period at a Himalayan ashram. He studied the basics of Indian philosophy, and, in parallel, learned Sanskrit, Pali and Bengali under Dasgupta's direction. At the time, he also became interested in the actions of Mahatma Gandhi, whom he met personally, and the Satyagraha as a phenomenon; later, Eliade adapted Gandhian ideas in his discourse on spirituality and Romania.
  • TEENAGE
  • 1927
    Age 19
    In 1927, Eliade traveled to Italy, where he met Papini and collaborated with the scholar Giuseppe Tucci.
    More Details Hide Details It was during his student years that Eliade met Nae Ionescu, who lectured in Logic, becoming one of his disciples and friends. He was especially attracted to Ionescu's radical ideas and his interest in religion, which signified a break with the rationalist tradition represented by senior academics such as Constantin Rădulescu-Motru, Dimitrie Gusti, and Tudor Vianu (all of whom owed inspiration to the defunct literary society Junimea, albeit in varying degrees). Eliade's scholarly works began after a long period of study in British India, at the University of Calcutta. Finding that the Maharaja of Kassimbazar sponsored European scholars to study in India, Eliade applied and was granted an allowance for four years, which was later doubled by a Romanian scholarship.
  • 1925
    Age 17
    Between 1925 and 1928, he attended the University of Bucharest's Faculty of Philosophy and Letters in 1928, earning his diploma with a study on Early Modern Italian philosopher Tommaso Campanella.
    More Details Hide Details
  • 1921
    Age 13
    His first published work was the 1921 Inamicul viermelui de mătase ("The Silkworm's Enemy"), followed by Cum am găsit piatra filosofală ("How I Found the Philosophers' Stone").
    More Details Hide Details Four years later, Eliade completed work on his debut volume, the autobiographical Novel of the Nearsighted Adolescent.
  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1914
    Age 6
    His family moved between Tecuci and Bucharest, ultimately settling in the capital in 1914, and purchasing a house on Melodiei Street, near Piața Rosetti, where Mircea Eliade resided until late in his teens.
    More Details Hide Details Eliade kept a particularly fond memory of his childhood and, later in life, wrote about the impact various unusual episodes and encounters had on his mind. In one instance during the World War I Romanian Campaign, when Eliade was about ten years of age, he witnessed the bombing of Bucharest by German zeppelins and the patriotic fervor in the occupied capital at news that Romania was able to stop the Central Powers' advance into Moldavia. He described this stage in his life as marked by an unrepeatable epiphany. Recalling his entrance into a drawing room that an "eerie iridescent light" had turned into "a fairy-tale palace", he wrote, I practiced for many years the exercise of recapturing that epiphanic moment, and I would always find again the same plenitude. I would slip into it as into a fragment of time devoid of duration—without beginning, middle, or end. During my last years of lycée, when I struggled with profound attacks of melancholy, I still succeeded at times in returning to the golden green light of that afternoon. But even though the beatitude was the same, it was now impossible to bear because it aggravated my sadness too much. By this time I knew the world to which the drawing room belonged was a world forever lost.
  • 1907
    Born
    Born on March 9, 1907.
    More Details Hide Details
Original Authors of this text are noted here.
All data offered is derived from public sources. Spokeo does not verify or evaluate each piece of data, and makes no warranties or guarantees about any of the information offered. Spokeo does not possess or have access to secure or private financial information. Spokeo is not a consumer reporting agency and does not offer consumer reports. None of the information offered by Spokeo is to be considered for purposes of determining any entity or person's eligibility for credit, insurance, employment, housing, or for any other purposes covered under the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA)