Neil Armstrong
American astronaut; first human to set foot on the Moon
Neil Armstrong
Neil Alden Armstrong was an American astronaut and the first person to walk on the Moon. He was also an aerospace engineer, naval aviator, test pilot, and university professor. Before becoming an astronaut, Armstrong was an officer in the U.S. Navy and served in the Korean War.
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Damien Chazelle And Ryan Gosling Will Team Up Again For Neil Armstrong Pic
Huffington Post - 18 days
function onPlayerReadyVidible(e){'undefined'!=typeof HPTrack&&HPTrack.Vid.Vidible_track(e)}!function(e,i){if(e.vdb_Player){if('object'==typeof commercial_video){var a='',o='m.fwsitesection='+commercial_video.site_and_category;if(a+=o,commercial_video['package']){var c='&m.fwkeyvalues=sponsorship%3D'+commercial_video['package'];a+=c}e.setAttribute('vdb_params',a)}i(e.vdb_Player)}else{var t=arguments.callee;setTimeout(function(){t(e,i)},0)}}(document.getElementById('vidible_1'),onPlayerReadyVidible); Damien Chazelle and Ryan Gosling are set to take one small step for man, but a huge leap in filmmaking. On Tuesday, Deadline reported that the “La La Land” director would work with his leading man once more — this time, in “First Man,” a film about the 1969 moon landing. Gosling is slated to play Neil Armstrong. According to Deadline, the project is based off of former NASA historian James R. Hansen’s Armstrong biography of the same name. Josh Singer, e ...
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Huffington Post article
Why you shouldn't think PGA Tour is fretting about sub-60 scores
ABC News - 2 months
Back in 1977, on a humid Friday in Memphis, Al Geiberger became golf's Neil Armstrong -- or at least its Roger Bannister. Geiberger shot 59 that day, then held his reign as the most recent (and only) player to accomplish that feat for 14 years. By comparison, Justin Thomas' place in that position lasted exactly nine days. (That is, if we don't count Woody Austin's 59 that occurred at an unofficial PGA Tour Champions event the next day.) The ink was barely dry on everyone writing about the eighth sub-60 score in history when Adam Hadwin produced the ninth with an unlikely 13-birdie performance during the third round of the CareerBuilder Challenge. A quick crunch of the chronological numbers shows that there were exactly three scores in the 50s in PGA Tour history before this decade, a number which has tripled in the seven years and three weeks since. That might not count as a proliferation, but it's... ...
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ABC News article
Hollywood Needs More ‘Hidden Figures’ To Fix Its Diversity Problem
Huffington Post - 2 months
After I finished watching the first trailer for Hidden Figures a few months ago, I immediately sent the link to my mom. My mom, who happens to be a black female computer scientist, responded back and told me that she had tears in her eyes after watching it. She told me that she couldn’t wait to see it with my aunt, a black woman with an engineering degree who also worked in computer science, and my grandmother, who worked hard to guarantee that both of them (twins, mind you) went to college. I’d be lying if I said I didn’t tear up too. As I grew up, I didn’t understand why my parents made our whole family go see every critically-lauded movie about black people. I also didn’t fully understand why my parents were so adamantly against me watching shows like Good Times. My mom got mad when I showed her an All That sketch where Kenan Thompson and Nick Cannon were playing rude female cashiers at a convenience store. Then The Help came out. It was a high-profile movie about segregation, a ...
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Why 'Hidden Figures' — and its unsung heroes — is the ultimate NASA story
Yahoo News - 3 months
NASA, and its stunning achievements, is much more than just the famous astronauts whose names you know — it was built on the behind-the-scenes work of its unsung heroes.  From the early days of the United States’ space agency up through today, NASA has been run by  engineers, mathematicians and technicians at the tops of their fields. But you rarely hear their stories or know their names.  SEE ALSO: These 'Hidden Figures' portraits profile brainy, badass women Behind every John Glenn or Neil Armstrong or Buzz Aldrin there are tens or even hundreds of people working behind the scenes to keep them alive and healthy in space. That’s NASA’s true nature — a nexus of unseen teamwork and ingenuity that allows the exploration of new frontiers. And there is perhaps no better representation of that paradigm than the story told in the new movie Hidden Figures , released Friday.  Katherine Johnson at work. Image: Nasa The film follows the lives and careers of Katherine Johnson, Dorothy Vaughan and ...
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10 Notable Books Of 2016 On Black Women's History
Huffington Post - 3 months
The field of black women's history has grown in leaps and bounds. In recent years, we have witnessed a significant growth in the publication of history books that explore the diversity and complexity of black women's lives. Here is a list of ten notable books on black women's history in the United States and other parts of the globe. These books, which were all published in 2016, explore a range of topics including slavery, politics, and religion. Be sure to add them to your reading list for 2017. Angela A. Ards, Words of Witness: Black Women's Autobiography in the Post-Brown Era "A literary and political genealogy of the last half-century, Words of Witness explores black feminist autobiographical narratives in the context of activism and history since the landmark 1954 segregation case, Brown v. Board of Education. Angela A. Ards examines how activist writers, especially five whose memoirs were published in the 1990s and 2000s, crafted these life stories to engage and shape ...
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Ryan Gosling, Damien Chazelle to Reteam on Neil Armstrong Biopic - Variety
Google News - 3 months
Variety Ryan Gosling, Damien Chazelle to Reteam on Neil Armstrong Biopic Variety Oscar-nominated director Damien Chazelle and his “La La Land” star Ryan Gosling are officially set to reteam on Chazelle's Neil Armstrong biopic “First Man” for Universal Pictures. Chazelle is directing a script by Oscar-winning “Spotlight” scribe Josh ... Ryan Gosling to Star in 'La La Land' Director's Neil Armstrong BiopicHollywood Reporter Triumphant 'La La Land' demonstrates the power of dance to tell a storyWashington Post Ryan Gosling, La La Land director reteaming for Neil Armstrong biopicEntertainment Weekly USA TODAY -Cinema Blend -TheWrap all 165 news articles »
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Where 'Passengers' Future Meets NASA's Past; Director, Writer Describe
Yahoo News - 3 months
"Passengers," the new sci-fi movie starring Jennifer Lawrence and Chris Pratt, is set hundreds of years in the future aboard an interstellar spaceship, but it was inspired by a real astronaut's experience almost half a century in the past. "Somebody asked me once who is the most lonely person in the history of the human race and it was probably one of the moon astronauts," Jon Spaihts, who wrote the original screenplay for "Passengers," which opened in theaters on Wednesday (Dec. 21), told reporters. "When [Collins] was on the far side of the moon from [Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin], he was farther away from the nearest human than any other person had ever been.
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Climate Change Denial And The Rise Of Authoritarianism
Huffington Post - 3 months
One of the strangest stories about totalitarian regimes comes from Romania. Under the dictatorship of Nicolae Ceaușescu, the official temperature in Romania was never below 10 degree Celsius. No matter the snow and ice, the weather reports would always have temperatures above 10 degrees. The reason? Below that, the law required the heating to be turned on in public places, and Romania could not afford this. It is hard to say what is stranger about the story. A dictator who feels so omnipotent that he pretends he could change the reality of the weather? Or a population so misled, misinformed, or disillusioned that it will put up with the weather reports over what it knows to be true? Today, the story is not so strange anymore, nor do we need to look to countries far away. Today, the story is happening right here in the United States. Our Ceaușescu is the minority president-elect, Donald Trump. And our Romanian winter is climate change. We know climate change to be true with as ...
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Buzz Aldrin's Doctor Is David Bowie (Not That One)
Huffington Post - 4 months
function onPlayerReadyVidible(e){'undefined'!=typeof HPTrack&&HPTrack.Vid.Vidible_track(e)}!function(e,i){if(e.vdb_Player){if('object'==typeof commercial_video){var a='',o='m.fwsitesection='+commercial_video.site_and_category;if(a+=o,commercial_video['package']){var c='&m.fwkeyvalues=sponsorship%3D'+commercial_video['package'];a+=c}e.setAttribute('vdb_params',a)}i(e.vdb_Player)}else{var t=arguments.callee;setTimeout(function(){t(e,i)},0)}}(document.getElementById('vidible_1'),onPlayerReadyVidible); It’s truly a “space oddity” we never expected: David Bowie is treating famed astronaut Buzz Aldrin. The 86-year-old Aldrin was visiting the South Pole as a tourist last week when his tour company requested emergency evacuation for him for medical reasons. Aldrin was eventually transported to a hospital in Christchurch, New Zealand, to be treated for fluid in his lungs. The doctor treating him? David Bowie. No, this Bowie isn’t the singer who gave the ...
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Apollo 11 Astronauts Call on Lawmakers to Mint Coins for Moon Landing 50th
Yahoo News - 4 months
Legislation calling for the U.S. Mint to issue coins commemorating the 50th anniversary of the first moon landing has gained the support of the surviving astronauts who flew on the historic mission. Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins, who lifted off to the moon in July 1969 with the late Neil Armstrong, have each sent letters to Congress urging for the passage of the Apollo 11 50th Anniversary Commemorative Coin Act. The bill, which was first introduced in 2015, needs to be approved by both the U.S. House of Representatives and the Senate before Congress adjourns next month for the coins to be ready in time for the anniversary in 2019.
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Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos thinks space can be the new internet
Yahoo News - 5 months
Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos saw Neil Armstrong step on the Moon nearly 50 years ago and the moment changed his life. Now, as the head of one of the robust online retailers in the world, Bezos says that space is the next frontier, a new internet if you will, that is desperately lacking in infrastructure to support new entrepreneurs. Speaking at the Vanity Fair New Establishment Summit in San Francisco today, Bezos said the sole purpose of his rocket venture Blue Origin is to build out the same kind of infrastructure for space that Amazon enjoyed in 1995 with the early internet.
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Obama Says Mars Will Be America's Next Giant Leap For Mankind
Huffington Post - 5 months
President Barack Obama on Tuesday described how the United States, aided by private companies, is well on its way to traveling to Mars and eventually living there.  In a column published by CNN, Obama shared new details about how NASA and its corporate partners plan to reach Mars and return to Earth, outlining a vision much like that of billionaire business magnate Elon Musk, the founder of SpaceX. “We have set a clear goal vital to the next chapter of America’s story in space: sending humans to Mars by the 2030s and returning them safely to Earth, with the ultimate ambition to one day remain there for an extended time,” Obama wrote. “Getting to Mars will require continued cooperation between government and private innovators, and we’re already well on our way.” Obama referenced a quote by Apollo 17 astronaut Eugene Cernan, who said, “We went to explore the Moon, and in fact discovered the Earth.” “If we make our leadership in space even stronger in this century than it was ...
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Obama Says Mars Will Be America's Next Giant Leap For Mankind
Huffington Post - 5 months
President Barack Obama on Tuesday described how the United States, aided by private companies, is well on its way to traveling to Mars and eventually living there.  In a column published by CNN, Obama shared new details about how NASA and its corporate partners plan to reach Mars and return to Earth, outlining a vision much like that of billionaire business magnate Elon Musk, the founder of SpaceX. “We have set a clear goal vital to the next chapter of America’s story in space: sending humans to Mars by the 2030s and returning them safely to Earth, with the ultimate ambition to one day remain there for an extended time,” Obama wrote. “Getting to Mars will require continued cooperation between government and private innovators, and we’re already well on our way.” Obama referenced a quote by Apollo 17 astronaut Eugene Cernan, who said, “We went to explore the Moon, and in fact discovered the Earth.” “If we make our leadership in space even stronger in this century than it was ...
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The true story of the African-American women at NASA who helped the US win the space race
Yahoo News - 6 months
When Neil Armstrong planted a stars and stripes flag on the moon in 1969, it was a truly patriotic achievement for the United States. But it never would have happened—at least not right then, not in the same way—were it not for the African American women who calculated rocket trajectories as mathematicians and engineers in…
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Jack Garman, Whose Judgment Call Saved Moon Landing, Dies at 72
NYTimes - 6 months
Mr. Garman was at a back-room console on July 20, 1969, when Neil Armstrong told mission control of a possible computer systems overload. “As long as it doesn’t reoccur, it’s fine,” Mr. Garman said.
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NYTimes article
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Neil Armstrong
  • 2012
    In September 2012, the US Navy announced that the first is named RV Neil Armstrong.
    More Details Hide Details The ship, christened on March 28, 2014, was launched on March 29, 2014, passed sea trials August 7, 2015 and delivered to the Navy on September 23, 2015. It is a modern oceanographic research platform capable of supporting a wide range of oceanographic research activities conducted by academic groups. The Space Foundation named Neil Armstrong as a recipient of its 2013 General James E. Hill Lifetime Space Achievement Award.
    Armstrong underwent bypass surgery on August 7, 2012, to relieve blocked coronary arteries.
    More Details Hide Details Although he was reportedly recovering well, he developed complications in the hospital and died on August 25, in Cincinnati, Ohio. After his death, Armstrong was described, in a statement released by the White House, as "among the greatest of American heroes—not just of his time, but of all time". The statement further said that Armstrong had carried the aspirations of the United States' citizens and that he had delivered "a moment of human achievement that will never be forgotten." His family released a statement describing Armstrong as a "reluctant American hero had served his nation proudly, as a navy fighter pilot, test pilot, and astronaut... While we mourn the loss of a very good man, we also celebrate his remarkable life and hope that it serves as an example to young people around the world to work hard to make their dreams come true, to be willing to explore and push the limits, and to selflessly serve a cause greater than themselves. For those who may ask what they can do to honor Neil, we have a simple request. Honor his example of service, accomplishment and modesty, and the next time you walk outside on a clear night and see the moon smiling down at you, think of Neil Armstrong and give him a wink." This prompted many responses, including the Twitter hashtag "#WinkAtTheMoon".
    In 2012, brother Dean Armstrong claimed that Neil had shown him a note with a draft of the line months before the launch, although historian Andrew Chaikin, who had interviewed the astronaut in 1988 for his book A Man on the Moon, disputed that he had ever claimed coming up with the line spontaneously during the mission.
    More Details Hide Details Recordings of Armstrong's transmission do not evidence the indefinite article "a" before "man", though NASA and Armstrong insisted for years that static had obscured it. Armstrong stated he would never make such a mistake, but after repeated listenings to recordings, he eventually admitted he must have dropped the "a". He later said he "would hope that history would grant me leeway for dropping the syllable and understand that it was certainly intended, even if it was not said—although it might actually have been". It has since been claimed that acoustic analysis of the recording reveals the presence of the missing "a"; Peter Shann Ford, an Australia-based computer programmer, conducted a digital audio analysis and claims that Armstrong did, in fact, say "a man", but the "a" was inaudible due to the limitations of communications technology of the time. Ford and James R. Hansen, Armstrong's authorized biographer, presented these findings to Armstrong and NASA representatives, who conducted their own analysis. Armstrong found Ford's analysis "persuasive." However, the article by Ford was published on Ford's own web site rather than in a peer-reviewed scientific journal, and linguists David Beaver and Mark Liberman wrote of their skepticism of Ford's claims on the blog Language Log. Thus, NASA's transcript continues to show the "a" in parentheses. A 2016 peer-reviewed study again concluded Armstrong had included the article.
  • 2010
    On November 18, 2010, at age 80, Armstrong said in a speech during the Science & Technology Summit in The Hague, Netherlands, that he would offer his services as commander on a mission to Mars if he were asked.
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    In 2010, he made a rare public criticism of the decision to cancel the Ares 1 launch vehicle and the Constellation Moon landing program.
    More Details Hide Details In an open public letter also signed by Apollo veterans Jim Lovell and Gene Cernan, he noted, "For The United States, the leading space faring nation for nearly half a century, to be without carriage to low Earth orbit and with no human exploration capability to go beyond Earth orbit for an indeterminate time into the future, destines our nation to become one of second or even third rate stature". Armstrong had also publicly recalled his initial concerns about the Apollo 11 mission, when he had believed there was only a 50 percent chance of landing on the Moon. "I was elated, ecstatic and extremely surprised that we were successful", he later said.
  • 2005
    The press often asked Armstrong for his views on the future of spaceflight. In 2005, Armstrong said that a manned mission to Mars will be easier than the lunar challenge of the 1960s: "I suspect that even though the various questions are difficult and many, they are not as difficult and many as those we faced when we started the Apollo program in 1961."
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    Armstrong's authorized biography, First Man: The Life of Neil A. Armstrong, was published in 2005.
    More Details Hide Details For many years, Armstrong turned down biography offers from authors such as Stephen Ambrose and James A. Michener, but agreed to work with James R. Hansen after reading one of Hansen's other biographies. In a 2010 Space Foundation survey, Armstrong was ranked as the #1 most popular space hero, and in 2013, Flying magazine ranked him at #1 on its list of the "51 Heroes of Aviation".
  • 2004
    Purdue University announced in October 2004 that its new engineering building would be named Neil Armstrong Hall of Engineering in his honor; the building cost $53.2 million and was dedicated on October 27, 2007, during a ceremony at which Armstrong was joined by fourteen other Purdue Astronauts.
    More Details Hide Details In 1971, Armstrong was awarded the Sylvanus Thayer Award by the United States Military Academy at West Point for his service to the country. The Armstrong Air and Space Museum, in Armstong's hometown of Wapakoneta, Ohio, and the airport in New Knoxville, where he took his first flying lessons when he was fifteen, were named after him.
  • 1999
    Armstrong and his Apollo 11 crewmates were the 1999 recipients of the Langley Gold Medal from the Smithsonian Institution.
    More Details Hide Details Throughout the United States, there are more than a dozen elementary, middle and high schools named in his honor, and many places around the world have streets, buildings, schools, and other places named for Armstrong and/or Apollo. In 1969, folk songwriter and singer John Stewart recorded "Armstrong", a tribute to Armstrong and his first steps on the Moon.
  • 1994
    Armstrong sued Hallmark Cards in 1994 after they used his name and a recording of the "one small step" quote in a Christmas ornament without permission.
    More Details Hide Details The lawsuit was settled out of court for an undisclosed amount of money which Armstrong donated to Purdue. In May 2005, Armstrong became involved in an unusual legal dispute with his barber of 20 years, Mark Sizemore. After cutting Armstrong's hair, Sizemore sold some of it to a collector for $3,000 without Armstrong's knowledge or permission. Armstrong threatened legal action against Sizemore unless he returned the hair or donated the proceeds to a charity of Armstrong's choosing. Sizemore, unable to retrieve the hair, decided to donate the proceeds to the charity of Armstrong's choice. Since the early 1980s, Armstrong has been the subject of a hoax saying that he converted to Islam after hearing the adhan, the Muslim call to prayer, while walking on the Moon. The Indonesian singer Suhaemi wrote a song called "Gema Suara Adzan di Bulan" ("The Resonant Sound of the Call to Prayer on the Moon") which described Armstrong's conversion; the song was discussed widely in various Jakarta news outlets in 1983. Other similar hoax stories were seen in Egypt and Malaysia. In March 1983, the U.S. State Department responded by issuing a global message to Muslims saying that Armstrong "has not converted to Islam". However, the hoax was not completely quieted; it surfaced occasionally for the next three decades. A part of the confusion stems from the similarity between Armstrong's American residence in Lebanon, Ohio, and the country Lebanon which has a majority population of Muslims.
    After 1994, Armstrong refused all requests for autographs because he found that his signed items were selling for large amounts of money and that many forgeries were in circulation; any requests that were sent to him received a form letter in reply, saying that he had stopped signing.
    More Details Hide Details Although his no-autograph policy was well known, author Andrew Smith observed people at the 2002 Reno Air Races still trying to get signatures, with one person even claiming, "If you shove something close enough in front of his face, he'll sign." He also stopped sending out congratulatory letters to new Eagle Scouts, because he believed these letters should come from people who know the Scouts personally. Use of Armstrong's name, image, and famous quote caused him problems over the years. MTV wanted to use his quote for its now-famous identity depicting the Apollo 11 landing when it launched in 1981, but he refused.
    They were married on June 12, 1994, in Ohio, and then had a second ceremony, at San Ysidro Ranch, in California.
    More Details Hide Details He lived in Indian Hill, Ohio. Armstrong is generally referred to as a "reluctant" American Hero. John Glenn, the first American to orbit Earth, recalled Armstrong's legendary humility. "He didn't feel that he should be out huckstering himself," the former Ohio senator told CNN. "He was a humble person, and that's the way he remained after his lunar flight, as well as before."
    Armstrong's first wife, Janet, divorced him in 1994, after 38 years of marriage.
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  • 1992
    He had met his second wife, Carol Held Knight (b. 1945), in 1992 at a golf tournament, where they were seated together at the breakfast table.
    More Details Hide Details She said little to Armstrong, but two weeks later she received a call from him asking what she was doing—she replied she was cutting down a cherry tree; 35 minutes later Armstrong was at her house to help out.
  • 1991
    Between 1991 and 1993, he hosted First Flights with Neil Armstrong, an aviation history documentary series on A&E.
    More Details Hide Details Unlike former astronauts who actively sought political careers after leaving NASA (such as U.S. Senators John Glenn (D-OH, 1974–1999) and Harrison Schmitt (R-NM, 1977–1983)), Armstrong was approached by political groups from both parties, but declined all offers. He described his political leanings as favoring states' rights and opposing the United States acting as the "world's policeman". In the late 1950s, Armstrong applied at a local Methodist church to lead a Boy Scout troop. When asked for his religious affiliation, he labeled himself as a deist. His mother later said that Armstrong's religious views caused her grief and distress in later life as she was more religious. His official biography also describes him as a deist. In 1972, Armstrong was welcomed into the town of Langholm, Scotland, the traditional seat of Clan Armstrong; he was made the first freeman of the burgh, and happily declared the town his home. The Justice of the Peace read from an unrepealed 400-year-old law that required him to hang any Armstrong found in the town.
  • 1985
    The group included Armstrong, Edmund Hillary, Hillary's son Peter, Steve Fossett, and Patrick Morrow, and arrived on April 6, 1985.
    More Details Hide Details Armstrong said he was curious to see what the North Pole looked like from ground level, as he'd only seen it from the Moon. In 2010, he voiced the character of Dr. Jack Morrow in Quantum Quest: A Cassini Space Odyssey, a 2010 animated educational sci-fi adventure film initiated by JPL/NASA through a grant from Jet Propulsion Lab.
  • 1979
    The first company to successfully approach him was Chrysler, for whom he appeared in advertising starting in January 1979.
    More Details Hide Details Armstrong thought they had a strong engineering division, plus they were in financial difficulty. He later acted as a spokesman for other companies, including General Time Corporation and the Bankers Association of America. He acted as a spokesman for U.S. businesses only. Along with spokesman duties, he also served on the board of directors of several companies, including Marathon Oil, Learjet, Cinergy (Cincinnati Gas & Electric Company), Taft Broadcasting, United Airlines, Eaton Corporation, AIL Systems and Thiokol. He joined Thiokol's board after he served on the Rogers Commission; the Space Shuttle Challenger was destroyed due to a problem with the Thiokol-manufactured solid rocket boosters. He retired as chairman of the board of EDO Corporation in 2002. In 1985, professional expedition leader Mike Dunn organized a trip to take the then "greatest explorers" to the North Pole.
    After teaching for eight years, he resigned in 1979 without explaining his reason for leaving.
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  • 1978
    President Jimmy Carter presented Armstrong the Congressional Space Medal of Honor in 1978.
    More Details Hide Details Armstrong and his former crewmates received the Congressional Gold Medal in 2009.
  • 1971
    After Armstrong retired from NASA in 1971, he acted as a spokesman for several businesses.
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    He was appointed Deputy Associate Administrator for aeronautics for the Office of Advanced Research and Technology, Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), but served in this position for only a year, and resigned from it and NASA as a whole in 1971.
    More Details Hide Details He accepted a teaching position in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Cincinnati, having decided on Cincinnati over other universities, including his alma mater, Purdue, because it had a small aerospace department; he hoped that the faculty members would not be annoyed that he came straight into a professorship with only the USC master's degree. He began the work while stationed at Edwards years before, and finally completed it after Apollo 11 by presenting a report on various aspects of Apollo, instead of a thesis on the simulation of hypersonic flight. The official job title he received at Cincinnati was University Professor of Aerospace Engineering.
  • 1970
    Armstrong served on two spaceflight accident investigations. The first was in 1970, after Apollo 13, where as part of Edgar Cortright's panel, he produced a detailed chronology of the flight. Armstrong opposed the report's recommendation to re-design the service module's oxygen tanks, the source of the explosion. In 1986, President Ronald Reagan appointed him to the Rogers Commission which investigated the Space-shuttle Challenger disaster of that year.
    More Details Hide Details As vice-chairman, Armstrong was in charge of the operational side of the commission.
    In May 1970, Armstrong traveled to the Soviet Union to present a talk at the 13th annual conference of the International Committee on Space Research; after arriving in Leningrad from Poland, he traveled to Moscow where he met Premier Alexei Kosygin.
    More Details Hide Details He was the first westerner to see the supersonic Tupolev Tu-144 and was given a tour of the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center, which Armstrong described as "a bit Victorian in nature". At the end of the day, he was surprised to view delayed video of the launch of Soyuz 9—it had not occurred to Armstrong that the mission was taking place, even though Valentina Tereshkova had been his host and her husband, Andriyan Nikolayev, was on board. Armstrong announced shortly after the Apollo 11 flight that he did not plan to fly in space again.
  • 1969
    Later from October 29–31, 1969 he and the rest of the Apollo 11 astronauts visited the city of Tehran, capital of Iran, where he met Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the rest of the nation's royal family.
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    Armstrong then took part in Bob Hope's 1969 USO show, primarily to Vietnam.
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    At the bottom of the ladder Armstrong said, "I'm going to step off the LEM now" (referring to the Apollo Lunar Module). He then turned and set his left boot on the lunar surface at 2:56 UTC July 21, 1969, then spoke the famous words, "That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind."
    More Details Hide Details Armstrong prepared his famous epigram on his own. In a post-flight press conference, he said that he decided on the words "just prior to leaving the LM module." In a 1983 interview in Esquire Magazine, Armstrong explained to George Plimpton: "I always knew there was a good chance of being able to return to Earth, but I thought the chances of a successful touchdown on the moon surface were about even money—fifty–fifty... Most people don't realize how difficult the mission was. So it didn't seem to me there was much point in thinking of something to say if we'd have to abort landing."
    On July 16, 1969, Armstrong received a crescent Moon carved out of Styrofoam from the pad leader, Guenter Wendt, who described it as a key to the Moon.
    More Details Hide Details In return, Armstrong gave Wendt a ticket for a "space taxi" "good between two planets". During the Apollo 11 launch, Armstrong's heart reached a top rate of 110 beats per minute. He found the first stage to be the loudest—much noisier than the Gemini 8 Titan II launch—and the Apollo CSM was relatively roomy compared to the Gemini capsule. This ability to move around was suspected to be the reason why none of the Apollo 11 crew suffered from space sickness, while members of previous crews did. Armstrong was especially happy, as he had been prone to motion sickness as a child and could experience nausea after doing long periods of aerobatics. The objective of Apollo 11 was to land safely rather than to touch down with precision on a particular spot. Three minutes into the lunar descent burn, Armstrong noted that craters were passing about two seconds too early, which meant the Eagle would probably touch down beyond the planned landing zone by several miles. As the Eagles landing radar acquired the surface, several computer error alarms appeared. The first was a code 1202 alarm, and even with their extensive training, neither Armstrong nor Aldrin was aware of what this code meant. They promptly received word from CAPCOM Charles Duke in Houston that the alarms were not a concern; the 1202 and 1201 alarms were caused by an executive overflow in the lunar module computer.
    A press conference held on April 14, 1969, gave the design of the LM cabin as the reason for Armstrong's being first; the hatch opened inwards and to the right, making it difficult for the lunar module pilot, on the right-hand side, to exit first.
    More Details Hide Details Slayton added, "Secondly, just on a pure protocol basis, I figured the commander ought to be the first guy out... I changed it as soon as I found they had the time line that showed that. Bob Gilruth approved my decision." At the time of their meeting, the four men did not know about the hatch consideration. The first knowledge of the meeting outside the small group came when Kraft wrote his 2001 autobiography.
    A March 1969 meeting between Slayton, George Low, Bob Gilruth, and Chris Kraft determined that Armstrong would be the first person on the Moon, in some part because NASA management saw Armstrong as a person who did not have a large ego.
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  • 1968
    After Armstrong served as backup commander for Apollo 8, Slayton offered him the post of commander of Apollo 11 on December 23, 1968, as Apollo 8 orbited the Moon.
    More Details Hide Details In a meeting that was not made public until the publication of Armstrong's biography in 2005, Slayton told him that although the planned crew was Armstrong as commander, lunar module pilot Buzz Aldrin and command module pilot Michael Collins, he was offering the chance to replace Aldrin with Jim Lovell. After thinking it over for a day, Armstrong told Slayton he would stick with Aldrin, as he had no difficulty working with him and thought Lovell deserved his own command. Replacing Aldrin with Lovell would have made Lovell the Lunar Module Pilot, unofficially the lowest ranked member, and Armstrong could not justify placing Lovell, the commander of Gemini 12, in the number 3 position of the crew.
    On May 6, 1968, about 100 feet (30 m) above the ground, Armstrong's controls started to degrade and the LLTV began banking.
    More Details Hide Details He ejected safely (later analysis suggested that if he had ejected half a second later, his parachute would not have opened in time). His only injury was from biting his tongue. Even though he was nearly killed, Armstrong maintained that without the LLRV and LLTV, the lunar landings would not have been successful, as they gave commanders valuable experience in the behavior of lunar landing craft.
  • 1967
    On April 5, 1967, the same day the Apollo 1 investigation released its report on the fire, Armstrong assembled with 17 other astronauts for a meeting with Deke Slayton.
    More Details Hide Details The first thing Slayton said was, "The guys who are going to fly the first lunar missions are the guys in this room." According to Eugene Cernan, Armstrong showed no reaction to the statement. To Armstrong it came as no surprise—the room was full of veterans of Project Gemini, the only people who could fly the lunar missions. Slayton talked about the planned missions and named Armstrong to the backup crew for Apollo 9, which at that stage was planned to be a medium Earth orbit test of the Lunar Module-Command/Service Module combination. After design and manufacturing delays in the Lunar Module (LM), Apollo 9 and Apollo 8 swapped crews. Based on the normal crew rotation scheme, Armstrong would command Apollo 11. To give the astronauts experience with how the LM would fly on its final landing descent, NASA commissioned Bell Aircraft to build two Lunar Landing Research Vehicles, later augmented with three Lunar Landing Training Vehicles (LLTV). Nicknamed the "Flying Bedsteads", they simulated the Moon's one-sixth of Earth's gravity by using a turbofan engine to support the remaining five-sixths of the craft's weight.
    On January 27, 1967, the date of the Apollo 1 fire, Armstrong was in Washington, D.C., with Gordon Cooper, Dick Gordon, Jim Lovell and Scott Carpenter for the signing of the United Nations Outer Space Treaty.
    More Details Hide Details The astronauts chatted with the assembled dignitaries until 6:45 p.m. when Carpenter went to the airport, and the others returned to the Georgetown Inn, where they each found messages to phone the Manned Spacecraft Center. During these telephone calls, they learned of the deaths of Gus Grissom, Ed White and Roger Chaffee. Armstrong and the group spent the rest of the night drinking scotch and discussing what had happened.
  • 1966
    The launch was on September 12, 1966, with Pete Conrad and Dick Gordon on board, who successfully completed the mission objectives, while Armstrong served as CAPCOM.
    More Details Hide Details Following the flight, President Lyndon B. Johnson asked Armstrong and his wife to take part in a 24-day goodwill tour of South America. Also on the tour, which took in 11 countries and 14 major cities, were Dick Gordon, George Low, their wives, and other government officials. In Paraguay, Armstrong impressed dignitaries by greeting them in their local language, Guarani; in Brazil he talked about the exploits of the Brazilian-born Alberto Santos-Dumont, who was regarded as having beaten the Wright brothers with the first flying machine with his 14-bis.
  • 1965
    The crew assignments for Gemini 8 were announced on September 20, 1965, with Armstrong as Command Pilot and David Scott as Pilot.
    More Details Hide Details Scott was the first member of the third group of astronauts to receive a prime crew assignment. The mission launched on March 16, 1966; it was to be the most complex yet, with a rendezvous and docking with the unmanned Agena target vehicle, the second American extra-vehicular activity (EVA) by Scott. In total, the mission was planned to last 75 hours and 55 orbits. After the Agena lifted off at 10 a.m. EST, the Titan II carrying Armstrong and Scott ignited at 11:41:02 am EST, putting them into an orbit from where they would chase the Agena. The rendezvous and first-ever docking between two spacecraft was successfully completed after 6.5 hours in orbit. Contact with the crew was intermittent due to the lack of tracking stations covering their entire orbits. Out of contact with the ground, the docked spacecraft began to roll, and Armstrong attempted to correct this with the Orbital Attitude and Maneuvering System (OAMS) of the Gemini spacecraft. Following the earlier advice of Mission Control, they undocked, but found that the roll increased dramatically to the point where they were turning about once per second, which meant the problem was in their Gemini's attitude control. Armstrong decided the only course of action was to engage the Reentry Control System (RCS) and turn off the OAMS. Mission rules dictated that once this system was turned on, the spacecraft would have to reenter at the next possible opportunity.
  • 1962
    Deke Slayton called Armstrong on September 13, 1962, and asked whether he would be interested in joining the NASA Astronaut Corps as part of what the press dubbed "the New Nine"; without hesitation, Armstrong said yes.
    More Details Hide Details The selections were kept secret until three days later, although newspaper reports had been circulating since earlier that year that he would be selected as the "first civilian astronaut." Armstrong was one of two civilian pilots selected for the second group; the other was Elliot See, also a former naval aviator. See was scheduled to command Gemini 9, but died in a T-38 crash in 1966 that also took the life of crewmate Charles Bassett. Armstrong was the first American civilian in space, but the first civilian was Valentina Tereshkova of the Soviet Union, nearly three years earlier. A textile worker and amateur parachutist, she was aboard Vostok 6 when it launched on June 16, 1963.
    Armstrong's astronaut application arrived about a week past the June 1, 1962, deadline.
    More Details Hide Details Dick Day, with whom Armstrong had worked closely at Edwards, saw the late arrival of the application and slipped it into the pile before anyone noticed. At Brooks Air Force Base at the end of June, Armstrong underwent a medical exam that many of the applicants described as painful and at times seemingly pointless.
    A few weeks later on May 21, 1962, Armstrong was involved in what Edwards' folklore called the "Nellis Affair."
    More Details Hide Details He was sent in a Lockheed F-104 Starfighter to inspect Delamar Dry Lake in southern Nevada, again for emergency landings. He misjudged his altitude, and also did not realize that the landing gear had not fully extended. As he touched down, the landing gear began to retract; Armstrong applied full power to abort the landing, but the ventral fin and landing gear door struck the ground, damaging the radio and releasing hydraulic fluid. Without radio communication, Armstrong flew south to Nellis Air Force Base, past the control tower, and waggled his wings, the signal for a no-radio approach. The loss of hydraulic fluid caused the tail-hook to release, and upon landing, he caught the arresting wire attached to an anchor chain, and dragged the chain along the runway. It took thirty minutes to clear the runway and rig an arresting cable and Armstrong telephoned Edwards and asked for someone to collect him. Milt Thompson was sent in an F-104B, the only two-seater available, but a plane Thompson had never flown. With great difficulty, Thompson made it to Nellis, but a strong crosswind caused a hard landing and the left main tire suffered a blowout. The runway was again closed to clear it, and Bill Dana was sent to Nellis in a T-33 Shooting Star, but he almost landed long—and the Nellis base operations office decided that to avoid any further problems, it would be best to find the three NASA pilots ground transport back to Edwards.
  • 1960
    In November 1960, he was chosen as part of the pilot consultant group for the X-20 Dyna-Soar, a military space plane under development by Boeing for the U.S. Air Force, and on March 15, 1962, he was selected by the U.S. Air Force as one of seven pilot-engineers who would fly the space plane when it got off the design board.
    More Details Hide Details In the months after the announcement that applications were being sought for the second group of NASA astronauts, Armstrong became more and more excited about the prospects of both the Apollo program and of investigating a new aeronautical environment.
    He remained in the reserve for eight years, then resigned his commission on October 21, 1960.
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  • 1958
    In 1958, Armstrong had been selected for the U.S. Air Force's Man In Space Soonest program.
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  • 1957
    Armstrong's first flight in a rocket plane was on August 15, 1957, in the Bell X-1B, to an altitude of.
    More Details Hide Details The nose landing gear broke on landing, which had happened on about a dozen previous flights of the Bell X-1B due to the aircraft's design. He later flew the North American X-15 seven times; his penultimate flight reached an altitude of. Armstrong was involved in several incidents that went down in Edwards folklore and/or were chronicled in the memoirs of colleagues. The first occurred during his sixth X-15 flight on April 20, 1962, while Armstrong tested a self-adjusting control system. He flew to a height of over, (the highest he flew before Gemini 8), but the aircraft nose was held up too long during descent and the X-15 bounced off the atmosphere back up to. At that altitude, the air is so thin that aerodynamic surfaces have almost no effect. He flew past the landing field at Mach 3 at over in altitude, and ended up south of Edwards. After sufficient descent, he turned back toward the landing area, and barely managed to land without striking Joshua trees at the south end. It was the longest X-15 flight in both time and distance from the ground track.
  • 1956
    On March 22, 1956, Armstrong was in a Boeing B-29 Superfortress, which was to air-drop a Douglas D-558-2 Skyrocket.
    More Details Hide Details He sat in the right-hand pilot seat while the left-hand seat commander, Stan Butchart, flew the B-29. As they ascended to, the number-four engine stopped and the propeller began windmilling (rotating freely) in the airstream. Hitting the switch that would stop the propeller's spinning, Butchart found the propeller slowed but then started spinning again, this time even faster than the other engines; if it spun too fast, it would break apart. Their aircraft needed to hold an airspeed of to launch its Skyrocket payload, and the B-29 could not land with the Skyrocket attached to its belly. Armstrong and Butchart brought the aircraft into a nose-down alignment to increase speed, then launched the Skyrocket. At the instant of launch, the number-four engine propeller disintegrated. Pieces of it damaged the number-three engine and hit the number-two engine. Butchart and Armstrong were forced to shut down the number-three engine, due to damage, and the number-one engine, due to the torque it created. They made a slow, circling descent from using only the number-two engine, and landed safely.
    Armstrong married his first wife Janet Shearon on January 28, 1956.
    More Details Hide Details Their first son Eric was born in 1957, followed by daughter, Karen, in 1959. Karen died of a brain tumor in January 1962, and the couple's second son Mark was born in 1963.
    They were married on January 28, 1956, at the Congregational Church in Wilmette, Illinois.
    More Details Hide Details When he moved to Edwards Air Force Base, he lived in the bachelor quarters of the base, while Janet lived in the Westwood district of Los Angeles. After one semester, they moved into a house in Antelope Valley. Janet never finished her degree, a fact she regretted later in life.
  • 1955
    Armstrong's stint at Cleveland lasted a couple of months, and by July 1955 he had returned to Edwards AFB for a new job.
    More Details Hide Details On his first day at Edwards, Armstrong was tasked his first assignments, which were to pilot chase planes during releases of experimental aircraft from modified bombers. He also flew the modified bombers, and on one of these missions had his first flight incident at Edwards.
    Although the committee had no open positions, it forwarded his application to the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory in Cleveland, where Armstrong began working in March 1955.
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    Armstrong graduated in 1955 with a Bachelor of Science degree in Aeronautical Engineering.
    More Details Hide Details After returning to Purdue, he met Janet Elizabeth Shearon, who was majoring in home economics. According to the couple, there was no real courtship, and neither could remember the exact circumstances of their engagement, except that it occurred while Armstrong was working at the NACA's Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory.
  • 1952
    Armstrong left the Navy at age 22 on August 23, 1952, and became a lieutenant (junior grade), in the U.S. Naval Reserve.
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    Armstrong flew 78 missions over Korea for a total of 121 hours in the air, most of which were in January 1952.
    More Details Hide Details He received the Air Medal for 20 combat missions, a Gold Star for the next 20, and the Korean Service Medal and Engagement Star.
  • 1951
    Armstrong first saw action in the Korean War on August 29, 1951, as an escort for a photo reconnaissance plane over Songjin.
    More Details Hide Details Five days later on September 3, he flew armed reconnaissance over the primary transportation and storage facilities south of the village of Majon-ni, west of Wonsan. While making a low bombing run at about, Armstrong's F9F Panther was hit by anti-aircraft fire. While trying to regain control, he collided with a pole at a height of about, which sliced off about three feet (1 m) of the Panther's right wing. Armstrong flew the plane back to friendly territory, but due to the loss of the aileron, ejection was his only safe option. He planned to eject over water and await rescue by Navy helicopters, and therefore flew to an airfield near Pohang, but his ejection seat was blown back over land. A jeep driven by a roommate from flight school picked Armstrong up; it is unknown what happened to the wreckage of No. 125122 F9F-2.
    Two months later he was assigned to Fighter Squadron 51 (VF-51), an all-jet squadron, and made his first flight in a jet, an F9F-2B Panther, on January 5, 1951.
    More Details Hide Details In June, he made his first jet carrier landing on and was promoted the same week from Midshipman to Ensign. By the end of the month, Essex had set sail with VF-51 aboard, bound for Korea, where its VF-51 would act as ground-attack aircraft.
  • 1950
    On August 16, 1950, two weeks after his 20th birthday, Armstrong was informed by letter that he was a fully qualified Naval Aviator.
    More Details Hide Details His first assignment was to Fleet Aircraft Service Squadron 7 at NAS San Diego (now known as NAS North Island).
  • 1949
    Armstrong's call-up from the Navy arrived on January 26, 1949, requiring him to report to Naval Air Station Pensacola for flight training at age 18.
    More Details Hide Details This lasted almost 18 months, during which he qualified for carrier landing aboard and.
  • 1947
    In 1947, at age 17, Armstrong began studying aeronautical engineering at Purdue University.
    More Details Hide Details He was the second person in his family to attend college. He was also accepted to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The only engineer he knew (who had attended MIT) dissuaded him from attending, telling Armstrong that it was not necessary to go all the way to Cambridge, Massachusetts, for a good education. His college tuition was paid for under the Holloway Plan. Successful applicants committed to two years of study, followed by two years of flight training and one year of service in the U.S. Navy as an aviator, then completion of the final two years of their bachelor's degree. Candidates had to promise to not marry until graduation, signed the "Aviation Guarantee" to serve on Active Duty for at least four years, and would not receive a promotion to Ensign until two years after they received their Midshipman's warrant.
  • 1944
    His father's last move was in 1944, back to Neil's birthplace, Wapakoneta, in Auglaize County.
    More Details Hide Details Armstrong attended Blume High School and took flying lessons at the grassy Wapakoneta airfield. He earned a student flight certificate on his 16th birthday, then soloed later in August; all before he had a driver's license. Armstrong was active in the Boy Scouts and earned the rank of Eagle Scout. As an adult, he was recognized by the Boy Scouts of America with its Distinguished Eagle Scout Award and Silver Buffalo Award. On July 18, 1969, while flying towards the Moon inside the Columbia, Armstrong greeted the Scouts: "I'd like to say hello to all my fellow Scouts and Scouters at Farragut State Park in Idaho having a National Jamboree there this week; and Apollo 11 would like to send them best wishes". Houston replied: "Thank you, Apollo 11. I'm sure that, if they didn't hear that, they'll get the word through the news. Certainly appreciate that." Among the very few personal items that Neil Armstrong carried with him to the Moon and back was a World Scout Badge.
  • 1936
    When he was five, he experienced his first airplane flight in Warren, Ohio on July 20, 1936 when he and his father took a ride in a Ford Trimotor, also known as the "Tin Goose".
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  • 1930
    Neil Armstrong was born on August 5, 1930, to Stephen Koenig Armstrong and Viola Louise Engel in Auglaize County, near Wapakoneta, Ohio.
    More Details Hide Details He was of Scottish, Irish, and German ancestry, and had two younger siblings, June and Dean. Stephen Armstrong worked as an auditor for the Ohio state government; the family moved around the state repeatedly after Armstrong's birth, living in 20 towns. Neil's love for flying grew during this time, having gotten off to an early start when his father took his two-year-old son to the Cleveland Air Races.
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