Noor Inayat Khan
Allied covert radio operator
Noor Inayat Khan
Noor Inayat Khan, Hindustani:: نور عنایت خان,: नूर इनयात ख़ान GC was an Allied heroine of the Second World War. Usually known as Noor Inayat Khan (but also known as "Nora Baker" and "Madeleine"), she was of Indian Muslim origin. As a British Special Operations Executive agent during the Second World War, she became the first female radio operator to be sent into occupied France to aid the French Resistance.
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Three Injured In Herat Blast - Bakhtar News Agency
Google News - over 5 years
Noor Khan Nikzada spokesman of Herat police told BIA reporter, in this explosion two ANA officers and a civilian got injures. But Najeebullan Najeeb spokesman of Zafar division in Herat said no ANA officers got injures in this event
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Four killed in different acts of violence, mishaps - Pakistan Daily Times
Google News - over 5 years
Malang Khan, 45, son of Noor Khan, a resident of Bakhtawar Goth was standing outside his home when unidentified armed men, riding a motorcycle, sprayed bullets on him, leaving him injured. The injured was shifted to a private hospital where he
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MPAs fire empty cartridges at cops - The Nation, Pakistan
Google News - over 5 years
MMA's Ali Haider Noor Khan Niazi asserted that the police had violated sanctity of home, and it was curfew-like situation around the police station where the apprehended former MPA was stationed. He suggested formation of MPAs-comprising committee to
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MPs united against bureaucracy for privileges - PakistanToday.com.pk
Google News - over 5 years
... Tahir Sindhu and Mian Ahsan from opposition benches and Sanaullah Mastikhel, Abdul Razzaque Dhilon, Saeed Akbar Nivani, Mian Rafique and Ali Haider Noor Khan Niazi actively participated in the debate against the behaviour of civil servants
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Photos: North Canton's Diversity Picnic and Celebration - Patch.com
Google News - over 5 years
Raza Khan's daughter, Noor Khan (third from the right), added, "We have this image of Muslims where sometimes people think we're evil, and we want to show people we're a peaceful religion. And I think it's nice to meet up with everyone and be a part of
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Video: Suburban residents open up about 9/11 memories - Chicago Daily Herald
Google News - over 5 years
Naperville school teacher Noor Khan says reactions toward Muslims soon after the Sept. 11 attacks were far more positive than they are today. She said the media is partly to blame for painting Muslims as "the other" and by reaching out misconceptions
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Insurgent Commander Arrested In Herat - Bakhtar News Agency
Google News - over 5 years
According to Noor Khan Nikzad, a spokesman for Herat police HQ, Mullah Salam, a so-called Taliban commander while going to Shindand district was indentified and arrested Friday night by Afghan police
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Five, including woman killed, in Afghan explosions - Monsters and Critics.com
Google News - over 5 years
'The explosive was set inside a vegetable cart,' said Noor Khan Nikzad, police spokesman for Herat. 'Two of the wounded are said to be in a critical condition,' Nikzad said. Herat city was one of the seven areas where responsibility for security was
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Girls Golf: Season preview - Chicago Sun-Times
Google News - over 5 years
Key newcomers: Carly Lang, Noor Khan, Megan Slowik, Kristi Struck. Outlook: Coyne, a Bartlett student, returns after reaching the state meet as a sophomore and sectionals as a junior to lead the team. Anderson and Skuteris, both of South Elgin,
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A roadside blast killed 20 people and wounded at least 12 travelling in two ... - Irish Times
Google News - over 5 years
Noor Khan Nikzad, a spokesman for the Herat police chief, put the toll at 20 dead and 12 wounded. Another blast in the same area wounded four civilians, Noori, the governor's spokesman, said. In Gardez in eastern Paktia province, a suicide bomber blew
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Afghan police recover bodies of 8 security troops - msnbc.com
Google News - over 5 years
Roadside bombs and mines are the cause of most war-related civilian deaths in Afghanistan, according to the UN In the west, meanwhile, two policemen and four insurgents were killed in shootout in Herat province, said Noor Khan Nikzad, a spokesman for
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President signs Fata reforms summary today - The News International
Google News - over 5 years
MMA Parliamentary Leader MPA Ali Haider Noor Khan Niazi said that PM Gilani and other leaders had recommended the formation of a new province for Multan and Bahawalpur, but both cities were first class and had all facilities
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Police officers 'break law' to break fast - The Nation, Pakistan
Google News - over 5 years
He met with Malik Mumtaz, President Saraiki Qoumi Movement, and Noor Khan Bhabha, a local leader of Tehrik-e-Insaaf. The Britain's Deputy High Commissioner also met with Muhammad Abdul Saboor, Project Manager of an NGO – Pattan
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No child's play - Hindustan Times
Google News - over 5 years
... 11, attended an etiquette course during his last vacation. “In my time, only company heads needed these skills,” says his father Noor Khan, 45, who owns an automobile business, “But my son will need to know all of this the moment he enters college
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Timeline: Pakistan Blasphemy law cases, Jan-July 2011 - The Express Tribune
Google News - over 5 years
Noor Khan was accused of blasphemy by his brother. Khan's brother was reportedly raising slogans of 'Sada-i-Madina,' when Khan and a man called Maulvi Idrees accusing him of uttering “blasphemous” words about sacred personalities
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Gas pipeline blown up in Dera Allah Yar - Pakistan Daily Times
Google News - over 5 years
QUETTA: Unidentified persons blew up a 16-inch diameter gas pipeline in Goth Noor Khan area of Dera Allah Yar on Thursday. According to official sources, an explosive device fitted to the pipeline went off, destroying the pipeline and disrupting
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Govt spurred to stop it - The Daily Star
Google News - over 5 years
It is unexpected and regrettable that extra-judicial killings have become acceptable in our society, she said. ASK Chairperson Hamida Hossain, its Director Noor Khan, and Senior Deputy Director Nina Goswami were also present at the press conference
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Noor Inayat Khan
    THIRTIES
  • 1944
    Age 30
    She was taken with three others to Dachau Camp on the 12 September 1944.
    More Details Hide Details On arrival, she was taken to the crematorium and shot. Assistant Section Officer INAYAT-KHAN displayed the most conspicuous courage, both moral and physical over a period of more than 12 months. In September 2012, producers Zafar Hai and Tabrez Noorani obtained the film rights to the biography Spy Princess: The Life of Noor Inayat Khan by Shrabani Basu.
    On 11 September 1944, Inayat Khan and three other SOE agents from Karlsruhe prison, Yolande Beekman, Eliane Plewman, and Madeleine Damerment, were moved to the Dachau Concentration Camp.
    More Details Hide Details In the early morning hours of 13 September 1944, the four women were executed by a shot to the back of the head. Their bodies were immediately burned in the crematorium. An anonymous Dutch prisoner contended, in 1958, that Inayat Khan was cruelly beaten by a high-ranking SS officer named Wilhelm Ruppert before being shot from behind. Her last word has been recorded as, "Liberté". She was survived by her mother and three siblings. Inayat Khan was posthumously awarded the George Cross in 1949, and a French Croix de Guerre with silver star (avec étoile de vermeil). As she was still considered "missing" in 1946, she could not be recommended for a Member of the Order of the British Empire, but was Mentioned in Despatches instead in October 1946. Inayat Khan was the third of three Second World War FANY members to be awarded the George Cross, Britain's highest award for gallantry not in the face of the enemy.
  • TWENTIES
  • 1943
    Age 29
    Assistant Section Officer INAYAT-KHAN was sent to Karlsruhe in November 1943, and then to Pforzheim where her cell was apart from the main prison.
    More Details Hide Details She was considered to be a particularly dangerous and unco-operative prisoner. The Director of the prison has also been interrogated and has confirmed that Assistant Section Officer INAYAT-KHAN, when interrogated by the Karlsruhe Gestapo, refused to give any information whatsoever, either as to her work or her colleagues.
    Assistant Section Officer Nora INAYAT-KHAN was the first woman operator to be infiltrated into enemy occupied France, and was landed by Lysander aircraft on 16th June, 1943.
    More Details Hide Details During the weeks immediately following her arrival, the Gestapo made mass arrests in the Paris Resistance groups to which she had been detailed. She refused however to abandon what had become the principal and most dangerous post in France, although given the opportunity to return to England, because she did not wish to leave her French comrades without communications and she hoped also to rebuild her group. She remained at her post therefore and did the excellent work which earned her a posthumous Mention in Despatches. The Gestapo had a full description of her, but knew only her code name "Madeleine". They deployed considerable forces in their effort to catch her and so break the last remaining link with London. After 3 months, she was betrayed to the Gestapo and taken to their H.Q. in the Avenue Foch. The Gestapo had found her codes and messages and were now in a position to work back to London. They asked her to co-operate, but she refused and gave them no information of any kind. She was imprisoned in one of the cells on the 5th floor of the Gestapo H.Q. and remained there for several weeks during which time she made two unsuccessful attempts at escape. She was asked to sign a declaration that she would make no further attempts, but she refused and the Chief of the Gestapo obtained permission from Berlin to send her to Germany for "safe custody".
    After refusing to sign a declaration renouncing future escape attempts, Inayat Khan was taken to Germany on 27 November 1943 "for safe custody" and imprisoned at Pforzheim in solitary confinement as a "Nacht und Nebel" ("Night and Fog": condemned to "Disappearance without Trace") prisoner, in complete secrecy.
    More Details Hide Details For ten months, she was kept there shackled at hands and feet. She was classified as "highly dangerous" and shackled in chains most of the time. As the prison director testified after the war, Inayat Khan remained uncooperative and continued to refuse to give any information on her work or her fellow operatives, although in her despair at the appalling nature of her confinement, other prisoners could hear her crying at night. However, by the ingenious method of scratching messages on the base of her mess cup, she was able to inform another inmate of her identity, giving the name of Nora Baker and the London address of her mother's house.
    On 25 November 1943, Inayat Khan escaped from the SD Headquarters, along with fellow SOE Agents John Renshaw Starr and Leon Faye, but was captured in the vicinity.
    More Details Hide Details There was an air raid alert as they escaped across the roof. Regulations required a count of prisoners at such times and their escape was discovered before they could get away.
    On or around 13 October 1943, Inayat Khan was arrested and interrogated at the SD Headquarters at 84 Avenue Foch in Paris.
    More Details Hide Details Though SOE trainers had expressed doubts about her gentle and unworldly character, on her arrest she fought so fiercely that SD officers were afraid of her. She was thenceforth treated as an extremely dangerous prisoner. There is no evidence of her being tortured, but her interrogation lasted over a month. During that time, she attempted escape twice. Hans Kieffer, the former head of the SD in Paris, testified after the war that she did not give the Gestapo a single piece of information, but lied consistently. However other sources indicate that she chatted amiably with an out-of-uniform Alsatian interrogator, and provided personal detail that enabled the SD to answer random checks in the form of questions about her childhood and family. Although Inayat Khan did not talk about her activities under interrogation, the SD found her notebooks. Contrary to security regulations, she had copied out all the messages she had sent as an SOE operative (this may have been due to her misunderstanding what a reference to filing meant in her orders, and also the truncated nature of her security course due to the need to insert her into France as soon as possible). Although she refused to reveal any secret codes, the Germans gained enough information from them to continue sending false messages imitating her. London failed to properly investigate anomalies which would have indicated the transmissions were sent under enemy control, in particular the change in the 'fist' (the style of the operator's Morse transmission) though according to M. R. D. Foot, the Sicherheitsdienst were quite adept at faking operators' fists.
    On 16/17 June 1943, cryptonymed 'Madeleine'/W/T operator 'Nurse' and under the cover identity of Jeanne-Marie Regnier, Assistant Section Officer/Ensign Inayat Khan was flown to landing ground B/20A 'Indigestion' in Northern France on a night landing double Lysander operation, code named Teacher/Nurse/Chaplain/Monk.
    More Details Hide Details She was met by Henri Déricourt. She travelled to Paris, and with two other women, Diana Rowden (code named Paulette/Chaplain), and Cecily Lefort (code named Alice/Teacher), joined the Physician network led by Francis Suttill (code named Prosper). Over the next month and a half, all the other Physician network radio operators were arrested by the Sicherheitsdienst (SD), along with hundreds of Resistance personnel associated with Prosper. Colonel Maurice Buckmaster, head of F Section, later claimed that in spite of the danger, Inayat Khan rejected an offer to return to Britain, although it was certainly in SOE's interest that she stay in the field in the aftermath of the round-up of their largest network. As the only remaining wireless operator still at large in Paris, Inayat Khan continued to transmit to London messages from agents of what remained of the Prosper/Physician circuit, a network she also worked to keep intact despite the mass arrests of its members. She was now the most wanted British agent in Paris with SD officers sent out to look for her at subway stations, and an accurate description of her widely circulated among German security officers. With wireless detection vans in close pursuit, Inayat Khan could transmit for only twenty minutes at one time in one place, but constantly moving from place to place, she managed to escape capture while maintaining wireless communication with London: "She refused to abandon what had become the most important and dangerous post in France and did excellent work."
    Later, Inayat Khan was recruited to join F (France) Section of the Special Operations Executive and in early February 1943 she was posted to the Air Ministry, Directorate of Air Intelligence, seconded to First Aid Nursing Yeomanry (FANY), and sent to Wanborough Manor, near Guildford in Surrey, and from there to various other SOE schools for training, including STS 5 Winterfold House, STS 36 Boarmans and STS 52 Thame Park.
    More Details Hide Details During her training she adopted the name "Nora Baker". Her superiors held mixed opinions on her suitability for secret warfare, and her training was incomplete. Nevertheless, her fluent French and her competency in wireless operation—coupled with a shortage of experienced agents—made her a desirable candidate for service in Nazi-occupied France.
  • 1941
    Age 27
    Upon assignment to a bomber training school in June 1941, she applied for a commission in an effort to relieve herself of the boring work there, subsequently being promoted assistant section officer.
    More Details Hide Details
  • 1940
    Age 26
    On 19 November 1940, she joined the Women's Auxiliary Air Force (WAAF) and, as an aircraftwoman 2nd class, was sent to be trained as a wireless operator.
    More Details Hide Details
  • 1939
    Age 25
    In 1939 her book, Twenty Jataka Tales, inspired by the Jataka tales of Buddhist tradition, was published in London.
    More Details Hide Details After the outbreak of the Second World War, when France was overrun by German troops, the family fled to Bordeaux and, from there by sea, to England, landing in Falmouth, Cornwall, on 22 June 1940. Although Inayat Khan was deeply influenced by the pacifist teachings of her father, she and her brother Vilayat decided to help defeat Nazi tyranny: "I wish some Indians would win high military distinction in this war. If one or two could do something in the Allied service which was very brave and which everybody admired it would help to make a bridge between the English people and the Indians."
  • TEENAGE
  • 1927
    Age 13
    After the death of her father in 1927, Inayat Khan took on the responsibility for her grief-stricken mother and her younger siblings.
    More Details Hide Details As a young girl, she was described as quiet, shy, sensitive, and dreamy. She studied child psychology at the Sorbonne and music at the Paris Conservatory under Nadia Boulanger, composing for harp and piano. She began a career writing poetry and children's stories, and became a regular contributor to children's magazines and French radio.
  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1914
    Age 0
    Inayat Khan, the eldest of four children, was born on 2 January 1914 in St. Petersburg, Russia.
    More Details Hide Details Her siblings were Vilayat (1916–2004), Hidayat (1917–2016), and Khair-un-Nisa (1919–2011). Her father, Hazrat Inayat Khan, came from a noble Indian Muslim family—his mother was a descendant of the uncle of Tipu Sultan, the 18th-century ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore. He lived in Europe as a musician and a teacher of Sufism. Her mother, Pirani Ameena Begum (born Ora Ray Baker), was an American from Albuquerque, New Mexico, who met Hazrat Inayat Khan during his travels in the United States. Ora Baker was the half-sister of American yogi and scholar Pierre Bernard, her guardian at the time she met Inayat (Hazrat is an honorific, translated as Saint). Vilayat later became head of the Sufi Order International. In 1914, shortly before the outbreak of the First World War, the family left Russia for London, and lived in Bloomsbury. Inayat Khan attended nursery at Notting Hill. In 1920 they moved to France, settling in Suresnes near Paris, in a house that was a gift from a benefactor of the Sufi movement.
Original Authors of this text are noted here.
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