Otto von Habsburg
German politician
Otto von Habsburg
Otto von Habsburg, also known by his royal name as Archduke Otto of Austria, was the last Crown Prince of Austria-Hungary from 1916 until the dissolution of the empire in 1918, a realm which comprised modern-day Austria, Hungary, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, and parts of Italy, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Ukraine.
Biography
Otto von Habsburg's personal information overview.
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News
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Korruption in Österreich: "Einige Millionen für den Werner" - Stuttgarter Zeitung
Google News - over 5 years
Im ungarischen Pannonhalma nämlich, wo Otto von Habsburg sein Herz bestatten ließ (seine Gebeine ruhen in der Wiener Kaisergruft), hat der erwähnte Außenminister Michael Spindelegger letzthin eine Botschafterkonferenz einberufen lassen
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Příběhy z kalendáře - Otto von Habsburg - Český rozhlas
Google News - over 5 years
Rok 1991 byl druhým rokem svobody, tradice si opět hledala cestu k srdcím zdejších obyvatel. I v severních Čechách - v kraji, který před vznikem první republiky patřil k loajálnějším koutům C a K mocnářství. Na počátku století zažil tehdy německy
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"Wir werden nicht alt, wir Exilierten!" - WELT ONLINE
Google News - over 5 years
Und plant im Oktober 1933, Otto von Habsburg nach Österreich zu begleiten, Engelbert Dollfuß werde den einst Vertriebenen mit Sicherheit sofort als Thronfolger anerkennen: "Auf keinen Fall ist Nationalsozialismus zu befürchten
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V Mexiku zemřel Felix von Habsburg, bratra Ottu přežil o dva měsíce - iDNES.cz
Google News - over 5 years
Veřejnost si poslední z Habsburků připomněla naposledy v červenci, kdy skonal teoretický následník trůnu a dlouholetý europoslanec Otto von Habsburg. Osmadevadesátiletý šlechtic, který dožil v Bavorsku, byl pohřben s velkou pompou ve vídeňské
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The Habsburg legacy - The Massachusetts Daily Collegian
Google News - over 5 years
The call in question was quite joyous in nature until she broke some rather mournful news –Otto von Habsburg, heir to the erstwhile throne of Austria-Hungary and scion of the Habsburg dynasty, had passed away in his sleep the day prior
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ZDF-Fernsehfilm "Anna und der Prinz" Ein echtes Märchen - sueddeutsche.de
Google News - over 5 years
In Österreich, wo man kürzlich mit großem Geleit Otto von Habsburg beigesetzt hat, den Sohn des letzten Kaisers, war Ende 2009 die Verfilmung der erzherzoglichen Romanze zu sehen. Die ORF/ZDF-Koproduktion Geliebter Johann, geliebte Anna war dort der
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On the edge of an abyss - Times of Malta
Google News - over 5 years
A few weeks ago we saw the ceremonial burial of Otto von Habsburg, the son of the last emperor of Austria Hungary, a man who, as a Bavarian MEP, advocated, in true Habsburg fashion, the establishment of a multinational empire
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Un artist arădean a cântat în cadrul ceremoniei funebre a lui Otto von Habsburg - Adevărul
Google News - over 5 years
Acesta ne mărutiseşte că a fost invitat să cânte Requiem-ul de Michael Haydn în cadrul slujbei din catedrala „Theathiner Kirche“ din Munchen, pentru ceremonia funebră a lui Otto von Habsburg. Bogdan Ilisie după participarea alături de alţi colegi de-ai
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The disease of long names - Economic Times
Google News - over 5 years
Poor Otto von Habsburg, who died early last month at the age of 98, must have gone through hell writing his name on the cover of school text books and exam papers. Royal families seem to be predisposed to long names. Otherwise why would the king of
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The first -- and last -- 'European'? - The Pilot
Google News - over 5 years
No one could have imagined any such dialogue involving Archduke Otto von Habsburg, who died on July 4 -- not because the archduke was a fearsome personality, but because he was a pre-eminently intelligent and decent man. The full name he was given at
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Papa deplânge moartea lui Otto von Habsburg - Ziua de Cluj
Google News - over 5 years
Papa Benedict al XVI-lea a transmis condoleanţe familiei lui Otto von Habsburg, ultimul prinţ încoronat al Austriei, care a murit la 4 iulie ac, în Pocking, Germania, la vârsta de 98 de ani. Cunoscut şi ca Arhiducele Otto de Austria, Otto von Habsburg
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Letter from Rome - Acton Institute (blog)
Google News - over 5 years
On the passing of Otto von Habsburg, Fr. Robert Sirico recalled a conference we held in Rome in December 2006, along with George Weigel and Jean-Yves Naudet. In the video accompanying the piece, we can see and hear the last son of the last
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Cyprus—Germany's Next Colony? - theTrumpet.com
Google News - over 5 years
Otto von Habsburg, the last legitimate pretender to the office of emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, died very recently. It was he—conscious of the need for the masses to rally behind a revered symbol of European unity so as to consummate the imperial
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The Habsburgs shaped the story of Europe – and of its art - The Guardian (blog)
Google News - over 5 years
Photograph: Burstein Collection/Corbis Otto von Habsburg, though he never inherited the empire that collapsed in 1919 when he was still a child, is remembered as a "good European" who served the continent well. But the Habsburg who defined Europe in
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Otto von Habsburg of Austria dies at 98 - San Francisco Chronicle
Google News - over 5 years
Otto von Habsburg died July 4 at age 98 in southern Germany. His wife, Regina, died last year. The dynasty ruled for more than seven centuries until the end of World War I. In attendance at the Mariazell Basilica, where the coffins are lying in state,
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Otto von Habsburg
    FORTIES
  • 2011
    He died at the age of 98 on Monday, 4 July 2011, at his home in Pöcking, Germany.
    More Details Hide Details His spokeswoman reported that he died "peacefully and without pain in his sleep". On 5 July, his body was laid in repose in the Church of St. Ulrich near his home in Pöcking, Bavaria, and a massive 13-day period of mourning started in several countries formerly part of Austria-Hungary. Otto's coffin was draped with the Habsburg flag decorated with the imperial–royal coats of arms of Austria and Hungary in addition to the Habsburg family coat of arms. In line with the Habsburg family tradition, Otto von Habsburg was buried in the family's crypt in Vienna, while his heart was buried in a monastery in Pannonhalma, Hungary.
    Otto's son, Karl von Habsburg, also defended his father's words, in a 2011 statement, stating that "there were guilty parties in practically every country".
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  • 2010
    After the death of his wife, Regina in 2010, Otto stopped appearing in public.
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  • THIRTIES
  • 2008
    On the 2008 anniversary of the Anschluss, Otto von Habsburg made a very controversial statement, as part of his "1938 Remembrance Day" address before Parliament that "there is no country in Europe that has a better claim to be a victim of the Nazis than Austria".
    More Details Hide Details The context of this statement left little room for the media to interpret it in a better light. Although his speech received an ovation, this received public protest, media criticism and disapproval voiced by Austrian politicians. Social Democratic Party Defence Minister Norbert Darabos was quoted as saying that the remarks were "unacceptable", "a veritable democratic-political scandal" and that he had "insulted the victims of National Socialism". Otto von Habsburg was also quoted as saying that "a discussion as to whether Austria was an accomplice or a victim is an outrage". Austrian People's Party military spokesman Walter Murauer defended Otto's statement at the time. Murauer claimed that there was "another reality behind the mass of people who listened to Hitler on the Heldenplatz". Meaning the "thousands in the resistance and thousands in prison waiting to be transported to Dachau" near Munich. Murauer also recalled that Engelbert Dollfuß had been the only head of government in Europe to have been murdered by the Nazis. Murauer advised Darabos "to avoid populist pot-shots against an honourable European of the highest calibre."
  • 2007
    In a 2007 interview on the occasion of his approaching 95th birthday, Otto stated:
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  • 2002
    In 2002, he was named the first ever honorary member of the European People's Party group.
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  • 2000
    He resigned as Sovereign of the Golden Fleece in 2000 and as head of the Imperial House in 2007.
    More Details Hide Details The eldest son of Charles I and IV, the last Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, and his wife, Zita of Bourbon-Parma, Otto was born as third in line to the thrones, as His Imperial and Royal Highness Archduke Otto of Austria, Royal Prince of Hungary, Bohemia and Croatia. With his father's accession to the thrones in 1916, he was likely to become the Emperor. As his father never abdicated, Otto was considered by himself, his family and Austro-Hungarian legitimists to be the rightful Emperor-King from 1922. Otto was active on the Austrian and European political stage from the 1930s, both by promoting the cause of Habsburg restoration and as an early proponent of European integration—being thoroughly disgusted with nationalism—and a fierce opponent of Nazism and communism. He has been described as one of the leaders of the Austrian Resistance. After the 1938 Anschluss, monarchists were severely persecuted in Austria and sentenced to death by the Nazis, Otto fled to the United States with a visa issued by the noted Portuguese consul Aristides de Sousa Mendes.
  • TEENAGE
  • 1989
    He was one of the men instrumental in organising the so-called Pan-European Picnic at the Hungary-Austria border on 19 August 1989.
    More Details Hide Details This event is considered a milestone in the collapse of Communist dictatorships in Europe. He was reportedly a patron of the Three Faiths Forum, a group which aims to encourage friendship, goodwill and understanding amongst people of the three monotheistic faiths of Christianity, Judaism and Islam in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. In December 2006, he observed that, "The catastrophe of 11 September 2001 struck the United States more profoundly than any of us, whence a certain mutual incomprehension. Until then, the United States felt itself secure, persuaded of its power to bombard any enemy, without anyone being able to strike back. That sentiment vanished in an instant. Americans understand viscerally for the first time the risks they face." He was known as a supporter of the rights of refugees and displaced people in Europe, notably of the ethnic Germans displaced from Bohemia where he was once the Crown Prince. He was a jury member of the Franz Werfel Human Rights Award. He also held Francisco Franco in a high regard and praised him for helping refugees, stating that he was "a dictator of the South American type, not totalitarian like Hitler or Stalin".
  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1979
    He served from 1979 until 1999 as a Member of the European Parliament for the conservative Christian Social Union of Bavaria (CSU) party, eventually becoming the senior member of the European Parliament.
    More Details Hide Details He was also a member of the Mont Pelerin Society. He was a major supporter of the expansion of the European Union from the beginning and especially of the acceptance of Hungary, Slovenia and Croatia. During his time in the European Parliament, he was involved in a fracas with fellow MEP Ian Paisley, a unionist Protestant pastor from Northern Ireland. In 1988, Pope John Paul II had just begun a speech to the Parliament when Paisley, a vehement anti-Catholic, shouted that the Pope was the Antichrist, and held up a poster reading "Pope John Paul II Antichrist". Otto snatched Paisley's banner and, along with other MEPs, ejected him from the chamber.
    As a newly elected Member of the European Parliament in 1979, Otto had an empty chair set up for the countries on the other side of the Iron Curtain in the European Parliament, and took a strong interest in the countries behind the Iron Curtain.
    More Details Hide Details Otto von Habsburg played a central role in the revolutions of 1989, as a co-initiator of the Pan-European Picnic. Later he was a strong supporter of the EU membership of central and eastern European countries. A noted intellectual, he published several books on historical and political affairs. Otto has been described as one of the "architects of the European idea and of European integration" together with Robert Schuman, Konrad Adenauer, and Alcide De Gasperi. Otto was exiled in 1918 and grew up mostly in Spain. His devout Catholic mother raised him according to the old curriculum of Austria-Hungary, preparing him to become a Catholic monarch. During his life in exile, he lived in Switzerland, Madeira, Spain, Belgium, France, the United States, and from 1954 until his death, finally in Bavaria (Germany), in the residence Villa Austria. At the time of his death, he was a citizen of Germany, Austria, Hungary and Croatia, having earlier been stateless de jure and de facto, and possessed passports of Monaco, the Order of Malta, and Spain.
    Otto von Habsburg was Vice President (1957–1973) and President (1973–2004) of the International Paneuropean Union, and served as a Member of the European Parliament for the Christian Social Union of Bavaria (CSU) from 1979 to 1999.
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  • 1973
    An early advocate of a unified Europe, Otto was president of the International Paneuropean Union from 1973 to 2004.
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  • OTHER
  • 1967
    Later, he visited Vienna on 5 July 1967.
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  • 1966
    It was only on 1 June 1966, after the People's Party won an outright majority in the national election, that Otto was issued an Austrian passport, and was finally able to visit his home country again on 31 October 1966 for the first time in 48 years.
    More Details Hide Details That day, he traveled to Innsbruck to visit the grave of Archduke Eugen of Austria.
  • 1965
    His wife and he were then issued a Certified Proof of Citizenship on 20 July 1965.
    More Details Hide Details However, several elements in the country, particularly the Socialists, were ill-disposed to welcoming back the heir of the deposed dynasty. This touched off political infighting and civil unrest that almost precipitated a crisis of state, and later became known as the "Habsburg Crisis."
  • 1963
    The Austrian administrative court found on 24 May 1963 that Otto's statement was sufficient to meet this requirement.
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  • 1961
    He officially declared his loyalty to the Republic of Austria on 5 June 1961, but this statement was ruled insufficient as well.
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    In 1961, Spanish caudillo Francisco Franco offered to make him king of Spain after his own death, to which Habsburg declined.
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    In a declaration dated 31 May 1961, Otto renounced all claims to the Austrian throne and proclaimed himself "a loyal citizen of the republic", a move that he made only after much hesitation and certainly "for purely practical reasons".
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  • 1958
    Otto had already submitted a written statement, on 21 February 1958, that he and his family would renounce all privileges formerly entitled a member of the House of Habsburg, but this first declaration did not satisfy the requirements of the Habsburg Law, which stated that Otto and other descendants of Charles could only return to Austria if they renounced all royal claims and accepted the status of private citizens.
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  • 1957
    The Austrian Interior Ministry approved this declaration of Citizenship, but on the condition that he accept the name Dr. Otto Habsburg-Lothringen, on 8 February 1957.
    More Details Hide Details But this only entitled him to a passport "valid in every country but Austria".
  • 1956
    On 8 May 1956, Otto was recognized as an Austrian citizen by the provincial government of Lower Austria.
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  • 1951
    He married Princess Regina of Saxe-Meiningen on May 10, 1951 at the Church of Saint-François-des-Cordeliers in Nancy, capital city of Lorraine.
    More Details Hide Details The wedding was attended by his mother Empress Zita. He returned there with his wife for their golden jubilee in 2001. At the time of his death, he left seven children, 22 grandchildren and two great-grandchildren: Otto lived in retirement at the Villa Austria in Pöcking near Starnberg, upon Starnberger See, Upper Bavaria, Bavaria, Germany. He became a citizen of the Republic of Croatia in 1990, with the official name: Otto von Habsburg became a citizen of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1978, and was allowed the official name:
  • 1946
    As he did not possess a passport and was effectively stateless, he was given a passport of the Principality of Monaco, thanks to the intervention of Charles de Gaulle in 1946.
    More Details Hide Details As a Knight of Malta, the Order also issued him a diplomatic passport. Later, he was also given a Spanish diplomatic passport.
  • 1940
    For his own safety, Otto left the European continent for the United States and lived from 1940 to 1944 in Washington, D.C. In 1941, Hitler personally revoked the citizenship of Otto, his mother and his siblings, and the imperial-royal family found themselves stateless.
    More Details Hide Details During his wartime exile in the United States, Otto and his younger brothers were in direct contact with President Franklin D. Roosevelt and the federal government. His efforts to create an "Austrian Battalion" in the United States Army were delayed and never implemented. However, he successfully convinced the U.S. to halt or limit the bombardment of Austrian cities, especially the capital, Vienna, which were consequently delayed by high-ranking commanding personnel; bombardments on Vienna began later in the war (1943). Otto tried hard to set symbolic steps for the will of Austria and Austrians to be free, independent and democratic; he expressed concern that after the war, Austria was in danger of becoming a Soviet satellite state. Otto was commonly known in the U.S. as "Otto of Austria", trying to keep Austria and its neighbors in the minds of the American people via starting a series of stamps (the Overrun Countries series) containing the German occupied nations of Europe.
  • 1938
    He strongly opposed the Anschluss, and in 1938 requested Austrian Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg to resist Nazi Germany.
    More Details Hide Details He supported international intervention and offered to return from exile to take over the reins of government to repel the Nazis. According to Gerald Warner, "Austrian Jews were among the strongest supporters of a Habsburg restoration, since they believed the dynasty would give the nation sufficient resolve to stand up to the Third Reich". Following the German annexation of Austria, Otto was sentenced to death by the Nazi regime; Rudolf Hess ordered that Otto was to be executed immediately if caught. As ordered by Adolf Hitler, his personal property and that of the House of Habsburg were confiscated and not returned after the war. The so-called "Habsburg Law", which had previously been repealed, was reintroduced by the fiercely republican and anti-monarchist Nazis. The leaders of the Austrian legitimist movement, i.e. supporters of Otto, were arrested by the Nazis and largely executed (Stefan Zweig's novella The Royal Game is based on these events). Otto's cousins Max, Duke of Hohenberg, and Prince Ernst of Hohenberg were arrested in Vienna by the Gestapo and sent to Dachau concentration camp where they remained throughout Nazi rule. Otto was involved in helping around 15,000 Austrians, including thousands of Austrian Jews, flee the country at the beginning of the Second World War.
  • 1936
    John Gunther believed that Zita was less popular among Austrians, however, writing in 1936 that "restoration would be a good deal closer if Otto's return would not mean also the return of his mother—to say nothing of hundreds of assorted and impoverished Habsburg cousins and aunts, who would flock to Vienna like ants to a keg of syrup".
    More Details Hide Details A greater obstacle, he wrote, was the opposition of Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, which feared that their people might want to rejoin a recreated monarchy. Otto denounced Nazism, stating:
  • 1931
    He continued to enjoy considerable public support in Austria; from 1931 to 1938, 1,603 Austrian municipalities named Otto an honorary citizen.
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  • 1922
    Otto's family spent the subsequent years in Switzerland, and on the Portuguese island of Madeira, where Charles died prematurely in 1922, leaving the 9-year-old Otto pretender to the throne.
    More Details Hide Details On his father's deathbed, his mother, Empress Dowager Zita, told the 9-year-old, "your father is now sleeping the eternal sleep—you are now Emperor and King". The family eventually relocated to the Basque town of Lekeitio, where 40 Spanish grandees bought them a villa. Meanwhile, the Austrian parliament had officially expelled the Habsburg dynasty and confiscated all the official property (Habsburg Law of 3 April 1919). In 1935, he graduated with a PhD degree in Political and Social Sciences from the University of Louvain in Belgium. His thesis was on "the right, born of usage and of the peasant law of inheritance, of the indivisibility of rural land ownership in Austria". From his father's death throughout the remainder of his time in exile, Otto considered himself the rightful emperor of Austria and stated this on many occasions. In 1937 he wrote,
  • 1916
    In November 1916, Otto became Crown Prince of Austria, Hungary, Bohemia and Croatia when his father, Archduke Charles, acceded to the throne.
    More Details Hide Details However, in 1918, at the end of the First World War, the monarchies were abolished, the Republics of Austria and Hungary founded instead, and the family was forced into exile in Madeira. Hungary did become a kingdom again, but Charles was never to regain the throne. Instead, Miklós Horthy ruled as regent until 1944, in a kingdom without a king. Otto spoke German, Hungarian, Croatian, English, Spanish, French and Latin fluently. In later life, he would write some 40 books in German, Hungarian, French and Spanish. His mother made him learn many languages because she believed he one day might rule over many lands.
  • 1912
    Otto was born at Villa Wartholz in Reichenau an der Rax, Austria-Hungary. He was baptised Franz Joseph Otto Robert Maria Anton Karl Max Heinrich Sixtus Xavier Felix Renatus Ludwig Gaetan Pius Ignatius on 25 November 1912 at Villa Wartholz by the Prince-Archbishop of Vienna, Cardinal Franz Xaver Nagl.
    More Details Hide Details His godfather was the Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria (represented by Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria); his godmother was his grandmother Infanta Maria Antonia of Portugal.
Original Authors of this text are noted here.
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