Pervez Musharraf
President of Pakistan
Pervez Musharraf
Pervez Musharraf is a retired four-star general and a politician who served as the tenth President of Pakistan from 2001 until 2008. Prior to that, he was the 13th Chief of Army Staff from October 1998 till November 2007, and was also the tenth Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee of Pakistan Armed Forces from 1998 until 2001.
Biography
Pervez Musharraf's personal information overview.
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News
News abour Pervez Musharraf from around the web
North Korea Could Have Enough Uranium For 6 Nuclear Bombs By 2017, Experts Say
Huffington Post - 6 months
function onPlayerReadyVidible(e){'undefined'!=typeof HPTrack&&HPTrack.Vid.Vidible_track(e)}!function(e,i){if(e.vdb_Player){if('object'==typeof commercial_video){var a='',o='m.fwsitesection='+commercial_video.site_and_category;if(a+=o,commercial_video['package']){var c='&m.fwkeyvalues=sponsorship%3D'+commercial_video['package'];a+=c}e.setAttribute('vdb_params',a)}i(e.vdb_Player)}else{var t=arguments.callee;setTimeout(function(){t(e,i)},0)}}(document.getElementById('vidible_1'),onPlayerReadyVidible); North Korea will have enough material for about 20 nuclear bombs by the end of this year, with ramped-up uranium enrichment facilities and an existing stockpile of plutonium, according to new assessments by weapons experts. The North has evaded a decade of U.N. sanctions to develop the uranium enrichment process, enabling it to run an effectively self-sufficient nuclear program that is capable of producing around six nuclear bombs a year, they said. The true ...
Article Link:
Huffington Post article
Former Pakistan military leader Musharraf hospitalized with chest pain
Yahoo News - about 1 year
Pakistan's former military ruler General Pervez Musharraf was taken to a hospital in the port city of Karachi on Thursday after complaining of chest pain and having difficulty breathing, a spokesman for his political party said. "He is not well," said Aasia Ishaque. "He felt serious discomfort in his chest and in breathing." Another leader of the party, Mohammad Amjad, said Musharraf was feeling better and would be released from the PNS Shifa Hospital shortly but that doctors would be closely monitoring him at home.
Article Link:
Yahoo News article
Pakistan's ex-President Musharraf hospitalized
Fox News - about 1 year
A spokeswoman for Pakistan's former president, Pervez Musharraf, says he has been rushed to hospital in the port city of Karachi after suffering chest pain and breathing problems.
Article Link:
Fox News article
North Korea's Pakistan connection
Huffington Post - about 1 year
North Korea's claim of enhancing its nuclear weapons program draws attention to the failure of global non proliferation regimes. The real failure however may not be in North Korea but in Pakistan. The presence of U.S. troops on the Korean peninsula and China's willingness to keep Pyongyang in check act as constraints on North Korea. The tendency of Washington to treat Pakistan with kid gloves leaves it without any sense of being contained. On January 6, 2016, Pyongyang claimed it successfully tested a hydrogen bomb. Experts will take days to fully analyze whether or not North Korea had the technical capability to undertake a test of that magnitude but preliminary reports state that Pyongyang was lying. The AQ Khan Network run by the father of Pakistan's nuclear weapons program, Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan, sold sensitive technology to help North Korea build its program. AQ Khan has never paid for what he did and no one knows for sure if we have all the information about the illicit net ...
Article Link:
Huffington Post article
Pakistan: Change but no Change
Huffington Post - about 1 year
On January 2, 2016, terrorists attacked an Indian Air Force at Pathankot, in the northern Indian state of Punjab resulting in the deaths of seven soldiers and six terrorists. The next day terrorists attacked the Indian consulate in Mazar e Sharif, in northern Afghanistan. The Pathankot and Mazar e Sharif attacks demonstrate that the worldview of the Pakistani military-intelligence establishment has not changed with respect to India as the existential threat and jihad as the lever of foreign policy. From New Delhi's perspective every step forward in India-Pakistan relations results, within a short period of time, with a stab in the back that harms relations between the two countries. In February 1999 Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee undertook his famous bus yatra, where he along with his top officials, crossed the border into Pakistan and signed the Lahore declaration with his counterpart Nawaz Sharif. Within a few months the Kargil conflict occurred when the Pakistani ...
Article Link:
Huffington Post article
Pakistan Observes 2 Sad Anniversaries
Huffington Post - about 1 year
December marks two anniversaries in Pakistan's history, one through which more than half of Pakistan's population seceded to form a separate country and the other marking the most heinous attack on schoolchildren ever in that country. Both events had messages that unfortunately have not been understood by the military-intelligence establishment that runs foreign and security policy. In 1971, East Pakistan, the province that most staunchly supported the demand for Pakistan in the 1946 elections, broke away to form an independent country of Bangladesh. Most Pakistanis do not know the truth about 1971 and the majority believe the narrative that hegemonic India broke up Pakistan. Few know that the underlying reason lay not simply in geographic distance but reluctance of the West Pakistani primarily Punjabi-Muhajir elite - civilian and military - to share power with the other ethnicities, Bengali, Sindhi or Baluch. The December 2014 attack on the Army Public School (APS), Peshawar, was ...
Article Link:
Huffington Post article
Pakistan's Insistence on Denial
Huffington Post - about 1 year
Pakistan has denied any wrong doing and committing any war crimes during the civil war of 1971 that resulted in the creation of Bangladesh from erstwhile East Pakistan. This doubling down on denial of an almost universally acknowledged fact came amidst a war of words between Islamabad and Dhaka that began with Pakistan's Foreign Office expressing "deep concern" and anguish" over the "unfortunate executions" of two Bangladeshi politicians accused of torture, rape and genocide during the civil war of 1971. Ali Ahsan Mohammad Mujahid of the Jamaat e Islami and Salahuddin Quader Chowdhury of the Bangladesh National Party (BNP) had been convicted by War Crimes Courts set up by the Bangladesh government. The legitimacy of the process that resulted in conviction and execution of Pakistani collaborators has been subject of some dispute and controversy but the fact of Pakistani forces terrorizing Bengali civilians is almost undisputed. Pakistan insists on denying war crimes against the people ...
Article Link:
Huffington Post article
Pakistan's Promises Will Remain Unfulfilled
Huffington Post - almost 2 years
Pakistan remains unwilling to change the substance of its policy on terrorism even as it tries to reassure the international community that it is ready for a drastic transformation. Several recent developments affirm the Pakistani military's belief that cosmetic changes or words alone will suffice to convince others, especially the U.S., that Pakistan is serious about giving up its decades old sponsorship of terrorism. In some ways, Pakistan's generals are offering Americans a rehashed version of General Pervez Musharraf's promises in the immediate aftermath of 9/11. Now, as then, it is being argued that Pakistan is concerned about the blowback from its policy of sponsoring Jihadis. Musharraf admitted recently that his government continued to support Afghan Taliban even after ostensibly abandoning them at Washington's behest, to 'counter India's influence' in Afghanistan. This time too, the Pakistan military's efforts are focused narrowly on out of control Jihadis attacking ins ...
Article Link:
Huffington Post article
May Musharraf Escape Treason?
Huffington Post - over 2 years
Pakistani politicians are faltering in their resolve to prosecute General Pervez Musharraf for high treason. Under Article 6 of the Pakistan constitution, "any person who abrogates or subverts or suspends or holds in abeyance, or attempts or conspires to abrogate or subvert or suspend or hold in abeyance, the Constitution by use of force or show of force or by any other unconstitutional means shall be guilty of high treason." This far-reaching language was drafted to deter military generals from seizing power. In 1999, Musharraf did topple a democratically elected government. However, the treason case for which Musharraf is being prosecuted involves the 2007 subversion of the constitution -- a move directly assaulting the independence of judiciary. In 2007, Musharraf did not overthrow a civilian government. This time Musharraf staged a coup against the Pakistan Supreme Court. By 2007, under an emerging lawyers' movement to restore democracy, the judiciary had been emboldened to ...
Article Link:
Huffington Post article
Musharraf to appear before court on Feb 18
The Times of India - about 3 years
The special tribunal trying ex-president Pervez Musharraf for treason on Friday exempted him from appearance after his counsel assured the court that he will appear before it on 18 February. The former president was due to appear before the court and was expected to be indicted.     
Article Link:
The Times of India article
Lawyer: Musharraf to make first appearance before Pakistan court to face treason charges
Fox News - about 3 years
A defense lawyer says Pakistan's former military ruler Pervez Musharraf will make his first appearance before a court on Feb. 18 to face a high treason case.
Article Link:
Fox News article
Pervez Musharraf served with arrest warrant at hospital
The Times of India - about 3 years
Former Pakistani dictator General Pervez Musharraf was on Monday served with an arrest warrant by the police at a military hospital where he is hospitalized.     
Article Link:
The Times of India article
Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Pervez Musharraf
    LATE_ADULTHOOD
  • 2014
    Age 70
    On 3 April 2014, Musharraf escaped the fourth assassination attempt, resulting in an injury of a woman, according to Pakistani news.
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    On 31st March 2014, Musharraf was booked and charged with high treason for implementing emergency rule and suspending the constitution in 2007.
    More Details Hide Details His legacy is mixed, his era saw the emergence of a more assertive middle class, but his disregard for civilian institutions weakened the state of Pakistan.
  • 2013
    Age 69
    On 2 September 2013, a FIR was registered against Pervez Musharraf for his role in the Lal Masjid Operation 2007.
    More Details Hide Details The FIR was lodged after the son of slain hard line cleric Abdul Rahid Ghazi (who was killed during the operation) asked authorities to bring charges against Musharraf. Musharraf is the second son with two brothers – Javed and Naved. Javed retired as a high-level official in Pakistan's civil service. Naved is an anesthesiologist who has lived in Chicago since completing his residency training at Loyola University Medical Center in 1979.
    On 20 August 2013, a Pakistani court indicted Musharraf in the assassination of Bhutto.
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    On 25 June 2013, Musharraf was named as prime suspect in two separate cases, first Benazir Bhutto's assassination and second being Akbar Bugti case by Federal Investigation Agency for masterminding a conspiracy to assassinations of Benazir Bhutto and Akbar Bugti.
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    On Friday 26 April 2013 the court ordered house arrest for Musharraf in connection with the death of Benazir Bhutto.
    More Details Hide Details On 20 May, a Pakistani court granted bail to Musharraf. On 12 June 2014 Sindh High Court allowed him to travel abroad.
    On 16 April 2013, an electoral tribunal in Chitral declared Musharraf disqualified from candidacy there, effectively quashing his political ambitions (several other constituencies had previously rejected Musharraf's nominations).
    More Details Hide Details A spokesperson for Musharraf's party said the ruling was "biased" and they would appeal the decision. While Musharraf had technically been on bail since his return to the country, on 18 April 2013 The Islamabad High Court ordered the arrest of Musharraf on charges relating to the 2007 arrests of judges. Musharraf escaped from court with the aid of his security personnel, and went to his farm-house mansion. The following day Musharraf was under house arrest but was later transferred to police headquarters in Islamabad. Musharraf characterized his arrest as "politically motivated" and his legal team has declared their intention to fight the charges in the Supreme Court. Further to the charges of this arrest, the Senate also passed a resolution petitioning that Musharraf be charged with high treason in relation to the events of 2007.
    Upon his return, Musharraf was disqualified from taking part in the elections by High Court judges in April 2013.
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    On 24 March 2013, after a four-year self-imposed exile, he returned to Pakistan.
    More Details Hide Details He landed at Jinnah International Airport, Karachi, via a chartered Emirates flight with Pakistani journalists and foreign news correspondents at around 12:40 PM PST. Hundreds of his supporters and workers of APML were at Karachi airport to welcome him. He also delivered a short public speech outside the airport lounge.
  • 2012
    Age 68
    On Piers Morgan Tonight, Musharraf announced his plans to return to Pakistan on 23 March 2012 in order to seek the Presidency in 2013.
    More Details Hide Details The Taliban and Talal Bugti threatened to kill him should he return.
  • 2011
    Age 67
    Abbottabad's district and sessions judge in a missing person's case passed judgment asking the authorities to declare Pervez Musharraf a proclaimed offender. On 11 February 2011 the Anti Terrorism Court, issued an arrest warrant for Musharraf and charged him with conspiracy to commit murder of Benazir Bhutto.
    More Details Hide Details On 8 March 2011, the Sindh High Court registered treason charges against him. Regarding the Lahore attack on Sri Lankan players, Musharraf criticized the police commandos' inability to kill any of the gunmen, saying "If this was the elite force I would expect them to have shot down those people who attacked them, the reaction, their training should be on a level that if anyone shoots toward the company they are guarding, in less than three seconds they should shoot the man down." Regarding the Blasphemy laws in Pakistan, Musharraf said that Pakistan is sensitive to religious issues and that the blasphemy law should stay. Since the start of 2011, news had circulated that Musharraf would return to Pakistan before the 2013 general election. He himself vowed this in several interviews.
  • 2010
    Age 66
    Musharraf launched his own political party, the All Pakistan Muslim League, in June 2010.
    More Details Hide Details The PML-N has tried to get Pervez Musharraf to stand trial in an article 6 trial for treason in relation to the emergency on 3 November 2007. The Prime Minister of Pakistan Yousaf Raza Gilani has said a consensus resolution is required in national assembly for an article 6 trial of Pervez Musharraf"I have no love lost for Musharraf... if parliament decides to try him, I will be with parliament. Article 6 cannot be applied to one individual... those who supported him are today in my cabinet and some of them have also joined the PML-N... the MMA, the MQM and the PML-Q supported him... this is why I have said that it is not doable," said the Prime Minister while informally talking to editors and also replying to questions by journalists at an Iftar-dinner he had hosted for them. Although the constitution of Pakistan, Article 232 and Article 236, provides for emergencies, and on 15 February 2008, the interim Pakistan Supreme Court attempted to validated the Proclamation of Emergency on 3 November 2007, the Provisional Constitution Order No 1 of 2007 and the Oath of Office (Judges) Order, 2007, after the Supreme Court judges were restored to the bench, on 31 July 2009, they ruled that Musharraf had violated the constitution when he declared emergency rule in 2007.
  • 2008
    Age 64
    On 23 November 2008 he left for exile in London where he arrived the following day.
    More Details Hide Details After his resignation, Musharraf went to perform a holy pilgrimage to Makkah Mecca. He then went on a speaking and lectureship tour through the Middle East, Europe, and United States. Chicago-based Embark LLC was one of the international public-relations firms trying to land Musharraf as a highly paid keynote speaker. According to Embark President David B. Wheeler, the speaking fee for Musharraf would be in the $150,000–200,000 range for a day plus jet and other V.I.P. arrangements on the ground. In 2011, he also lectured at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace on politics and racism where he also authored and published a paper with George Perkvich. Since quitting politics in 2008, Musharraf has been in London since 24 November 2008 in self-imposed exile.
    On 18 August 2008, Musharraf announced his resignation.
    More Details Hide Details On the following day, he defended his nine-year rule in an hour-long televised speech.
    On 7 August 2008, the Pakistan Peoples Party and the Pakistan Muslim League (N) agreed to force Musharraf to step down and begin his impeachment.
    More Details Hide Details Asif Ali Zardari and Nawaz Sharif announced sending a formal request or joint charge sheet that he step down, and impeach him through parliamentary process upon refusal. Musharraf refused to step down. A charge-sheet had been drafted, and was to be presented to parliament. It included Mr Musharraf’s first seizure of power in 1999—at the expense of Nawaz Sharif, the PML(N)'s leader, whom Mr Musharraf imprisoned and exiled—and his second last November, when he declared an emergency as a means to get re-elected president. The charge-sheet also listed some of Mr Musharraf's contributions to the "war on terror." Musharraf delayed his departure for the Beijing Olympics, by a day. On 11 August, the government summoned the national assembly.
    On 4 July 2008, in an interview, Qadeer Khan laid the blame on President Musharraf and later on Benazir Bhutto for transferring the technology, claiming that Musharraf was aware of all the deals and he was the "Big Boss" for those deals.
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    On 23 March 2008, President Musharraf said an "era of democracy" had begun in Pakistan and that he had put the country "on the track of development and progress".
    More Details Hide Details On 22 March, the PPP named former parliament speaker Syed Yousaf Raza Gillani as its candidate for the country's next prime minister, to lead a coalition government united against him.
    Tendering his resignation in a threat to face potential impeachment movement led by the ruling Pakistan People's Party in 2008, Musharraf moved to London in self-imposed exile after returning to Pakistan to participate in the general elections held in 2013.
    More Details Hide Details While absent from Pakistan, Musharraf engaged in legal battles after the country's high courts issued warrants for him and Aziz for their alleged involvement in the assassinations of Benazir and Bugti.
  • 2007
    Age 63
    A complicating factor is that, few believed that Qadeer Khan acted alone and the affair risks gravely damaging the Armed Forces, which oversaw and controlled the nuclear weapons development and of which Musharraf was Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, until his resignation from military service on 28 November 2007.
    More Details Hide Details When Musharraf came to power in 1999, he promised that the corruption in the government bureaucracy would be cleaned up. However, some claimed that the level of corruption did not diminish throughout Musharraf's time.
    On 3 November 2007 Musharraf declared emergency rule across Pakistan.
    More Details Hide Details He suspended the Constitution, imposed State of Emergency, and fired the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court again. In Islamabad, troops entered the Supreme Court building, arrested the judges and kept them under detention in their homes. Troops were deployed inside state-run TV and radio stations, while independent channels went off air. Public protests mounted against Musharraf. General elections were held on 18 February 2008, in which the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) polled the highest votes and won the most seats.
    On 28 September 2007, in a 6–3 vote, Judge Rana Bhagwandas's court removed obstacles to Musharraf's election bid.
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    In a March 2007 interview, Musharraf said that he intended to stay in office for another five years.
    More Details Hide Details A nine-member panel of Supreme Court judges deliberated on six petitions (including Jamaat-e-Islami's, Pakistan's largest Islamic group) for disqualification of Musharraf as presidential candidate. Bhutto stated that her party may join other opposition groups, including Sharif's.
    When Musharraf resigned from military on 28 November 2007, Kayani became Chief of Army Staff.
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    On 2 October 2007, Musharraf appointed General Tariq Majid as Chairman Joint Chiefs Committee and approved General Ashfaq Kayani as vice chief of the army starting 8 October.
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    Musharraf called for a three-day mourning period after Bhutto's assassination on 27 December 2007.
    More Details Hide Details Sharif returned to Pakistan in September 2007, and was immediately arrested and taken into custody at the airport. He was sent back to Saudi Arabia. Saudi intelligence chief Muqrin bin Abdul-Aziz Al Saud and Lebanese politician Saad Hariri arrived separately in Islamabad on 8 September 2007, the former with a message from Saudi King Abdullah and the latter after a meeting with Nawaz Sharif in London. After meeting President General Pervez Musharraf for two-and-a-half hours discussing Nawaz Sharif's possible return. On arrival in Saudi Arabia, Nawaz Sharif was received by Prince Muqrin bin Abdul-Aziz, the Saudi intelligence chief, who had met Musharraf in Islamabad the previous day. That meeting had been followed by a rare press conference, at which he had warned that Sharif should not violate the terms of King Abdullah's agreement of staying out of politics for 10 years.
    On 17 September 2007, Bhutto accused Musharraf's allies of pushing Pakistan to crisis by refusal to restore democracy and share power.
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    Also on 8 August 2007, Benazir Bhutto spoke about her secret meeting with Musharraf on 27 July, in an interview on the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
    More Details Hide Details On 14 September 2007, Deputy Information Minister Tariq Azim stated that Bhutto won't be deported, but must face corruption suits against her. He clarified Sharif's and Bhutto's right to return to Pakistan. Bhutto returned from eight years exile on 18 October.
    In April 2007, the mosque administration started to encourage attacks on local video shops, alleging that they were selling porn films, and massage parlours, which were alleged to be used as brothels. These attacks were often carried out by the mosque's female students. In July 2007, a confrontation occurred when government authorities made a decision to stop the student violence and send police officers to arrest the responsible individuals and the madrassa administration.
    More Details Hide Details This development led to a standoff between police forces and armed students. Mosque leaders and students refused to surrender and kept firing on police from inside the mosque building. Both sides suffered casualties.
    On 9 March 2007, Musharraf suspended Chief Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry and pressed corruption charges against him.
    More Details Hide Details He replaced him with ally Acting Chief Justice Javed Iqbal. Musharraf's moves sparked protests among Pakistani lawyers. On 12 March 2007, lawyers started a campaign called Judicial Activism across Pakistan and began boycotting all court procedures in protest against the suspension. In Islamabad, as well as other cities such as Lahore, Karachi, and Quetta hundreds of lawyers dressed in black suits attended rallies, condemning the suspension as unconstitutional. Slowly the expressions of support for the ousted Chief Justice gathered momentum and by May, protesters and opposition parties took out huge rallies against Musharraf and his tenure as army chief was also challenged in the courts. Lal Masjid had a religious school for women and the Jamia Hafsa madrassa, which was attached to the mosque. A male madrassa was only a few minutes drive away. The mosque was often attended by prominent politicians including prime ministers, army chiefs, and presidents.
    By August 2007, polls showed 64 percent of Pakistanis did not want another Musharraf term.
    More Details Hide Details Controversies involving the atomic issues, Lal Masjid incident, unsuccessful operation in West, suspension of famed Chief Justice, and widely circulated criticisms from rivals, Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif, had brutalized the personal image of Musharraf in public and political circles. More importantly, with Shaukat Aziz departing from the office of Prime Minister, Musharraf could not have sustained his presidency any longer and dramatically fell from the presidency within a matter of eight months, after popular and mass public movements successfully called for his impeachment for the actions taken during his presidency.
    On 8 October 2007, a military helicopter escorting President Musharraf, on his visit to the earthquake-affected areas on its second anniversary, crashed near Muzaffarabad, killing four people, including a brigadier.
    More Details Hide Details The Puma helicopter crashed at Majohi near Garhi Dupatta in Azad Kashmir at 11:15 am due to technical fault. Those killed included Brigadier Zahoor Ahmed, Naik Ajmal, Sepoy Rashid and PTV cameraman Muhammad Farooq, while President's Media Advisor Maj Gen (R) Rashid Qureshi sustained injuries. Twelve people were on board the helicopter.
    On 17 July 2007, Pakistani police detained 39 people in relation to the attempted assassination of Musharraf.
    More Details Hide Details The suspects were detained at an undisclosed location by a joint team of Punjab Police, the Federal Investigation Agency and other Pakistani intelligence agencies.
    On 6 July 2007, there was another attempted assassination, when an unknown group fired a 7.62 submachine gun at Musharraf's plane as it took off from a runway in Rawalpindi.
    More Details Hide Details Security also recovered 2 anti-aircraft guns, from which no shots had been fired.
    Following this, Musharraf authorized a national security hearings of Qadeer Khan, which continued until his resignation from the army in 2007.
    More Details Hide Details According to Zahid Malik, Musharraf and the military establishment at that time, were exercised rough actions against Qadeer Khan to prove the loyalty of Pakistan to the United States and Western world. The investigations back fired on Musharraf and a wide scale public opinion turned against him soon after. The massive and populist ARD movement, containing the major political parties especially the rivals PML and the PPP, used that issue politically to malign Musharraf and to bring down his presidency alone. At the public circles, the debriefings of Abdul Qadeer Khan had severely damaged Musharraf's own public image and his political prestige in the country. Musharraf faced bitter domestic criticism for singularly attempting to vilify Qadeer Khan, specifically from opposition leader Benazir Bhutto who issued harassing statements towards Musharraf's role. In an interview to Daily Times, Benazir Bhutto maintained that Abdul Qadeer Khan was made "scapegoat" in this nuclear proliferation scandal and she didn't "believe that such a big scandal could have taken place under the nose of General Musharraf". The long standing ally of Musharraf, the MQM, gave bitter and a public acrimonious criticism to Musharraf over his handling of Qadeer Khan. The ARD movement and the political parties further politicized this issue after tapping a public anger and mass demonstration all over the country against Musharraf. The credibility of the United States was also badly damaged over this issue; the United States refrained itself from pressuring Musharraf to take further actions against Qadeer Khan due to their strategic calculations.
  • 2006
    Age 62
    President General Pervez Musharraf signed into law the "Women's Protection Bill", on 1 December 2006.
    More Details Hide Details The bill places rape laws under the penal code and allegedly does away with harsh conditions that previously required victims to produce four male witnesses and exposed the victims to prosecution for adultery, if they were unable to prove the crime. However, the Women's Protection bill has been criticised heavily by many for paying continued lip service and failing to address the actual problem by its roots: repealing the Hudood Ordinance. In this context, Musharraf has also been criticized by women and human rights activists for not following up his words by action. The Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP) said that "The so-called Women's Protection Bill is a farcical attempt at making Hudood Ordinances palatable" outlining the issues of the bill and the continued impact on women. His government increased reserved seats for women in assemblies, to increase women's representation and make their presence more effective. Compared with 1988 seats in the National Assembly were increased from 20 to 60. In provincial assemblies 128 seats were reserved for women. This situation has brought out increase participation of women for 1988 and 2008 elections.
  • 2005
    Age 61
    In an interview to The Washington Post in September 2005 Musharraf said that Pakistani women, who were the victims of rape, treated rape as a "moneymaking concern" and were only interested in the publicity in order to make money and get a Canadian visa.
    More Details Hide Details He subsequently denied making these comments, but The Washington Post made available an audio recording of the interview, in which Musharraf could be heard making the quoted remarks. Musharraf also denied Mukhtaran Mai, a Pakistani rape victim, the right to travel abroad, until pressured by US State Department. The remarks made by Musharraf sparked outrage and protests both internationally and in Pakistan by various groups i.e. women groups, activists. In a rally, held close to the presidential palace and Pakistan's parliament, hundreds of women demonstrated in Pakistan demanding Musharraf apologise for the controversial remarks about female rape victims.
  • 2004
    Age 60
    Prime Minister Zafarullah Khan Jamali resigned on 26 June 2004, after losing the support of the Musharraf's party, PML(Q).
    More Details Hide Details His resignation was at least partially due to his public differences with the party chairman, Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain. This was rumored to have happened at Musharraf's command. Jamali had been appointed with the support of Musharraf's and the pro-Musharraf PML(Q). Most PML(Q) parliamentarians formerly belonged to the Pakistan Muslim League party led by Sharif, and most ministers of the cabinet were formerly senior members of other parties, joining the PML(Q) after the elections upon being offered positions. Musharraf nominated Shaukat Aziz, the minister for finance and a former employee of Citibank and head of Citibank Private Banking as the new prime minister. The National Assembly voted in favour of the "Women's Protection Bill" on 15 November 2006 and the Senate approved it on 23 November 2006.
    On 1 January 2004, Musharraf had won a confidence vote in the Electoral College of Pakistan, consisting of both houses of Parliament and the four provincial assemblies.
    More Details Hide Details Musharraf received 658 out of 1170 votes, a 56% majority, but many opposition and Islamic members of parliament walked out to protest the vote. As a result of this vote, his term was extended to 2007.
    In late 2004, Musharraf went back on his agreement with the MMA and pro-Musharraf legislators in the Parliament passed a bill allowing Musharraf to keep both offices.
    More Details Hide Details Constitution Article 63 clause (1) paragraph (d), read with proviso to Article 41 clause (7) paragraph (b), allows the President to hold dual office.
  • FIFTIES
  • 2003
    Age 59
    On 25 December 2003, two suicide bombers tried to assassinate Musharraf, but their car bombs failed to kill him; 16 others died instead. Musharraf escaped with only a cracked windshield on his car. Amjad Farooqi was an alleged mastermind behind these attempts, and was killed by Pakistani forces in 2004 after an extensive manhunt.
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    On 14 December 2003, Musharraf survived an assassination attempt when a powerful bomb went off minutes after his highly guarded convoy crossed a bridge in Rawalpindi.
    More Details Hide Details It was the third such attempt during his four-year rule.
    In December 2003, Musharraf made a deal with MMA, a six-member coalition of far-right Islamic parties, agreeing to leave the army by 31 December 2004.
    More Details Hide Details With that party's support, pro-Musharraf legislators were able to muster the two-thirds supermajority required to pass the Seventeenth Amendment, which retroactively legalised Musharraf's 1999 coup and many of his decrees.
  • 2002
    Age 58
    Musharraf called for nationwide political elections in the country after accepting the ruling of the Supreme Court of Pakistan. Musharraf was the first military president to accept the rulings of the Supreme Court and holding free and fair elections in 2002 in his vision to return the democracy in the country.
    More Details Hide Details In October 2002, Pakistan held general elections, which the pro-Musharraf PML-Q won wide margins, although it had failed to gain absolute majority. The PML-Q formed government with far-right religious parties coalition, the MMA and the liberals MQM; the coalition legitimised Musharraf's rule. After elections, the PML-Q nominated Zafarullah Khan Jamali for the office of Prime minister, which Musharraf also approved. After first session at the Parliament, Musharraf voluntarily transferred the powers of chief executive to Prime minister of Pakistan Zafarullah Khan Jamali. Musharraf succeeded to pass the XVII amendment, which grants powers to dissolve the parliament, with approval required from the Supreme Court. Within two years, Jamali proved to be an ineffective prime minister to forcefully implement his policies in the country and mounted problems with elite business class of Pakistan. Musharraf accepted the resignation of Jamali and asked his close colleague Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain to appoint a new prime minister in place. Hussain nominated Finance minister Shaukat Aziz, who had been impressive due to his performance as finance minister in 1999. Musharraf regarded Aziz as his right hand and preferable choice for the office of Prime minister. With Aziz appointed as Prime minister, Musharraf transferred all executive powers to Aziz as he trusted Shaukat Aziz. Aziz proved to be extremely capable while running the government and under Aziz's government economic growth reached to a maximum level, which further stabilised Musharraf's presidency. Aziz swiftly, quietly and more quickly undermined the elements seeking to undermine Musharraf, which became a factor that Musharraf had trusted Aziz.
  • 2001
    Age 57
    Another widely controversial scandal during Musharraf's presidency arose as a consequence of the disclosure of atomic proliferation by Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan. Earlier on 27 February 2001, Musharraf spoke highly of Abdul Qadeer Khan in a farewell state dinner in Islamabad.
    More Details Hide Details Personally approving the appointment Science Advisor to the Government to Abdul Qadeer Khan, also in 2001. In 2004, Musharraf relieved Qadeer Khan from his post and initially denied knowledge of government's and the armed force's role in nuclear proliferation, despite Qadeer Khan urging that Musharraf was the "Big Boss" of the proliferation ring.
    In December 2001, he authorized the security hearings of these two scientists and were taken into the custody of the JAG Branch (JAG) where the security hearings continued until early 2002.
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    In October 2001, Musharraf authorised a sting operation led by FIA to arrest two physicists Sultan Bashiruddin Mahmood and Chaudhry Abdul Majeed, due to their supposed connection with Taliban after they secretly visited Taliban government led Afghanistan in 2000.
    More Details Hide Details The local Pakistani media widely circulated the reports that "Mahmood had a meeting with Osama bin Laden where Bin Laden had shown the interests of building a radiological weapon." Later, it was revealed that neither scientist was able to build such designs of the bomb and had lacked scientific knowledge of such weapons. The credibility of these two scientists were put in great doubts about their role in country's atomic bomb program.
    After the 2001 Gujarat earthquake, Musharraf expressed his sympathies to Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee and sent a plane load of relief supplies to India.
    More Details Hide Details In the 2004, Musharraf began a series of talks with India to resolve the Kashmir dispute. In 2006, King Abdullah visited Pakistan for the first time as King. Musharraf honoured King Abdullah with the Nishan-e-Pakistan. Musharraf received the King Abdul-Aziz Medallion in 2007. Since September 2001 until his resignation in 2007 from the military, his presidency suffered more highly controversial atomic scandals than any other government in the history of the country. These scandals badly affected his authoritative legitimacy in the country and in the international community.
    In 2001, Musharraf got on stage with the rock music band, Junoon, and sang national song with the band.
    More Details Hide Details On political fronts, Mushrraf faced fierce opposition from the ultraconservative alliance, the MMA, led by clergyman Maulana Noorani. In Pakistan, Maulana Noorani was remembered as a mystic religious leader and had preached spiritual aspects of Islam in all over the world as part of the World Islamic Mission. Although, the political deadlock posed by Maulana Noorani was neutralized after Noorani's death, Mushrraf yet had to face the opposition from ARD led by Benazir Bhutto of the PPP. Musharraf allied with the United States against the Afghan mujahideen in Afghanistan after the September 11 attacks. The Afghan mujahideen, al-Qaeda operatives, and other fundamentalist groups had been long consolidated and endorsed by the U.S.-backed President General Zia-ul-Haq, and the initial financial funding and consolidation was also endorsed by the United States against the Soviet Union in the 1980s. A few months after the September 11 attacks, Musharraf gave a speech against extremism. He instituted prohibitions on foreign students' access to studying Islam within Pakistan, an effort that began as an outright ban but was later reduced to restrictions on obtaining visas. On 18 September 2005, Musharraf made a speech before a broad based audience of Jewish leadership, sponsored by the American Jewish Congress's Council for World Jewry, in New York City. In the speech, he denounced Islamic ideology and opened the door to relationships between his secular ideology and Israel. He was widely criticised by Middle Eastern leaders, but was met with some praise among Jewish leadership.
    After his resignation, Musharraf formally appointed himself as President on 20 June 2001.
    More Details Hide Details In August 2002, he issued the Legal Framework Order No. 2002, which added numerous amendments to the Constitution.
    The residing President Rafiq Tarar remained in office until his voluntary resignation in June 2001.
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    In a television interview given in 2001, Musharraf openly spoke about the negative role of a few high-ranking officers in the Pakistan Armed Forces in state's affairs.
    More Details Hide Details Musharraf labelled many of his senior professors at NDU as "pseudo-intellectuals", including the NDU's notable professors, General Aslam Beg and Jehangir Karamat under whom Musharraf studied and served well.
    He became the President of Pakistan on 20 June 2001, only to win a controversial referendum on May 1, 2002 which awarded him five years of presidency.
    More Details Hide Details In October the same year, he oversaw a general election in 2002, which saw the victory of the army backed PML-Q. During his presidency, he advocated for a third way for varying synthesis of conservatism and left wing ideas, he appointed Shaukat Aziz in place of Sharif and directed polices against terrorism, becoming a key player in the American-led war on terror. Over the next several years, Musharraf survived a number of assassination attempts. He reinstated the constitution in 2002, though it was heavily amended with the Legal Framework Order. He also saw a process of social liberalism under his enlightened moderation program, while also promoting economic liberalisation and banning trade union's. He oversaw a rise of in overall gross domestic product at around 50%, however domestic savings declined and saw a rapid rise in economic inequality. More importantly, Musharraf has been accused of human right's abuses.
  • 2000
    Age 56
    In 2000 Kamran Atif, an alleged member of Harkat-ul Mujahideen al-Alami, tried to assassinate Musharraf. Atif was sentenced to death in 2006 by an Anti Terrorism Court.
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    On 12 May 2000, the Supreme Court asked Musharraf to hold national elections by 12 October 2002.
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    Shortly after Musharraf's takeover, Musharraf issued Oath of Judges Order No. 2000, which required judges to take a fresh oath of office swearing allegiance to the military.
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    Sharif signed an agreement with Musharraf and his military government and his family was exiled to Saudi Arabia in December 2000.
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    His trial began in early March 2000 in an anti-terrorism court, which is designed for speedy trials.
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  • 1999
    Age 55
    In late December 1999, Musharraf dealt with his first international crisis when India accused Pakistan's involvement in the Indian Airlines Flight 814 hijacking.
    More Details Hide Details Though United States President Bill Clinton pressured Musharraf to ban the alleged group behind the hijacking — Harkat-ul-Mujahideen, Pakistani officials refused because of fears of reprisal from political parties such as Jamaat-e-Islami. In March 2000, Musharraf banned political rallies.
    The Military Police held former prime minister Sharif under house arrest at a government guesthouse and opened his Lahore home to the public in late October 1999.
    More Details Hide Details He was formally indicted in November on charges of hijacking, kidnapping, attempted murder, and treason for preventing Musharraf's flight from landing at Karachi airport on the day of the coup.
    From March to May 1999, he ordered the secret infiltration of Kashmiri forces in the Kargil district.
    More Details Hide Details After India discovered the infiltration, a fierce Indian offensive nearly led to a full-scale war. However, Sharif withdrew support of the insurgents in the border conflict in July because of heightened international pressure. Sharif's decision antagonized the Pakistan Army and rumors of a possible coup began emerging soon afterward. Sharif and Musharraf dispute on who was responsible for the Kargil conflict and Pakistan's withdrawal. This strategic operation met with great hostility in the public circles and wide scale disapproval in the media who roundly criticised this operation. Musharraf had severe confrontation and became involved in serious altercations with his senior officers, chief of naval staff Admiral Fasih Bokhari, chief of air staff, air chief marshal PQ Mehdi and senior lieutenant-general Ali Kuli Khan. Admiral Bokhari ultimately demanded a full-fledged joint-service court martial against General Musharraf, while on the other hand General Kuli Khan lambasted the war as "a disaster bigger than the East-Pakistan tragedy", adding that the plan was "flawed in terms of its conception, tactical planning and execution" that ended in "sacrificing so many soldiers." Problems with his life long friend, chief of air staff air chief marshal Pervez Mehdi also arose when air chief refrained to participate or authorise any air strike to support the elements of army operations in the Kargil region.
  • 1995
    Age 51
    Between 1995 and 1998, Lieutenant-General Musharraf was the corps commander (CC-I) of I Strike Corps stationed in Mangla, Mangla Military District.
    More Details Hide Details Although both Nawaz Sharif and general Jehangir Karamat were educated, and held common beliefs concerning national security, problems arose with chairman of the joint chiefs and chief of army staff General Karamat in October 1998. While addressing the officers and cadets at the Naval War College, General Karamat stressed the creation of National Security Council, which would be backed by a "team of civil-military experts" for devising policies to seek resolution ongoing problems relating the civil-military issues; also recommended a "neutral but competent bureaucracy and administration of at federal level and the establishment of Local governments in four provinces. This proposal was met with hostility, and led to Nawaz Sharif's dismissal of General Karamat. In turn, this reduced Nawaz's mandate in public circles, and led to much criticism from Leader of the Opposition Benazir Bhutto. There were three lieutenant-general officers potentially in line to succeed General Karamat as four-star rank and chief of army staff. Lieutenant-general Ali Kuli Khan, a graduate of PMA and RMA, Sandhurst, was an extremely capable staff officer and well liked in public circles, but was seen as close to the former chief of army staff general (retired) Abdul Vaheed; and was not promoted. Second in line was lieutenant-general Khalid Nawaz Khan who was popularly known for his ruthless leadership in the army; particularly for his unforgiving attitude to his junior officers. Lieutenant-general Nawaz Khan was known for his opposition and anti-muhajir sentiment, and was particularly hardline against the MQM.
    His last military field operations posting was in the Mangla region of the Kashmir Province in 1995 when Benazir Bhutto approved the promotion of Musharraf to three-star rank, Lieutenant-General.
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  • FORTIES
  • 1993
    Age 49
    In 1993, Musharraf personally assisted Benazir Bhutto to have a secret meeting in a Pakistan Embassy at the Washington, D.C. with officials from Mossad and special envoy of Israeli premier Yitzhak Rabin.
    More Details Hide Details It was during these times when Musharraf build extremely cordial relationships with Shaukat Aziz who, at that time, was serving as the executive president of global financial services of the Citibank. After the collapse of the fractious Afghan government, Musharraf assisted General Babar and the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) in devising a policy of supporting the newly formed Taliban in the Afghan civil war against the Northern Alliance government. On policy issues, Musharraf befriended senior justice of the Supreme Court of Pakistan Justice Rafiq Tarar (later president) and held common beliefs with the latter.
    From 1993 to 1995, Musharraf repeatedly visited the United States as part of the delegation of Benazir Bhutto.
    More Details Hide Details It was Maulana Fazal-ur-Rehman who lobbied for his promotion to Benazir Bhutto, and subsequently getting the Musharraf's promotion papers approved by Benazir Bhutto, which eventually led to his appointment in Benazir Bhutto's key staff.
    In 1993–95, Major-General Musharraf worked closely with the Chief of Army Staff as Director-General of Pakistan Army's Directorate General for the Military Operations (DGMO).
    More Details Hide Details During this time, Musharraf became close to engineering officer and director-general of ISI lieutenant-general Javed Nasir and had worked with him while directing operations in Bosnian war. His political philosophy was influenced by Benazir Bhutto who mentored him on various occasions, and Musharraf generally closed to Benazir Bhutto on military policy issues on India.
  • 1991
    Age 47
    In 1991–93, he secured a two-star promotion, elevating him to the rank of major general and held a command of 40th Army Division as its GOC, stationed in Okara Military District in Punjab Province.
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  • 1988
    Age 44
    Earlier in 1988–89, (as Brigadier) Musharraf proposed the Kargil infiltration to Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto but she rebuffed the plan.
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  • 1987
    Age 43
    In September 1987, an assault was launched under the command of Musharraf at Bilafond La before being pushed back.
    More Details Hide Details In 1990–91, he studied at the Royal College of Defense Studies (RCDS) in Britain. His course-mate included Major-generals B. S. Malik and Ashok Mehta of the Indian Army, and Ali Kuli Khan of Pakistan Army. In his course studies, Musharraf performed extremely well as compared to his classmates, submitted his master's degree thesis, titled "Impact of Arm Race in the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent", and earned well remarks. He submitted his thesis to Commandant General Antony Walker who regarded Musharraf as one of his finest students he had seen in his entire career. At one point, Walker described Musharraf: "A capable, articulate and extremely personable officer, who made a valuable impact at RCDS. His country is fortunate to have the services of a man of his undeniable quality." He graduated with a master's degree from RCDS and returned to Pakistan soon after. Upon returning in the 1980s, Musharraf took his interest in populous, emerging rock music genre, and often listened to rock music after getting off from the duty. The 1980s, regarded as birth of Pakistan's rock music genre, Musharraf was reportedly into the popular Western fashion in the 1980s, which was very popular at the government and public circles, in the country at that time. While in the Army, he earned the nickname "Cowboy" for his westernized ways and his fashion interest in Western clothing.
    In 1987, he became a brigade commander of a new brigade of the SSG near Siachen Glacier.
    More Details Hide Details He was personally chosen by then-President and Chief of Army Staff general Zia-ul-Haq for this assignment due to Musharraf's wide experience in mountain and arctic warfare.
  • THIRTIES
  • 1979
    Age 35
    Sources from Pakistan claimed that Musharraf and his military government's officers were in full mood to exercise tough conditions on Sharif, and intended to send Navaz Sharif to gallows to face similar fate as Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in 1979.
    More Details Hide Details It was the pressure on Musharraf exerted by Saudi Arabia and the United States to exile Sharif after it became authenticated that the court is near to place her verdict on Navaz Sharif on his charges, and the court will sentenced Sharif to death.
    He did not play any significant role in Pakistan's proxy war in the 1979–89 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
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  • 1974
    Age 30
    Musharraf was a lieutenant colonel in 1974; and a colonel in 1978.
    More Details Hide Details As staff officer in the 1980s, he studied political science at NDU, and then briefly tenured as assistant professor of war studies at the Command and Staff College and then assistant professor of political science also at the National Defense University. One of his professor at NDU was general Jehangir Karamat who served Musharraf's guidance counselor and instructor who had significant influence on Musharraf's philosophy and critical thinking.
  • TWENTIES
  • 1971
    Age 27
    During the 1971 war, he was scheduled to depart to East-Pakistan to join the army-navy joint military operations, but instead his deployment did not materialize after Indian Army advances towards Southern Pakistan.
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    During the 1971 war with India, he was a company commander of a SSG commando battalion.
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  • 1968
    Age 24
    Musharraf married Sehba on 28 December 1968.
    More Details Hide Details Sehba is from Karachi. They have a daughter, Ayla, an architect married to film director Asim Raza, and a son, Bilal. Musharraf published his autobiography — In the Line of Fire: A Memoir — in 2006.
  • 1966
    Age 22
    He served in the SSG from 1966–1972.
    More Details Hide Details He was promoted to army captain and to major during this period.
  • 1965
    Age 21
    Shortly after the end of the War of 1965, he was selected to join the special force school by recommendation of his commanding officer in Sialkot.
    More Details Hide Details After passing the rigorous exams and physically tough training, he joined the elite Special Service Group (SSG) and then trained together with then-lieutenant Shahid Karimullah (also a four-star admiral) for the joint operations.
  • 1964
    Age 20
    Finally in 1964, Musharraf graduated with a Bachelor's degree in his class of 29th PMA Long Course together with Ali Kuli Khan and his lifelong friend Abdul Aziz Mirza.
    More Details Hide Details He was commissioned in the artillery regiment as second lieutenant and posted near the Indo-Pakistan border. During this time in the artillery regiment, Musharraf maintained his close friendship and contact with Mirza through letters and telephones even in difficult times when Mirza, after joining the Navy Special Service Group, was stationed in East-Pakistan as a military advisor to East Pakistan Army. His first battlefield experience was with an artillery regiment in the intense fighting for Khemkaran sector in the Second Kashmir War. He also participated in the Lahore and Sialkot war zones during the conflict. During the war, Musharraf developed a reputation for sticking to his post under shellfire. He received the Imtiazi Sanad medal for gallantry.
  • TEENAGE
  • 1961
    Age 17
    In 1961, at age of 18, Musharraf entered the prestigious Pakistan Military Academy at Kakul.
    More Details Hide Details During his college years at PMA and initial joint military testings, Musharraf shared a room with PQ Mehdi of PAF and Abdul Aziz Mirza of Navy (both reached four-star assignments and served with Musharraf later on) and after giving the exams and entrance interviews, all three cadets went to watch a world-acclaimed Urdu film, Savera (lit. Dawn), with his inter-services and college friends, Musharraf recalls, In the Line of Fire, published in 2006. With his friends, Musharraf passed the standardise, physical, psychological, and officer-training exams, he also took discussions involving the socioeconomics issues; all three were interviewed by joint military officers who were designated as Commandants. The next day, Musharraf along with PQ Mehdi and Mirza, reported to PMA and they were selected for their respective training in their arms of commission.
  • 1956
    Age 12
    In 1956 he left Turkey and returned to Pakistan in 1957 where he attended Saint Patrick's School in Karachi and was accepted at the Forman Christian College University in Lahore.
    More Details Hide Details At Forman, Musharraf declared his major in mathematics and performed extremely well in his collegiate mathematics, but later developed an interest in Economics.
  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1949
    Age 5
    Musharraf's family moved to Ankara in 1949, when his father became part of a diplomatic deputation from Pakistan to Turkey.
    More Details Hide Details He learned to speak Turkish. He had a dog named Whiskey that gave him a "lifelong love for dogs". He often played sports in his youth.
  • 1947
    Age 3
    Musharraf and his family left for Pakistan on one of the last safe trains in August 1947, a few days before independence.
    More Details Hide Details His father joined the Pakistan Civil Services and began to work for the Pakistan government; later, his father joined Foreign Ministry, taking up an assignment in Turkey. In his autobiography In the Line of Fire: A Memoir, Musharraf elaborates on his first experience with death, after falling off a mango tree.
  • 1943
    Born
    Pervez Musharraf was born on 11 August 1943, to an Urdu-speaking family in Delhi.
    More Details Hide Details He is the son of Syed and Zarin Musharraf. His father, Syed Musharraf, graduated from Aligarh Muslim University, in Aligarh, India and was a civil servant under Government Of India. His mother, Zarin, born in the early 1920s, also worked as an academic and graduated from Aligarh Muslim University. Musharraf's first childhood home was called 'neharwali haveli', literally 'house by the canal'. Syed Ahmed Khan's family lived next door. Indicative of "the family's western education and social prominence", the home's title deeds were written entirely in Urdu except for his father's English signature.
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