Pham Ngoc Thao
Provincial leader in South Vietnam
Pham Ngoc Thao
Colonel Phạm Ngọc Thảo, also known as Albert Thảo, a major provincial leader in South Vietnam and infiltrator of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam, was a communist agent of the Vietminh and later the Vietnam People's Army.
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Cà gai leo chữa được viêm gan? - XãLuận.com tin tức việt nam 24h cập nhật (lời tuyên bố phát cho các báo) (Blog)
Google News - over 5 years
Gần đây, nhiều người đang chung sống với bệnh viêm gan B kháo nhau về một loại sản phẩm thảo dược từ cà gai leo có thể trị khỏi 30% bệnh này. Họ còn nói đã có những công trình khoa học chứng minh hiệu quả của thuốc này. Điều này vừa đúng, lại vừa sai
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Đến KB Smooth Health Club Nói Chuyện Thực Phẩm Dinh Dưỡng Với Nữ Phóng Viên ... - Việt Báo Daily Online
Google News - over 5 years
Các sản phẩm thảo dược dinh dưỡng của Herbal Life. Thực ra thì Herbal Life đã là một tên tuổi lớn trong ngành thảo dược dinh dưỡng, đã có mặt 30 năm trên thị trường. Thảo dược của Herbal Life được uống dưới dạng như sinh tố, nhằm cung cấp đủ chất dinh
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Cảnh giác với biến chứng tim mạch ở người bệnh tiểu đường - Dân Trí
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Hiện nay những sản phẩm thảo dược để phòng ngừa, hỗ trợ điều trị cũng như phòng ngừa biến chứng là xu hướng đang rất được quan tâm. Điển hình trong đó là dược liệu Dây thìa canh. TS Trần Văn Ơn - Trưởng bộ môn Thực vật ĐH Dược Hà Nội cho biết,
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Bi kịch 10 nam nữ tuổi teen đưa nhau vào ngục tối - XãLuận.com tin tức việt nam 24h cập nhật
Google News - over 5 years
Do vậy, HĐXX đã xử phạt các bị cáo: Ngô Phạm Thảo Nguyên (SN 1990) tù chung thân, Võ Phúc Duy Lâm (SN 1992) 17 năm tù, Vũ Xuân Hậu (SN 1993) 15 năm tù, Trần Anh Khoa (SN 1994) 11 năm tù, Ngô Trần Duy (SN 1993,) 13 năm tù, Phan Thị Thảo Nhi (SN 1993) 6
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4 nước Châu Âu cấm nhà đầu tư bán khống cổ phiếu - Báo Hoà Bình
Google News - over 5 years
Bán khống cổ phiếu được cho là thủ phạm thao túng giá cổ phiếu và làm mất ổn định thị trường chứng khoán hiện nay. Bán khống cổ phiếu (short-selling) là khi nhà đầu tư vay mượn cổ phiếu hoặc trái phiếu rồi bán đi, sau đó khi thị trường sụt giá mua
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Giết nhầm người, 9 bị cáo trẻ nhận 1 án chung thân và 105 năm tù - Dân Trí
Google News - over 5 years
Theo cáo trạng, vào khoảng 17h ngày 4/4/2009, Phan Thảo Nhi cùng Phạm Thảo Uyên đến gặp Hường tại quán nhậu thịt chó của ông NVH trên đường Lê Lợi, TP Pleiku. Trước khi vào quán, Nhi nói với Hường là có một đứa con gái hẹn gặp mặt tại công viên,
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Nữ sinh rạch mặt bạn tại lớp học - Zing News
Google News - over 5 years
Khi được hỏi nguyên nhân của vụ việc, Thảo cho biết trong thời gian gần đây Trâm có hiểu nhầm Thảo là người đã cướp người yêu của Trâm. Sau đó Trâm nhiều lần viết bài với những từ ngữ khó nghe xúc phạm Thảo trên blog. Để giải quyết mâu thuẫn này,
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Mỹ đưa Formaldehyde vào danh sách chất gây ung thư - Báo Đất Việt
Google News - over 5 years
Loại axit này có thể khiến nhiều sản phẩm thảo dược để chữa viêm khớp, gút và các chứng sưng viêm trở nên độc hại. Các chất gây ung thư không phải lúc nào cũng gây ung thư. Điều đó phụ thuộc và thời gian và cách tiếp xúc, cũng như hệ gen của từng người
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Vitamin có thể nguy hiểm cho bệnh nhân ung thư - Báo Khoa học
Google News - over 5 years
Chương trình hỗ trợ điều trị (CAM) bao gồm một loạt các phương pháp điều trị như chế độ ăn đặc biệt, thiền định và các chế phẩm thảo dược. Thuật ngữ này cũng bao gồm các phương pháp điều trị lập dị khác. Hiện nay, việc uống bổ sung Vitamin nói chung
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Bệnh Lopus ban đỏ và cách phòng chống - Đài Truyền Hình Việt Nam
Google News - over 5 years
TS Phạm Văn Hiển cho biết, xu hướng điều trị lupus ban đỏ, vảy nến hiện nay là dùng sản phẩm thảo dược, ít tác dụng phụ, giúp tăng cường trao đổi thông tin giữa các tế bào, hỗ trợ điều trị, phòng ngừa căn nguyên của các bệnh này
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Chữa các bệnh trong mùa hè bằng thảo dược - Lao động
Google News - almost 6 years
Có nhiều loại hoa quả, thực phẩm (thảo dược) như: Giấm, tỏi, chuối, cây lô hội... có tác dụng chữa rất nhiều căn bệnh thường xuất hiện trong mùa hè nóng nực: Giải pháp: Giấm chứa acid acetic giống như thành phần có trong aspirin
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Tìm thấy “Viagra thảo dược” trong nhà Osama bin Laden - Dân Trí
Google News - almost 6 years
Đáng chú ý trong số các loại thuốc được tìm thấy có một loại xi-rô được chiết xuất từ cây yến mạch - sản phẩm thảo dược thường được ví là “Viagra nhiên nhiên”. Xi-rô này có hai công dụng là tăng cường ham muốn tình dục và điều trị bệnh dạ dày
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Tăng thị lực mắt được không? - Thanh Niên
Google News - almost 6 years
Để bào chế ra một chế phẩm thảo dược có hiệu quả điều trị tối đa và tính an toàn cao ngoài việc nguồn dược liệu phải được thu hái, trồng cấy theo quy chuẩn còn phải có một công nghệ tách chiết hiện đại và phù hợp. Công ty dược phẩm Hoàng Giang đã đầu
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Dịch vụ nào làm đẹp toàn diện điểm G? - VNExpress
Google News - almost 6 years
Tại spa y tế, các chuyên viên thẩm mỹ sẽ sử dụng một sản phẩm thảo dược được chiết xuất từ tự thiên nhiên, có tác dụng kích thích đàn hồi và co giãn tại tầng sinh môn. Đây là sản phẩm tự nhiên, có tác dụng tức thì chỉ sau vài giờ và không cần kiêng
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Tập đoàn Y dược Bảo Long phá sản hay phát triển? - Dân Trí
Google News - almost 6 years
Khi hợp tác với “Bảo Sơn” tại Hà Nội, “Bảo Long” vẫn còn riêng công ty Mỹ phẩm thảo dược Bảo Long và Công ty Đông Nam dược Bảo Long. Cả hai công ty này đều được Bộ Y tế cấp giấy phép sản xuất và sản phẩm rất có uy tín trên thương trường
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Một lô thuốc viên bao đường ích mẫu PV phải đình chỉ lưu hành - Lao động
Google News - almost 6 years
Theo thông báo ngày 25.4, Cục vừa nhận được báo cáo của Sở Y tế Khánh Hòa thông báo đình chỉ lưu hành viên bao đường ích mẫu PV, số kiểm soát 100710, hạn dùng 11/7/2013, số đăng ký V643-H12-10 của Công ty TNHH dược phẩm thảo Phúc Vinh sản xuất do không
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Pham Ngoc Thao
    FORTIES
  • 1965
    Age 43
    In 1965, he went into hiding after a failed attempt to seize power from Khanh and was sentenced to death in absentia.
    More Details Hide Details Although this coup also failed, the subsequent chaos forced Khanh's junta to collapse. Thảo died the same year he was forced into hiding; it is believed that he was murdered after a bounty was placed on his head. After Vietnam was reunified at the end of the Vietnam War, the victorious North Vietnamese communists claimed Thảo as one of their own and posthumously made him a one-star general. Born Phạm Ngọc Thuần, Thảo was one of eleven children of a northern Vietnamese Roman Catholic family. At the time, Vietnam was a French colony. The family held French citizenship but were anti-French; Thảo's father, an engineer, once headed an underground communist organisation in Paris, which assisted the Vietminh's anti-French pro-independence activities outside Vietnam. After attending French schools in Saigon, Thuần changed his named to Thảo and renounced his French citizenship. In his high school years at the Lycée Chasseloup-Laubat, Thảo met Truong Nhu Tang, who later became a high-ranking member of the Vietcong, a communist guerrilla organisation in South Vietnam. Tang described Thảo as "my dearest friend" and recalled that they had "spent endless hours talking about everything under the sun. We were closer than brothers."
    A communist report written in March 1965, soon after Thảo's revolt had caused Khanh to depart, stated that "The balance of force... has changed very rapidly in our favor....
    More Details Hide Details The bulk of the enemy's armed forces... have disintegrated, and what is left continues to disintegrate".
    Although Thảo's last plot failed, his activities in 1965 and the resultant infighting led to a series of internal purges within the ARVN.
    More Details Hide Details Amid the instability, the Vietcong made strong gains across the country throughout the year. In response to the deteriorating military situation, the Americans began to deploy combat troops to South Vietnam in large numbers. Thảo was posthumously promoted by the ARVN to the rank of one–star general and awarded the title of Heroic war dead. After the Fall of Saigon and the end of the Vietnam War, the communist government awarded him the same title and paid war pensions to his family, claiming him as one of their own. In 1981, the communists had his body exhumed and reburied in the "Patriots' cemetery" in Ho Chi Minh City (previously Saigon). Tang opined that Thảo "was a man who throughout his life fought single-mindedly for Vietnam's independence". Tang, who later abandoned communism, said that Thảo "was a nationalist, not an ideologue", and credited him with turning the military tide towards the communists by helping to bring down Diem and fomenting chronic instability and infighting for 18 months. Ho Chi Minh had reacted to Diem's death by saying "I can scarcely believe that the Americans would be so stupid".
    On 16 July 1965, he was reported dead in unclear circumstances; an official report claimed that he died of injuries while on a helicopter en route to Saigon, after being captured north of the city.
    More Details Hide Details However, it is generally assumed that he was murdered or tortured to death on the orders of some military officials. One report holds that a Catholic priest betrayed Thảo, while another claims that General Nguyen Van Thieu caught him. In his memoirs, Ky claimed that Thảo was captured by police in Saigon and "died in jail a few weeks later, probably from a beating". After the Fall of Saigon in 1975, a conspiracy theory emerged, maintaining that Thảo went underground and worked in counterintelligence for the communist Central Office of South Vietnam, helping to hunt down Vietcong cadres who had defected to Saigon.
    In May 1965, a military tribunal sentenced both Thảo and Phat to death in absentia.
    More Details Hide Details The death sentence was attributed to the influence of Thi, who had assigned hit squads to look for him. After the conclusion of the trial, it was announced that the Armed Forces Council would disband and give the civilians more control in running the government. Thi was believed to have agreed to the transfer of power to a civilian government in return for Thảo's death. As a result, Thảo had little choice but to attempt to seize power in order to save himself and he and Thi began to manoeuvre against one another. On 20 May, a half dozen officers and around forty civilians, predominantly Catholic, were arrested on the charges of attempting to assassinate Quat and kidnap Thi and Ky. Several of the arrested were known supporters of Thảo and believed to be abetting him in evading the authorities. Despite this, Thảo himself managed to escape, even as a USD 30,000 bounty was put on him by the junta.
    In mid-January 1965, the regime called for him to report to his superiors in the ARVN, warning that he would be "considered guilty of abandoning his post with all the consequences of such a situation" if he failed to do so.
    More Details Hide Details Due to his Catholicism, Thảo was able to recruit Diem loyalists such as Phat. With Khanh's hold on power shaky, an anonymous source said that Thảo was worried about how he would be treated if someone else took over: "Thao acted first, out of fear that if he did not, the other generals would overthrow Khanh and get rid of him as well. He knew that if the others overthrew Khanh his fate would be worse than Khanh's." During this time, Thảo also kept in touch with elements of the CIA in an attempt to get American backing. Meanwhile, Khiem had been putting pressure on Khanh for over two months by charging him and the Buddhists of seeking a "neutralist solution" and "negotiating with the communists". At the same time, Khanh's relationship with the Americans—particularly Ambassador and retired General Maxwell Taylor—had broken down over a series of policy disputes and personal arguments, and the Americans were trying to encourage Khanh's colleagues to overthrow him so that more hawkish policies could be enacted. The other generals wanted to overthrow Khanh and were aware that Thảo—who was widely distrusted—was planning to make a move. They anticipated trouble in trying to keep their subordinates, who were becoming impatient with Khanh's ongoing tenure, from joining Thảo. Between January and February, Thảo continued to finalize the details of his own counter-coup, using the contacts he had cultivated over the past decades.
  • 1964
    Age 42
    While in hiding in Catholic villages, Thảo expressed his willingness to surrender and cooperate with the government of Quat, if he and approximately fifty officers involved in the coup were granted amnesty. He also offered to go into exile in the United States, where his family had moved when he was sent there for training in 1964.
    More Details Hide Details
    In late December 1964, Thảo was summoned back to Saigon by Khanh, who correctly suspected him and Khiem of plotting together in Washington.
    More Details Hide Details Thảo suspected that Khanh was attempting to have him killed, so he went underground upon returning to Saigon, and began plotting in earnest, having been threatened with being charged for desertion. He sheltered in a house belonging to Tang's friend. The ruling junta appealed to Thảo in newspaper advertisements and broadcasts to follow orders to report, but he ignored them.
    In August 1964, Khanh's leadership became increasingly troubled after he tried to augment his powers by declaring a state of emergency.
    More Details Hide Details This only provoked large-scale protests and riots calling for an end to military rule, with Buddhist activists at the forefront. Fearful of losing power, Khanh began making concessions to the protesters and promised democracy in the near future, which encouraged more groups to demand changes. The net result was that Khanh was less powerful and had to demote some noted Catholic and Diem supporters. On 13 September, a Catholic-dominated group led by Generals Lam Van Phat and Duong Van Duc, both of whom had been demoted, moved troops into Saigon but then withdrew after it became obvious they did not have the numbers to remove Khanh. Khiem and Thảo were implicated in helping to plot Phat and Duc's attempted putsch and both were sent abroad by Khanh.
  • 1963
    Age 41
    In 1963, the Diem regime began to lose its tight control over the country as civil unrest spread as a result of the Buddhist crisis.
    More Details Hide Details Large scale demonstrations by the Buddhist majority erupted in response to the government shootings of nine Buddhists in Huế who were protesting against a ban on the flying of the Buddhist flag during Vesak, the birthday of Gautama Buddha. With Diem remaining intransigent in the face of Buddhist demands for religious equality, sections of society began calling for his removal from power. Thảo was part of the many plots that engulfed Saigon, destabilising the regime. Aiming for a 15 July coup, Tuyen consulted with Thảo regarding his plans, but Tuyen was too closely associated with Nhu to recruit the necessary military aid and he was subsequently exiled by Nhu. Tuyen's group ended up being led by Thảo but his initial coup plans were shelved when American CIA agent Lucien Conein instructed Thảo's superior, General Khiem, to stop the coup on the grounds that it was premature. Thảo's motivation for involvement in the plotting is generally attributed to communist instructions for him to cause infighting within the ARVN whenever possible. Thảo resumed plotting, intending to stage the coup on 24 October. He had recruited various infantry, marine and paratroop units for his scheme, totalling 3,000 men. Thảo's group did not carry out the coup after senior generals persuaded him to integrate his forces into their larger group, which was more likely to succeed. Thảo reasoned that aligning himself with a group of officers that were likely to successful would yield more influence in the resulting junta.
    Through intrigue, Thảo also helped destabilise and ultimately unseat two South Vietnamese regimes—Diem's and the military junta of Khanh. As the Diem regime began to unravel in 1963, Thảo was one of many officers who planned a coup.
    More Details Hide Details Although Thảo's plot was ultimately integrated into the successful plot, his activities promoted infighting which weakened the government and distracted the military from fighting the Vietcong insurgency. Throughout 1964 and 1965, as South Vietnam was struggling to establish a stable state after the ouster of Diem, Thảo was involved in several intrigues and coup plots which diverted the government and army's efforts from fighting the Vietcong and building the nation.
  • THIRTIES
  • 1960
    Age 38
    Thảo rose even further when the troops he commanded helped put down the November 1960 coup attempt against Diem.
    More Details Hide Details Thảo assisted Khanh and Tran Thien Khiem to put down the revolt. All three were promoted, with the latter pair gaining the leadership of the ARVN and of the combined forces, respectively. This cemented the trio's close ties. Thảo was promoted to the post of chief of Kien Hoa Province, which the communists called Ben Tre Province. He covertly worked with the cadres of Nguyen Thi Dinh, a Vietcong leader who later became the highest ranking female communist in post-war reunified Vietnam. The area was a traditional communist stronghold, and anti-government attacks had increased in recent times, but it suddenly became peaceful when Thảo arrived. There were rumours that Thảo and the communists had decided to cease fighting for their mutual benefit; the guerrillas could quietly strengthen themselves, while Thảo would appear to be successful and he would be promoted to a more powerful position where he could cause more damage to Diem. The lack of fighting between Thảos forces and the Vietcong proved to beneficial to the communist cause. In a three-month period in 1963, the Vietcong were able to recruit 2,000 men in Kien Hoa and formed two more battalions. Thảo was praised by the Ngo family and American military advisors, who were unaware of his ruse. He received another promotion, and with it, more influence and contacts among the officer corps.
  • 1957
    Age 35
    The American-backed Diem was a passionate anti-communist. In 1957, He initiated an "Anti-Communist Denunciation Campaign" to root out Vietminh members and their sympathisers.
    More Details Hide Details Thousands of people were killed or jailed, and in time Diem's campaigns created more sympathy for the Vietminh. Before 1960, various small-scale pro-Communist uprisings occurred in the countryside. Thảo went on the run and hid in Vinh Long, worried that Diem's men were after him. In December 1960, North Vietnam's Politburo authorised the creation of the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam, popularly known as the Vietcong. The Vietcong were dominated by communists, but portrayed itself as a nationalist militant organisation, stating its aim to be the "reunification of the fatherland" with the overthrow of the "disguised colonial regime of the U.S. imperialists and the dictatorial Ngo Dinh Diem administration". The creation of the Vietcong marked an escalation in the scale and organisation of the insurgency that developed into the Vietnam War. Thảo's Catholicism helped him to avoid detection as a communist. He and his brother were the only members of the family who were not anti-communist. The remainder of the relatives were followers of Diem's brother, Archbishop Ngo Dinh Thuc, who had been the Bishop of Vinh Long during the war against France. Thảo was also known to have a face that revealed nothing of his inner feelings.
  • 1954
    Age 32
    Following the French defeat in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu, Thảo helped evacuate communist fighters from South Vietnam and Cambodia in accordance with the terms of the Geneva Conference.
    More Details Hide Details Under these Accords, Vietnam was to be temporarily divided at the 17th parallel pending national elections to reunify the country in 1956, and military personnel were to be evacuated to their respective sides of the border. In the meantime, Ho's Vietminh controlled the north under the DRV while the south was under the French-sponsored State of Vietnam. However, Thảo remained in the anti-communist south when Vietnam was partitioned and made a show of renouncing communism. He became a schoolteacher and later worked in a bank, as well as the Department of Transport. He consistently refused to turn in the names of his former comrades, claiming that they were merely patriots fighting against the French and were not communists. At the same time, one of Thảo's brothers had been appointed as North Vietnam's ambassador to East Germany, having served as vice chairman of the Vietminh's Resistance Committee for the South during the war against the French. In October 1955, Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem ousted Emperor Bao Dai in a fraudulent referendum to determine the form of government of the State of Vietnam. "Republic" received almost 99% of the vote and "monarchy" received a little over 1%. Diem declared himself president of the newly proclaimed Republic of Vietnam. He scrapped the national elections, citing the fact that South Vietnam was not a signatory to the Accords of the Geneva Conference.
  • TWENTIES
  • 1949
    Age 27
    By 1949, Thảo was in charge of the Vietminh espionage apparatus around Saigon and organised the guerrilla companies in the countryside.
    More Details Hide Details Thảo was also involved in procuring arms. Filipino traders brought arms into southern Vietnam in return for rice, shrimp, pork, gold and banknotes.
  • 1947
    Age 25
    As a leader of the resistance, Thảo was allocated the responsibility of indoctrinating the 1947 batch of recruits with Vietminh ideology.
    More Details Hide Details One of Thảo's students was his future enemy, South Vietnamese General and President Nguyen Khanh. This group became the 410th Battalion and went on to fight near Cà Mau, the southernmost part of Vietnam.
  • 1946
    Age 24
    Thảo served with the Vietminh in the Mekong Delta in the far south of Vietnam during the war against French rule from 1946 to 1954.
    More Details Hide Details He almost met his end before he had started; he was apprehended by the local communists in Mỹ Tho, who saw his French-style dress and mistook him for a colonial agent. They tied him up and chained him to a block of stone before throwing him into a river to drown. However, Thảo broke free of the weight and swam to safety. Thảo proceeded further south and deeper into the Mekong Delta to the town of Vĩnh Long, where he was again arrested by the local Vietminh. Just as Thảo was about to be executed by drowning, one of the communists realised that Thảo was the brother of one of their comrades. Thảo was released and rejoined his family, who lived in the region.
  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1922
    Age 0
    Born in 1922.
    More Details Hide Details
Original Authors of this text are noted here.
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