Porfirio Díaz
President of Mexico
Porfirio Díaz
José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori was a volunteer in the Reform War and then a leader of the successful rebellion against French intervention, an accomplished general and the President of Mexico continuously from 1876 to 1911, with the exception of a brief term in 1876 when he left Juan N. Méndez as interim president, and a four-year term served by his political ally Manuel González from 1880 to 1884.
Biography
Porfirio Díaz's personal information overview.
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411 Countdown to The Simpsons 23rd Season: Top 50 Greatest Simpsons Songs (#40 ... - 411mania.com
Google News - over 5 years
In celebration of their upcoming 23rd season, 411's Porfirio Diaz takes a look back at what helped launch the series into the global yellow phenomenon of today: The Simpsons greatest musical hits! Check out the full article to see which Simpsons songs
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Movies/TV's 3R's 08.30.11: Walking Dead, Ghostbusters 3, Jim Carrey, Boardwalk ... - 411mania.com
Google News - over 5 years
From the latest Avengers spoiler video and The Walking Dead's new teasers to an update on Ghostbusters 3, and The Rock's wrestling TV show, Jim Carrey's video love letter to Emma Stone and more, 411's Porfirio Diaz breaks down the Right, wRong,
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Neto's Tucson: One migrant's trove of photos of early Tucson - Middle East North Africa Financial Network
Google News - over 5 years
As Tucson became home to Mexicans fleeing their country's revolution, he became active with mutual-aid groups such as the Porfirio Diaz Fraternal Organization and Alianza Hispana-Americana. It was Rodriguez's good fortune to meet a New York City
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411 Countdown to The Simpsons 23rd Season: Top 50 Greatest Simpsons Songs (#50 ... - 411mania.com
Google News - over 5 years
In celebration of their upcoming 23th season, 411's Porfirio Diaz takes a look back at what helped launch the series into the global yellow phenomenon of today: The Simpsons greatest musical hits! Check out the full article to see which Simpsons songs
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// 411 Fact or Fiction: Mark Henry Splits Wigs, Impact Fires Matt & Brings ... - 411mania.com
Google News - over 5 years
411's Porfirio Diaz, Mathew Sforcina & Tony Acero debate these topics and more in this week's 411 Fact or Fiction: Wrestling! Hi, hello & welcome to the Wrestling Edition of 411 Fact or Fiction! I'm Steve Cook, and it's been a huge week in the world of
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From The Publisher - Amandala
Google News - over 5 years
This probably began to change during the time of Porfirio Diaz in the last part of the nineteenth century. It was during the rule of Porfirio Diaz that the border between Mexico and British Honduras was demarcated by the Mariscal-Spenser Treaty in 1893
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Westbound Schuster Ramp Opens - KFOX El Paso
Google News - over 5 years
If you've tried to get off I-10 West and go to the University of Texas, in El Paso anytime in the last few months, you either exited on Porfirio Diaz and came down an access road or you missed UTEP altogether. As of Friday, one lane of the westbound
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Movies/TV's 3R's 08.16.11: The Avengers, Frank Darabont, George Lopez, Black ... - 411mania.com
Google News - over 5 years
From new set videos from The Avengers, the Black Dynamite cartoon and more leaked Dark Knight Rises videos to the truth behind Frank Darabont's Walking Dead firing and more, 411's Porfirio Diaz breaks down the Right, wRong, and Ridiculous from the week
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Mexico series set for wider audience - San Antonio Express
Google News - over 5 years
Produced to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Mexican Revolution, each episode tells family stories of escaping the violence spurred by dictator Porfirio Diaz. Hundreds of thousands of refugees came to the United States during that period
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Furniture Retailers Share Their Stories - Part 8 - Furniture World Magazine (press release)
Google News - over 5 years
Another revolution in not-so-far-away Mexico saw President Porfirio Diaz replaced by Francesco Madero. Visionary Roald Amundsen became the first man to reach the South Pole. The ancient Incan city of Machu Picchu was revealed to the world by American
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The Romneys in Mexico - Washington Post
Google News - over 5 years
GOP presidential hopeful Mitt Romney's family migrated to Mexico over 100 years ago after being granted asylum from Mexican President Porfirio Diaz after they had been pursued by the US authorities for polygamy. Virginia Hatch Romney watches her
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Conservationists grieve at urban destruction - Guadalajara Reporter (subscription)
Google News - over 5 years
... and Choistry went on to build other swanky homes, many of them for European entrepreneurs, who were treated like royalty in Guadalajara and given every kind of opportunity to increase their wealth under the regime of dictator Porfirio Diaz
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Exhibit a sweeping but patchy portrait of change in Mexico - San Francisco Examiner
Google News - over 5 years
Lastly, the reason for the Mexican Revolution — the revolt against President Porfirio Diaz's tyrannical rule and Zapata's call for land reform — is not given nearly as much space as the slaughter and maiming that resulted. One might be suspicious of
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Charlie Harper is dead, but Sheen Might Wins - MJB Star
Google News - over 5 years
Vinny's future with Jersey Shore and more, 411′s Porfirio Diaz breaks down the Right, wRong and Ridiculous from the week in, From the Batman: Year One trailer and Charlie Sheen getting a Comedy Central Roast to James Spider joining The Office
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Movies/TV's 3R's 07.12.11: Batman, Jersey Shore, David Hasselhoff, George ... - 411mania.com
Google News - over 5 years
From the Batman: Year One trailer and Charlie Sheen getting a Comedy Central Roast to James Spader joining The Office, Vinny's future with Jersey Shore and more, 411's Porfirio Diaz breaks down the Right, wRong, and Ridiculous from the week in
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Our favorite summer foods, explained - Salon
Google News - over 5 years
In 1891, the portly Francophile dictator Porfirio Diaz displayed his questionable taste by awarding Cuervo a gold medal for the excellence of its tequila. (Though to Diaz's credit, this was a long time ago. It's possible that Jose Cuervo was actually
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Movies/TV's 3R's 07.05.11: Transformers: Dark of the Moon, The Hobbit, Selena ... - 411mania.com
Google News - over 5 years
Filling in one last time for Porfirio Diaz is yours truly, Jeremy Wilson. I write film reviews for the sight and am part of the weekly Movies/TV Top 5 column organized by the excellent Trevor Snyder. So check all that out! It's been a bit of slow going
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Porfirio Díaz
    LATE_ADULTHOOD
  • 1915
    Age 84
    On 2 July 1915, Díaz died in exile in Paris.
    More Details Hide Details He is buried there in the Cimetière du Montparnasse (where Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir are also buried). He was survived by his second wife (María del Carmen Romero-Rubio Castelló, 1864–1944) and two of his children (Deodato Lucas Porfirio Díaz Ortega, 1873–1946, and Luz Aurora Victoria Díaz Ortega, 1875–1965). His other five children died as infants. His widow was allowed to return to Mexico in the 1940s under the presidency of Manuel Ávila Camacho. In 1938, the 430-piece collection of arms of the late General Porfirio Díaz was donated to the Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston, Ontario. The legacy of Díaz has undergone revision since the 1990s. In Díaz's lifetime before his ouster, there was an adulatory literature, which has been named "Porfirismo". The vast literature that characterizes him as a ruthless tyrant and dictator has its origins in the late period of Díaz's rule and has continued to shape Díaz's historical image. In recent years, however, Díaz's legacy has been re-evaluated by Mexican historians, most prominently by Enrique Krauze, in what has been termed "Neo-Porfirismo". As Mexico pursued a neoliberal path under President Carlos Salinas de Gortari, the modernizing policies of Díaz that opened Mexico up to foreign investment fit with the new pragmatism of the Institutional Revolutionary Party. Díaz was characterized as a far more benign figure for these revisionists.
  • 1911
    Age 80
    Díaz was forced from office and fled the country for Spain on May 31, 1911.
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  • 1910
    Age 79
    Ultimately, however, Díaz did not approve of Madero and had him jailed during the election in 1910.
    More Details Hide Details Despite what he had formerly said about democracy and change, sameness seemed to be the only reality. Despite this, the election went ahead. Madero had gathered much popular support, but when the government announced the official results, Díaz was proclaimed to have been re-elected almost unanimously, with Madero gathering only a minuscule number of votes. This case of massive electoral fraud aroused widespread anger throughout the Mexican citizenry. Madero called for revolt against Díaz, and the Mexican Revolution began.
  • 1909
    Age 78
    In 1909, Díaz and William Taft, the then president of the United States, planned a summit in El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, a historic first meeting between a U.S. president and a Mexican president and also the first time an American president would cross the border into Mexico.
    More Details Hide Details Díaz requested the meeting to show U.S. support for his planned eighth run as president, and Taft agreed to support Díaz in order to protect the several billion dollars of American capital then invested in Mexico. Both sides agreed that the disputed Chamizal strip connecting El Paso to Ciudad Juárez would be considered neutral territory with no flags present during the summit, but the meeting focused attention on this territory and resulted in assassination threats and other serious security concerns. The Texas Rangers, 4,000 U.S. and Mexican troops, U.S. Secret Service agents, FBI agents and U.S. marshals were all called in to provide security. An additional 250 private security detail led by Frederick Russell Burnham, the celebrated scout, were hired by John Hays Hammond, a close friend of Taft from Yale and a former candidate for U.S. Vice-President in 1908 who, along with his business partner Burnham, held considerable mining interests in Mexico. On October 16, the day of the summit, Burnham and Private C.R. Moore, a Texas Ranger, discovered a man holding a concealed palm pistol standing at the El Paso Chamber of Commerce building along the procession route. Burnham and Moore captured and disarmed the assassin within only a few feet of Díaz and Taft.
  • 1908
    Age 77
    On 17 February 1908, in an interview with the U.S. journalist James Creelman of Pearson's Magazine, Díaz stated that Mexico was ready for democracy and elections and that he would retire and allow other candidates to compete for the presidency.
    More Details Hide Details Without hesitation, several opposition and pro-government groups united to find suitable candidates who would represent them in the upcoming presidential elections. Many liberals formed clubs supporting the governor of Nuevo León, Bernardo Reyes, as a candidate for the presidency. Despite the fact that Reyes never formally announced his candidacy, Díaz continued to perceive him as a threat and sent him on a mission to Europe, so that he was not in the country for the elections.
  • FIFTIES
  • 1881
    Age 50
    When Díaz remarried in 1881, to Carmen Romero Rubio, the 17-year-old daughter of one of his advisors, Oaxaca cleric Father Eulogio Gillow gave his blessing.
    More Details Hide Details Gillow was later appointed archbishop of Oaxaca. Doña Carmen is credited with bringing Díaz into closer reconciliation with the Church, but Díaz was already inclined in that direction. This modus vivendi between Díaz and the Church had pragmatic and positive consequences. Díaz did not publicly renounce liberal anti-clericalism, meaning that the Constitution of 1857 remained in place, but neither did he enforce its anti-clerical measures. Conflict could reignite, but it was to the advantage of both Church and the Díaz government for this arrangement to continue. If the Church did counter Díaz, he had the constitutional means to rein in its power. The Church regained considerable economic power, with conservative intermediaries holding lands for it. The Church remained important in education and charitable institutions. Other important symbols of the normalization of religion in late 19th century Mexico included: the return of the Jesuits (expelled by the Bourbon monarchy in 1767); the crowning of the Virgin of Guadalupe as "Queen of Mexico"; and the support of Mexican bishops for Díaz's work as peacemaker. Not surprisingly, when the Mexican Revolution broke out in 1910, the Catholic Church was a staunch supporter of Díaz.
  • FORTIES
  • 1877
    Age 46
    When he came to power in 1877, Díaz left the anti-clerical laws in place, but no longer enforced them as state policy, leaving that to individual Mexican states.
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    Díaz did not take formal control of the presidency until the beginning of 1877, putting General Juan Méndez as provisional president, followed by new presidential elections in 1877 that gave Díaz the presidency.
    More Details Hide Details Ironically, one of his government's first amendments to the 1857 liberal constitution was to prevent re-election. Although the liberals had defeated the conservatives in the War of the Reform, the conservatives had been powerful enough still in the early 1860s to aid the imperial project of France that put Maximilian Habsburg as emperor of Mexico. With the fall of Maximilian, Mexican conservatives were cast as collaborators with foreign imperialists. With the return of the liberals under Benito Juárez, and following his death, liberals held power, but basic liberal goals of democracy, rule of law, and economic development were not reached. Díaz saw his task in his term as president to create internal order so that economic development could be possible. As a military hero and astute politician, Díaz's eventual successful establishment of that peace (Pax Porfiriana) became "one of Díaz's principal achievements, and it became the main justification for successive re-elections after 1884."
    Finally, on 12 May 1877, Díaz was elected president of Mexico for the first time.
    More Details Hide Details His campaign of "no re-election", however, came to define his control over the state for more than thirty years.
  • 1876
    Age 45
    In November 1876, Díaz occupied Mexico City, Lerdo left Mexico for exile in New York.
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    In 1876, Díaz issued the Plan of Tuxtepec (a town in Oaxaca) as a call to arms against Lerdo, who was running for another presidential term. Lerdo was re-elected in July 1876, but rebellion and unrest both before and after the election forced Lerdo from office.
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  • 1875
    Age 44
    Díaz saw an opportunity to plot a more successful rebellion, leaving Mexico in 1875 for New Orleans and Brownsville, Texas with his political ally Manuel González.
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  • 1874
    Age 43
    In 1874, Díaz served in the legislature, representing Veracruz.
    More Details Hide Details Opposition to the presidency of Lerdo grew, particularly as anti-clericalism increased, labor unrest grew, and a major rebellion of the Yaqui in northwest Mexico under the leadership of Cajeme challenged central government rule there.
    In 1874, he was elected to Congress from Veracruz.
    More Details Hide Details That year, Lerdo de Tejada's government faced civil and military unrest, and offered Díaz the position of ambassador to Germany, which he refused. In 1875, Díaz traveled to New Orleans and Brownsville, Texas to plan a rebellion, which was launched in Ojitlan, Oaxaca, on 10 January 1876 as the "Plan de Tuxtepec". Díaz continued to be an outspoken citizen and led a second revolt against Lerdo de Tejada in 1876. This attempt also failed and Díaz fled to the United States of America. His fight, however, was far from over. Several months later, in November 1876, Díaz returned to Mexico and fought the Battle of Tecoac, where he defeated the government forces once and for all (on 16 November).
  • 1872
    Age 41
    Following the death of Juárez in 1872, his vice president Lerdo became president.
    More Details Hide Details Lerdo offered amnesty to rebels, which Díaz accepted and took up residency in Veracruz.
  • 1871
    Age 40
    When Félix Díaz had to flee Oaxaca City in 1871 following Porfirio's failed coup against Juárez, Félix ended up in Juchitán, where the villagers killed him, doing to his body even worse than he did to their saint.
    More Details Hide Details Having lost a brother to the fury of religious peasants, Díaz had a cautionary tale about the dangers of enforcing anti-clericalism. Even so, it is clear that Díaz wanted to remain in good standing with the Church. In 1879, when his wife died in childbirth, he wrote a private letter to Church officials renouncing the Laws of the Reform, which allowed his wife to be buried with Catholic rites on sacred ground.
    In response, Díaz launched the Plan de la Noria on 8 November 1871, supported by a number of rebellions across the nation, including one by Manuel González of Tamaulipas, but this rebellion failed.
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    In 1871, he made claims of fraud in the July elections won by Juárez, who was confirmed as president by the Congress in October.
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  • THIRTIES
  • 1870
    Age 39
    In 1870, Díaz ran as a presidential candidate against President Juárez and Vice President Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada.
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  • 1868
    Age 37
    When Juárez became the president of Mexico in 1868 and began to restore peace, Díaz resigned his military command and went home to Oaxaca.
    More Details Hide Details However, it did not take long before the energetic Díaz became unhappy with the Juárez administration. In 1871, Díaz led a revolt against the re-election of Juárez. In March 1872, Díaz's forces were defeated in the battle of La Bufa in Zacatecas. Following Juárez's death on 9 July of that year, Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada assumed the presidency and offered amnesty to the rebels. Díaz accepted in October and "retired" to the Hacienda de la Candelaria in Tlacotalpan, Veracruz. However, he remained very popular among the people of Mexico.
  • 1867
    Age 36
    Following the fall of the Second Empire in 1867, liberal presidents Benito Juárez and his successor Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada began implementing the anti-clerical measures of the constitution.
    More Details Hide Details Lerdo went further, extending the laws of the Reform to formalize: separation of Church and State; civil marriage as the only valid manner for State recognition; prohibitions of religious corporations to acquire real estate; elimination from legal oaths any religious element, but only a declaration to tell the truth; and the elimination of monastic vows as legally binding. Further prohibitions on the Church in 1874 included: the exclusion of religion in public institutions; restriction of religious acts to church precincts; banning of religious garb in public except within churches; and prohibition of the ringing of church bells except to summon parishioners. Díaz was a political pragmatist and not an ideologue, likely seeing that the religious question re-opened political discord in Mexico. When he rebelled against Lerdo, Díaz had at least the tacit and perhaps even the explicit support of the Church.
    Finally, on 2 April 1867, he went on to win the final battle for Puebla.
    More Details Hide Details Five days later, Díaz married Delfina Ortega Díaz (1845–1880), the daughter of his sister Manuela Josefa Díaz Mori (1824–1856). Díaz and his niece would have seven children, but Delfina died due to complications of her seventh delivery.
    In 1867, Emperor Maximilian offered Díaz the command of the army and the imperial rendition to the liberal cause.
    More Details Hide Details Díaz refused both.
  • 1866
    Age 35
    Also in 1866, Marshal Bazaine, commander of the Imperial forces, offered to surrender Mexico City to Díaz if he withdrew support of Juárez.
    More Details Hide Details Díaz declined the offer.
    In 1866, Díaz formally declared loyalty.
    More Details Hide Details That same year, he earned victories in Nochixtlán, Miahuatlán, and La Carbonera, and once again captured Oaxaca. He was then promoted to general.
  • 1865
    Age 34
    In 1865, he was captured by the Imperial forces in Oaxaca.
    More Details Hide Details He escaped and fought the battles of Tehuitzingo, Piaxtla, Tulcingo and Comitlipa.
  • 1863
    Age 32
    In 1863, Díaz was captured by the French Army.
    More Details Hide Details He escaped and was offered by President Benito Juárez the positions of secretary of defense or army commander in chief. He declined both, but took an appointment as commander of the Central Army. That same year, he was promoted to the position of Division General. In 1864, the conservatives supporting Emperor Maximilian asked him to join the Imperial cause. Díaz declined the offer.
  • TWENTIES
  • 1855
    Age 24
    In 1855, Díaz joined a band of liberal guerrillas who were fighting Santa Anna's government.
    More Details Hide Details After the ousting and exile of Santa Anna, Díaz was rewarded with a post in Ixtlán, Oaxaca that gave him valuable practical experience as an administrator. Díaz’s military career is most noted for his service in the Reform War and the struggle against the French. By the time of the Battle of Puebla (5 May 1862), Mexico's great victory over the French when they first invaded, General Díaz had become the general in charge of an infantry brigade. During the Battle of Puebla, his brigade was placed in the center between the forts of Loreto and Guadalupe. From there, he successfully repelled a French infantry attack that was sent as a diversion to distract the Mexican commanders' attention from the forts that were the main target of the French army. In violation of the orders of General Ignacio Zaragoza, General Díaz and his unit fought off a larger French force and then chased after them. Despite Díaz’s inability to share control, General Zaragoza commended the actions of General Díaz during the battle as "brave and notable".
  • 1853
    Age 22
    When Antonio López de Santa Anna returned to power via coup d'état in 1853, he suspended the 1824 constitution and persecuted liberals.
    More Details Hide Details At this point, Díaz had aligned himself with radical liberals (rojos), such as Benito Juárez. Juárez was forced into exile in New Orleans; Díaz supported the liberal Plan de Ayutla that called for the ouster of Santa Anna. Díaz evaded an arrest warrant and fled to the mountains of northern Oaxaca, where he joined the rebellion of Juan Álvarez.
  • TEENAGE
  • 1849
    Age 18
    In 1849, over family objections Díaz abandoned his ecclesiastical career and entered the Instituto de Ciencias and studied law.
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  • 1846
    Age 15
    Also in 1846, Díaz came into contact with a leading Oaxaca liberal, Marcos Pérez, who taught at the secular Institute of Arts and Sciences in Oaxaca.
    More Details Hide Details Another student there was had been Benito Juárez, who became governor of Oaxaca in 1847. Díaz met Juárez that year.
    He was offered a post as a priest in 1846, but important national events intervened.
    More Details Hide Details Seminary students volunteered as soldiers to repel the U.S. invasion during the Mexican–American War. Despite not seeing action, Díaz decided his future was in the military, not the priesthood.
  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1833
    Age 2
    Despite the family's difficult circumstances following Díaz's father's death in 1833, Díaz was sent to school at age 6.
    More Details Hide Details In the early independence period, the choice of professions was narrow: lawyer, priest, physician, military. The Díaz family was devoutly religious, and Díaz began training for the priesthood at the age of fifteen when his mother, María Petrona Mori Cortés, sent him to the Colegio Seminario Conciliar de Oaxaca.
  • 1830
    Born
    Porfirio Díaz was the sixth of seven children, baptized on 15 September 1830, in Oaxaca, Mexico, but his actual date of birth is unknown.
    More Details Hide Details September 15 is an important date in Mexican history, the eve of the date hero of independence Miguel Hidalgo issued his call for independence in 1810; when Díaz became president, the independence anniversary was commemorated on September 15 rather than the 16th, a practice that continues to the present era. Díaz was a castizo (mostly european with some indigenous) His mother, Petrona Mori (or Mory) was the daughter of a man whose father had immigrated from Spain and Tecla Cortés, an indigenous woman; Díaz's father was a Criollo. There is confusion about his father's name, which is listed on the baptismal certificate as José de la Cruz Díaz, but is also known as José Faustino Díaz, who was a modest innkeeper and died of cholera when his son was three.
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