Albert, Prince Consort
Prince Consort of the United Kingdom
Albert, Prince Consort
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was the husband of Queen Victoria of Great Britain and Ireland. He was born in the Saxon duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld to a family connected to many of Europe's ruling monarchs. At the age of 20 he married his first cousin, Queen Victoria, with whom he would ultimately have nine children.
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I.H.T. SPECIAL REPORT: A CUT ABOVE: YACHTING; For Superyachts, the Bigger the Better
NYTimes - over 5 years
PARIS — Owned by the Russian billionaire Roman A. Abramovich, the aptly named Eclipse, the world’s largest superyacht, was moored off the coast of Antibes for days this summer, too big to maneuver into Port Vauban’s famed Quai des Milliardaires, the nautical equivalent of Billionaire’s Row. Impressive as it may be,
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Exhibition of Victoria & Albert Museum Hats
NYTimes - over 5 years
STEPHEN JONES is as close to a rock star as a milliner can be. In addition to designing his own marvelous hats, he has provided headgear to a bunch of designers: Marc Jacobs, Rei Kawakubo, L’Wren Scott. When asked to organize a hat exhibition at the Victoria & Albert Museum in London, from its archives, even Mr. Jones was a little awed.
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EXCERPT; Excerpt - Just One Catch - By Tracy Daugherty
NYTimes - over 5 years
1. Domestic Engagements SAN ANGELO, TEXAS, in April 1945 was home to over five million sheep, and considered itself the inland wool capital of the United States. It was among the nation’s largest mohair producers, served by the Santa Fe Railroad, which hauled the city’s wool products across the country and brought in over one million
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Still no prelim date - Regina Leader-Post
Google News - over 5 years
Anna Marie Rose Wilkes, 29, appeared at Regina Provincial Court Wednesday by closed-circuit television from Prince Albert, where she's been remanded at Pine Grove Correctional Centre since her arrest in May. Barring a successful appeal of a judge's
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Prince Albert police chief becomes president of CACP - News Talk 980 CJME
Google News - over 5 years
Prince Albert Chief of Police Dale McFee has been elected as the new president of the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police (CACP). McFee was unanimously supported by the membership of the CACP during its annual general meeting in Windsor,
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Raiders new imports arrive in Prince Albert - Prince Albert Daily Herald
Google News - over 5 years
Raiders' Latvian prospect Kristaps Bazevics defends the zone during his first skate since arriving in Prince Albert. Herald photo by Gary Pearson --PRINCE ALBERT-- The Prince Albert Raiders welcomed their two first-round picks from the 2011 Central
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Feds, province, funding new affordable housing project in Prince Albert - Global Saskatoon
Google News - over 5 years
The Governments of Canada and Saskatchewan are a funding new affordable senior housing project in Prince Albert. The Canadian and Saskatchewan governments jointly announced on Tuesday they will help fund a new affordable senior housing project in
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Prince Albert sport photos in review - Prince Albert Daily Herald
Google News - over 5 years
Herald photo by Gary Pearson A glimpse of sporting action in and around Prince Albert over the last six weeks. This form is NOT used for emailing the article to a friend. The Prince Albert Daily Herald is not responsible for posted comments
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Prince Albert people prepare to go to new African nation - 650 CKOM News Talk Radio
Google News - over 5 years
People in Prince Albert are celebrating with residents of Southern Sudan as they celebrate their new independence on Friday. There are two Saskatchewan organizations involved in a project in the newly-formed African nation — CHAKAM, from Prince Albert
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2 Sex Offenders Still Unaccounted For - Saskatoonhomepage.ca
Google News - over 5 years
RCMP believe 38 year old Ashley Martin Ballantyne to be in Prince Albert or the Red Earth Area. And 46 year old Cecil Lavern Sheepskin could be in Regina or North Battleford. The public is asked to contact the RCMP with any information the whereabouts
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Prince Albert II and Princess Charlene of Monaco arrive in South Africa - CBS News
Google News - over 5 years
Princess Charlene and Prince Albert II of Monaco pose prior to the opening ceremony of the 123rd IOC session on July 5, 2011, in Durban, South Africa. (CBS) Prince Albert II and Princess Charlene of Monaco arrived in the princess' home country of South ... - -
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Albert, Prince Consort
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  • 1861
    Albert died at 10:50 p.m. on 14 December 1861 in the Blue Room at Windsor Castle, in the presence of the Queen and five of their nine children.
    More Details Hide Details The contemporary diagnosis was typhoid fever, but modern writers have pointed out that Albert was ill for at least two years before his death, which may indicate that a chronic disease, such as Crohn's disease, renal failure, or abdominal cancer, was the cause of death. The Queen's grief was overwhelming, and the tepid feelings the public had felt previously for Albert were replaced by sympathy. Victoria wore black in mourning for the rest of her long life, and Albert's rooms in all his houses were kept as they had been, even with hot water brought in the morning, and linen and towels changed daily. Such practices were not uncommon in the houses of the very rich. Victoria withdrew from public life and her seclusion eroded some of Albert's work in attempting to re-model the monarchy as a national institution setting a moral, if not political, example. Albert is credited with introducing the principle that the British royal family should remain above politics. Before his marriage to Victoria, she supported the Whigs; for example, early in her reign Victoria managed to thwart the formation of a Tory government by Sir Robert Peel by refusing to accept substitutions which Peel wanted to make among her ladies-in-waiting.
    The last public event he presided over was the opening of the Royal Horticultural Gardens on 5 June 1861.
    More Details Hide Details In August, Victoria and Albert visited the Curragh Camp, Ireland, where the Prince of Wales was doing army service. At the Curragh, the Prince of Wales was introduced, by his fellow officers, to Nellie Clifden, an Irish actress. By November, Victoria and Albert had returned to Windsor, and the Prince of Wales had returned to Cambridge, where he was a student. Two of Albert's cousins, King Pedro V and Prince Ferdinand of Portugal, died of typhoid fever. On top of this news, Albert was informed that gossip was spreading in gentlemen's clubs and the foreign press that the Prince of Wales was still involved with Nellie Clifden. Albert and Victoria were horrified by their son's indiscretion, and feared blackmail, scandal or pregnancy. Although Albert was ill and at a low ebb, he travelled to Cambridge to see the Prince of Wales on 25 November to discuss his son's indiscreet affair. In his final weeks Albert suffered from pains in his back and legs.
  • 1860
    During a trip to Coburg in the autumn of 1860 he was driving alone in a carriage drawn by four horses that suddenly bolted.
    More Details Hide Details As the horses continued to gallop toward a stationary wagon waiting at a railway crossing, Albert jumped for his life from the carriage. One of the horses was killed in the collision, and Albert was badly shaken, though his only physical injuries were cuts and bruises. He told his brother and eldest daughter that he sensed his time had come.
  • 1859
    Albert was seriously ill with stomach cramps in August 1859.
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    Recognised as a supporter of education and technological progress, he was invited to speak at scientific meetings, such as the memorable address he delivered as president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science when it met at Aberdeen in 1859.
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  • 1858
    He felt keenly the departure of his eldest daughter for Prussia when she married her fiancé at the beginning of 1858, and was disappointed that his eldest son, the Prince of Wales, did not respond well to the intense educational programme that Albert had designed for him.
    More Details Hide Details At the age of seven, the Prince of Wales was expected to take six hours of instruction, including an hour of German and an hour of French every day. When the Prince of Wales failed at his lessons, Albert caned him. Corporal punishment was common at the time, and was not thought unduly harsh. Albert's biographer Roger Fulford wrote that the relationships between the family members were "friendly, affectionate and normal... there is no evidence either in the Royal Archives or in the printed authorities to justify the belief that the relations between the Prince and his eldest son were other than deeply affectionate." Philip Magnus wrote in his biography of Albert's eldest son that Albert "tried to treat his children as equals; and they were able to penetrate his stiffness and reserve because they realised instinctively not only that he loved them but that he enjoyed and needed their company."
  • 1857
    Albert involved himself in promoting many public educational institutions. Chiefly at meetings in connection with these he spoke of the need for better schooling. A collection of his speeches was published in 1857.
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  • 1853
    Palmerston was manoeuvred out of the cabinet in December 1853, but at about the same time a Russian fleet attacked the Ottoman fleet at anchor at Sinop.
    More Details Hide Details The London press depicted the attack as a criminal massacre, and Palmerston's popularity surged as Albert's fell. Within two weeks, Palmerston was re-appointed as a minister. As public outrage at the Russian action continued, false rumours circulated that Albert had been arrested for treason and was being held prisoner in the Tower of London. By March 1854, Britain and Russia were embroiled in the Crimean War. Albert devised a master-plan for winning the war by laying siege to Sevastopol while starving Russia economically, which became the Allied strategy after the Tsar decided to fight a purely defensive war. Early British optimism soon faded as the press reported that British troops were ill-equipped and mismanaged by aged generals using out-of-date tactics and strategy. The conflict dragged on as the Russians were as poorly prepared as their opponents. The Prime Minister, Lord Aberdeen, resigned and Palmerston succeeded him. A negotiated settlement eventually put an end to the war with the Treaty of Paris. During the war, Albert arranged to marry his fourteen-year-old daughter, Victoria, to Prince Frederick William of Prussia, though Albert delayed the marriage until Victoria was seventeen. Albert hoped that his daughter and son-in-law would be a liberalising influence in the enlarging Prussian state.
  • 1852
    In 1852, a timely legacy from eccentric miser John Camden Neild made it possible for Albert to obtain the freehold of Balmoral, and as usual he embarked on an extensive program of improvements.
    More Details Hide Details The same year, he was appointed to several of the offices left vacant by the death of the Duke of Wellington, including the mastership of Trinity House and the colonelcy of the Grenadier Guards. With Wellington out of the picture, Albert was able to propose and campaign for modernisation of the army, which was long overdue. Thinking that the military was unready for war, and that Christian rule was preferable to Islamic rule, Albert counselled a diplomatic solution to conflict between the Russian and Ottoman empires. Palmerston was more bellicose, and favoured a policy that would prevent further Russian expansion.
  • 1851
    Albert served as president of the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851, and had to fight for every stage of the project.
    More Details Hide Details In the House of Lords, Lord Brougham fulminated against the proposal to hold the exhibition in Hyde Park. Opponents of the exhibition prophesied that foreign rogues and revolutionists would overrun England, subvert the morals of the people, and destroy their faith. Albert thought such talk absurd and quietly persevered, trusting always that British manufacturing would benefit from exposure to the best products of foreign countries. The Queen opened the exhibition in a specially designed and built glass building known as the Crystal Palace on 1 May 1851. It proved a colossal success. A surplus of £180,000 was used to purchase land in South Kensington on which to establish educational and cultural institutions—including the Natural History Museum, Science Museum, Imperial College London and what would later be named the Royal Albert Hall and the Victoria and Albert Museum. The area was referred to as "Albertopolis" by sceptics.
    The Great Exhibition of 1851 arose from the annual exhibitions of the Society of Arts, of which Albert was President from 1843, and owed most of its success to his efforts to promote it.
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    He was heavily involved with the organisation of the Great Exhibition of 1851, which was a resounding success.
    More Details Hide Details As the Queen depended more and more on his help and guidance, Albert aided in the development of Britain's constitutional monarchy by persuading his wife to show less partisanship in her dealings with Parliament—although he actively disagreed with the interventionist foreign policy pursued during Lord Palmerston's tenure as Foreign Secretary. He died at the relatively young age of forty-two, plunging the Queen into a deep mourning that lasted for the rest of her life. Upon Queen Victoria's death in 1901, their eldest son, Edward VII, succeeded as the first British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, named after the ducal house to which Albert belonged. Albert was born at Schloss Rosenau, near Coburg, Germany, the second son of Ernest III, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, and his first wife, Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. Albert's future wife, Victoria, was born earlier in the same year with the assistance of the same midwife.
  • 1848
    In May the following year, Albert leased Balmoral, which he had never visited, and in September 1848 he, his wife and the older children went there for the first time. They came to relish the privacy it afforded. Revolutions spread throughout Europe in 1848 as the result of a widespread economic crisis.
    More Details Hide Details Throughout the year, Victoria and Albert complained about Foreign Secretary Palmerston's independent foreign policy, which they believed destabilised foreign European powers further. Albert was concerned for many of his royal relatives, a number of whom were deposed. He and Victoria, who gave birth to their daughter Louise during that year, spent some time away from London in the relative safety of Osborne. Although there were sporadic demonstrations in England, no effective revolutionary action took place, and Albert even gained public acclaim when he expressed paternalistic, yet well-meaning and philanthropic, views. In a speech to the Society for the Improvement of the Condition of the Labouring Classes, of which he was President, he expressed his "sympathy and interest for that class of our community who have most of the toil and fewest of the enjoyments of this world". It was the "duty of those who, under the blessings of Divine Providence, enjoy station, wealth, and education" to assist those less fortunate than themselves. A man of progressive and relatively liberal ideas, Albert not only led reforms in university education, welfare, the royal finances and slavery, he had a special interest in applying science and art to the manufacturing industry.
  • 1847
    In 1847, Albert was elected Chancellor of the University of Cambridge after a close contest with the Earl of Powis, who was killed accidentally by his own son during a pheasant shoot the following year.
    More Details Hide Details Albert used his position as Chancellor to campaign successfully for reformed and more modern university curricula, expanding the subjects taught beyond the traditional mathematics and classics to include modern history and the natural sciences. That summer, Victoria and Albert spent a rainy holiday in the west of Scotland at Loch Laggan, but heard from their doctor, Sir James Clark, that his son had enjoyed dry, sunny days farther east at Balmoral Castle. The tenant of Balmoral, Sir Robert Gordon, died suddenly in early October, and Albert began negotiations to take over the lease from the owner, the Earl Fife.
  • 1846
    Unlike many landowners who approved of child labour and opposed Peel's repeal of the Corn Laws, Albert supported moves to raise working ages and free up trade. In 1846, Albert was rebuked by Lord George Bentinck when he attended the debate on the Corn Laws in the House of Commons to give tacit support to Peel.
    More Details Hide Details During Peel's premiership, Albert's authority behind, or beside, the throne became more apparent. He had access to all the Queen's papers, was drafting her correspondence and was present when she met her ministers, or even saw them alone in her absence. The clerk of the Privy Council, Charles Greville, wrote of him: "He is King to all intents and purposes."
  • 1844
    By 1844, Albert had managed to modernise the royal finances and, through various economies, had sufficient capital to purchase Osborne House on the Isle of Wight as a private residence for their growing family.
    More Details Hide Details Over the next few years a house modelled in the style of an Italianate villa was built to the designs of Albert and Thomas Cubitt. Albert laid out the grounds, and improved the estate and farm. Albert managed and improved the other royal estates; his model farm at Windsor was admired by his biographers, and under his stewardship the revenues of the Duchy of Cornwall—the hereditary property of the Prince of Wales—steadily increased.
    In early 1844, Victoria and Albert were apart for the first time since their marriage when he returned to Coburg on the death of his father.
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  • 1842
    Albert and Victoria were shot at again on both 29 and 30 May 1842, but were unhurt.
    More Details Hide Details The culprit, John Francis, was detained and condemned to death, although he was later reprieved. Some of their early unpopularity came about because of their stiffness and adherence to protocol in public, though in private the couple were more easy-going.
  • 1841
    After the 1841 general election, Melbourne was replaced as Prime Minister by Sir Robert Peel, who appointed Albert as chairman of the Royal Commission in charge of redecorating the new Palace of Westminster.
    More Details Hide Details The Palace had burned down seven years before, and was being rebuilt. As a patron and purchaser of pictures and sculpture, the commission was set up to promote the fine arts in Britain. The commission's work was slow, and the architect, Charles Barry, took many decisions out of the commissioners' hands by decorating rooms with ornate furnishings that were treated as part of the architecture. Albert was more successful as a private patron and collector. Among his notable purchases were early German and Italian paintings—such as Lucas Cranach the Elder's Apollo and Diana and Fra Angelico's St Peter Martyr—and contemporary pieces from Franz Xaver Winterhalter and Edwin Landseer. Ludwig Gruner, of Dresden, assisted Albert in buying pictures of the highest quality.
    In early 1841, he successfully removed the nursery from Lehzen's pervasive control, and in September 1842, Lehzen left Britain permanently—much to Albert's relief.
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  • 1840
    Upon his marriage to Queen Victoria in 1840, Prince Albert was granted his own personal coat of arms, which was the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom differenced with a three-point label bearing a red cross in the centre, quartered with the arms of Saxony.
    More Details Hide Details The blazon is written as: "Quarterly, 1st and 4th, the Royal Arms, with overall a label of three points Argent charged on the centre with cross Gules; 2nd and 3rd, Barry of ten Or and Sable, a crown of rue in bend Vert". The Prince's peculiar arms was a "singular example of quartering differenced arms, which is not in accordance with the rules of Heraldry, and is in itself an heraldic contradiction." Prior to his marriage he used the arms of his father, undifferenced, following German practice. On his stallplate as a Knight of the Garter his coat of arms is ensigned by a royal crown and shows the six crests of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha; these are from left to right: 1. "A bull's head caboshed Gules armed and ringed Argent, crowned Or, the rim chequy Gules and Argent" for Mark. 2. "Out of a coronet Or, two buffalo's horns Argent, attached to the outer edge of each five branches fesswise each with three linden leaves Vert" for Thuringia. 3. "Out of a coronet Or, a pyramidal chapeau charged with the arms of Saxony ensigned by a plume of peacock's feathers Proper out of a coronet also Or" for Saxony. 4. "A bearded man in profile couped below the shoulders clothed paly Argent and Gules, the pointed coronet similarly paly terminating in a plume of three peacock's feathers" for Meissen. 5. "A demi griffin displayed Or, winged Sable, collared and langued Gules" for Jülich. 6. "Out of a coronet Or, a panache of peacock's feathers Proper" for Berg.
    Albert was gaining public support as well as political influence, which showed itself practically when, in August, Parliament passed the Regency Act 1840 to designate him regent in the event of Victoria's death before their child reached the age of majority.
    More Details Hide Details Their first child, Victoria, named after her mother, was born in November. Eight other children would follow over the next seventeen years. All nine children survived to adulthood, a fact which biographer Hermione Hobhouse credited to Albert's "enlightened influence" on the healthy running of the nursery.
    In June 1840, while on a public carriage ride, Albert and the pregnant Victoria were shot at by Edward Oxford, who was later judged insane.
    More Details Hide Details Neither Albert nor Victoria was hurt and Albert was praised in the newspapers for his courage and coolness during the attack.
  • 1839
    Albert and Victoria felt mutual affection and the Queen proposed to him on 15 October 1839. Victoria's intention to marry was declared formally to the Privy Council on 23 November, and the couple married on 10 February 1840 at the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace.
    More Details Hide Details Just before the marriage, Albert was naturalised by Act of Parliament, and granted the style of Royal Highness by an Order in Council. Initially Albert was not popular with the British public; he was perceived to be from an impoverished and undistinguished minor state, barely larger than a small English county. The British Prime Minister, Lord Melbourne, advised the Queen against granting her husband the title of "King Consort". Parliament even refused to make Albert a peer—partly because of anti-German sentiment and a desire to exclude Albert from any political role. Albert's religious views provided a small amount of controversy when the marriage was debated in Parliament: although as a member of the Lutheran Evangelical Church Albert was a Protestant, the non-Episcopal nature of his church was considered worrisome. More concerning however, was that some of Albert's family were Roman Catholic. Melbourne led a minority government and the opposition took advantage of the marriage to weaken his position further. They opposed the ennoblement of Albert and granted him a smaller annuity than previous consorts, £30,000 instead of the usual £50,000. Albert claimed that he had no need of a British peerage; he wrote, "It would almost be a step downwards, for as a Duke of Saxony, I feel myself much higher than a Duke of York or Kent". For the next seventeen years, Albert was formally titled "HRH Prince Albert" until, on 25 June 1857, Victoria formally granted him the title Prince Consort.
    Albert returned to the United Kingdom with Ernest in October 1839 to visit the Queen, with the object of settling the marriage.
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  • 1836
    Leopold arranged for his sister, Victoria's mother, to invite the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and his two sons to visit her in May 1836, with the purpose of meeting Victoria.
    More Details Hide Details William IV, however, disapproved of any match with the Coburgs, and instead favoured the suit of Prince Alexander, second son of the Prince of Orange. Victoria was well aware of the various matrimonial plans and critically appraised a parade of eligible princes. She wrote, "Albert is extremely handsome; his hair is about the same colour as mine; his eyes are large and blue, and he has a beautiful nose and a very sweet mouth with fine teeth; but the charm of his countenance is his expression, which is most delightful." Alexander, on the other hand, she described as "very plain". Victoria wrote to her uncle Leopold to thank him "for the prospect of great happiness you have contributed to give me, in the person of dear Albert... He possesses every quality that could be desired to render me perfectly happy." Although the parties did not undertake a formal engagement, both the family and their retainers widely assumed that the match would take place.
    By 1836 the idea of marriage between Albert and his cousin, Victoria, had arisen in the mind of their ambitious uncle Leopold, who had been King of the Belgians since 1831.
    More Details Hide Details At this time, Victoria was the heiress presumptive to the British throne. Her father, Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent, the fourth son of King George III, had died when she was a baby, and her elderly uncle, King William IV, had no legitimate children. Her mother the Duchess of Kent, was the sister of both Albert's father—the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha—and King Leopold.
  • 1825
    In 1825, Albert's great-uncle, Frederick IV, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, died.
    More Details Hide Details His death led to a re-arrangement of the Saxon duchies the following year and Albert's father became the first reigning duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
  • 1824
    Albert and his elder brother, Ernest, spent their youth in a close companionship marred by their parents' turbulent marriage and eventual separation and divorce. After their mother was exiled from court in 1824, she married her lover, Alexander von Hanstein, Count of Polzig and Beiersdorf.
    More Details Hide Details She presumably never saw her children again, and died of cancer at the age of thirty in 1831. The following year, their father married his own niece, his sons' cousin Princess Antoinette Marie of Württemberg; the marriage was not close, however, and Antoinette Marie had little—if any—impact on her stepchildren's lives. The brothers were educated privately at home by Christoph Florschütz and later studied in Brussels, where Adolphe Quetelet was one of their tutors. Like many other German princes, Albert attended the University of Bonn as a young adult. He studied law, political economy, philosophy, and art history. He played music and excelled in gymnastics, especially fencing and riding. His teachers in Bonn included the philosopher Fichte and the poet Schlegel.
  • 1819
    Albert was baptised into the Lutheran Evangelical Church on 19 September 1819 in the Marble Hall at Schloss Rosenau with water taken from the local river, the Itz.
    More Details Hide Details His godparents were his paternal grandmother, the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld; his maternal grandfather, the Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg; the Emperor of Austria; the Duke of Teschen; and Emanuel, Count of Mensdorff-Pouilly.
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