Princess Saxe-Gotha
Princess Saxe-Gotha
Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg was Princess of Wales between 1736 and 1751, and Dowager Princess of Wales thereafter. She was one of only three Princesses of Wales who never became queen consort. Princess Augusta's eldest son succeeded as George III of the United Kingdom in 1760, as her husband, Frederick, Prince of Wales, had died nine years earlier.
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  • 1772
    Died on February 8, 1772.
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  • 1770
    In 1770, there were rumors about her daughter Caroline Matilda, queen of Denmark: of the mental state of her spouse, of the fall of prime minister Bernstorff, in which Caroline Matilda was rumored to have participated.
    More Details Hide Details When Augusta visited her eldest daughter in Brunswick that year, she also took the opportunity to see Caroline Matilda, who received her in breeches, which was at that time regarded as scandalous. Upon her lamentations, her daughter answered her: "Pray, madam, allow me to govern my own kingdom as I please!" After she died of cancer of the throat at age 52 at Carlton House, her funeral procession attracted troublemakers who followed the coffin to the grave shouting insults. Princess Augusta enlarged and greatly extended Kew Gardens after her husband's death. Sir William Chambers built several garden structures for her. One of these, the lofty Chinese pagoda built in 1761, still remains. Several places in British America were named in honour of Augusta:
  • 1769
    In 1769, the spouse of her daughter Caroline Matilda, Christian VII of Denmark, visited Great Britain.
    More Details Hide Details During his visit, Augusta, upon the initiative of Caroline Matilda, asked him publicly during a dinner to reinstate Louise von Plessen, a favorite of Caroline Matilda whom Christian had fired, in her position. He answered that he had made a sacred vow never to do so, but that if Caroline Matilda preferred von Plessen's company over him, so be it. In the end, Louise von Plessen was not reinstated, and Augusta apparently asked Caroline Matilda not to press the matter and to show more affection to Christian.
  • 1765
    When the King had a first, temporary, bout of mental illness in 1765, queen Charlotte was kept unaware of the situation by Augusta and Lord Bute.
    More Details Hide Details The Regency Bill of 1765 stated that if the King should become permanently unable to rule, Charlotte was to become Regent. Augusta was suggested as regent, but there was fierce opposition to her appointment, as there were concerns of the influence of Lord Bute in her potential regency, and fears that should she become regent, Bute should de facto rule as "King". Augusta reportedly resented the marriages of her younger sons, which took place without her consent.
  • 1762
    Augusta had an acknowledged political influence upon her son, who "strove to follow the counsels she gave", and in which he trusted. Reportedly, she was in turn influenced by Lord Bute, who was appointed prime minister with her support in 1762.
    More Details Hide Details His appointment caused a serious crisis and exposed both Augusta and Bute of such public hostility that Bute had to resign from his post the following year. Thackeray described the public sentiments and the circulating rumors: "Bute was hated with a rage there have been few examples in English history. He was the butt for everybody's abuse; for Wilkes, for Churchill's slashing satire, for the hooting of the mob who roasted his booth, his emblem, in a thousand bonfires; that hated him because he was a favorite and a Scotsman, calling him Mortimer, Lothario, and I known not what names, and accusing his royal mistress of all kinds of names - the grave, lean, demure, elderly woman, who, I dare say, was quite as good as her neighbors. Chatham lent the aide of his great malice to influence the popular sentiment against her. He assailed, in the House of Lords, 'The secret influence, more mighty than the throne itself, which betrayed and dogged every administration'. The most furious pamphlets echoed the cry 'Impeach the King's mother', was scribbled over every wall at the Court end of the town".
  • 1760
    On 25 October 1760, her son succeeded his grandfather as George III.
    More Details Hide Details The year after his succession, he married Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Her relationship with her daughter-in-law was not a good one. Augusta reportedly made it difficult for Charlotte to establish social contacts by referring to court etiquette. Further more, she initially appointed a large part of Charlotte's court staff, among whom several were suspected to report to her about Charlotte's behavior. When Charlotte turned to her German companions for friends, she was criticized by Augusta for keeping favourites, notably her close confidant Juliane von Schwellenberg.
    Princess Augusta's eldest son succeeded as George III of the United Kingdom in 1760, as her husband, Frederick, Prince of Wales, had died nine years earlier.
    More Details Hide Details Princess Augusta was born in Gotha to Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1676–1732) and Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst (1676–1740). Her paternal grandfather was Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, eldest surviving son of Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg.
  • 1756
    This role became moot when her son came of age upon his eighteenth birthday in 1756.
    More Details Hide Details During the remaining years of the reign of George II, Augusta chose to live in seclusion with her children, devoting herself to their care. The few occasions when she did appear in public, the king gave her the same ceremonial role and honors previously given to the queen, and she was honored the same way by the public as well as the court. However, Augusta suffered a loss of popularity as a widow. She was to be criticized for her manner of raising her children, as she isolated them from the outside world into a secluded family environment, seldom meeting people outside of the family. Shortly after being widowed, she began to be influenced by John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, her son's tutor, and rumours spread that they were having an affair. This was due to her being adamant that Bute was visiting her, and not her son, during his back door visits to tutor the prince. Both were pilloried in the press.
  • 1751
    On 2 March 1751, Frederick unexpectedly died, making Augusta a widow.
    More Details Hide Details Dr. Doran described her at the death of her spouse: "She had, throughout her married life exhibited much mental superiority, with great kindness of disposition, and that under circumstances of great difficulty, and sometimes of a character to inflict vexation on the calmest nature. She was then the mother of eight children, expecting shortly to be the mother of a ninth, and she was brought reluctantly to knowledge that their father was no more. It was six in the morning before her attendants could persuade her to retire to bed; but she arose again at eight, and then, with less thought for her grief than her anxiety for the honor of him whose death was the cause of it, she proceeded to the Prince's room, and burned the whole of his private papers. By this the world lost some rare supplementary chapters to the Cronique Scandaleuse!"
  • 1749
    One some occasions, the children of Augusta was made to give amateur theater performances for their guests, notably in 4 January 1749, when George, Augusta, Elizabeth, Edward and some of their playmates acted in the tragedy of Cato.
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  • 1745
    The incident around the birth of princess Augusta, however, lead to a separation between prince and princess of Wales and the king and the queen, who were not reconciled until public opinion during the Jacobite rebellion on 1745 pressured them to.
    More Details Hide Details After the reconciliation, the couple became less isolated from high society, who could more easily appear at both courts without giving offence. Augusta gave a good impression in society life, where she was described as pretty, elegant and as a considered hostess.
  • 1737
    The birth of their first daughter, Princess Augusta, on 31 July 1737, took place at St James's after Princess Augusta was forced by Frederick to travel from Hampton Court Palace while in labour, in order to prevent his hated parents from being present at the birth.
    More Details Hide Details The delivery was traumatic: St James palace was not ready to receive them, not bed was prepared, no sheets could be found, and Augusta was forced to give birth on table cloth. Queen Caroline once said of her daughter-in-law and the inconveniences she was inflicted by her: "Poor creature, were she to spit in my face, I should only pity her for being under such a fools direction, and wipe it of."
  • 1736
    On 27 April 1736, she was escorted to St James's Palace, London, were she met the rest of the royal family, followed by the wedding ceremony at the Royal Chapel.
    More Details Hide Details When she was introduced to the royal family, she made a favorable impression on the king and queen by throwing herself on the floor before them in a gesture of submission. The marriage was never a close one. During the first year of marriage, Augusta could be seen playing with her doll in the windows of her residence, until her sister-in-law princess Caroline told her to stop. Frederick took advantage of her inexperience when he had his then lover, Lady Archibald Hamilton, employed as her lady of the bedchamber after convincing her that there was not truth in the rumor of his affair. Augusta and Frederick had nine children, the last born after Frederick's death. Frederick once stated, that he would never allow himself to be influenced by his consort as his father was, and he thus never made Augusta his confidant. He did, however, instruct her to act in accordance with his wishes in his feud with his parents, and on several occasions, Frederick reportedly instructed her to act so as to insult and snub them. When she attended the service of the German Lutheran Chapel, for example, which was also attended by the queen, Frederick instructed Augusta to always make sure she arrived after the queen, so that she would be forced to push in front of the queen to reach her place. This eventually made the queen to give order that Augusta should be directed to her place by another entrance, which in turn made Frederick instruct Augusta to refuse to enter the Chapel if the queen had arrived before her.
    Augusta of Saxe-Gotha left Hellevoetsluis 17 April 1736 and arrived at Greenwich on the royal yacht William and Mary on the 25th, where she was welcomed by her groom.
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    In 1736, she was suggested to marry to marry 29 year old Frederick, Prince of Wales, eldest son of King George II and Queen Caroline.
    More Details Hide Details Originally, Frederick was intended to marry the eldest daughter of the King of Prussia. A marriage alliance between Great Britain and Prussia had been an ambition for many years. However, when George II suggested that his eldest son would marry the eldest (unmarried) daughter of the King of Prussia, while his second (unmarried) daughter would marry the eldest son of the Prussian king, the King of Prussia demanded that his eldest son should likewise marry the eldest (unmarried) daughter of the King of Great Britain, and George II refused to agree to this term. When the Prussian plan was cancelled, queen Caroline saw a need to arranged a new marriage quickly, as there were rumors circulating at the time that Frederick had received an offer to marry the granddaughter of the duchess of Marlborough, lady Diana Spencer, in the duchess's lodge at Richmond. During the king's visit to Hanover, queen Caroline suggested that he visit Saxe-Gotha to view the princesses there, and when he informed her that he considered princess Augusta suitable, the marriage was swiftly decided upon. Frederick simply replied that he accepted any bride his father would decide for him.
  • 1719
    Born on November 30, 1719.
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