Rafael Trujillo
President of the Dominican Republic
Rafael Trujillo
Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina, nicknamed El Jefe (The Chief or The Boss), ruled the Dominican Republic from 1930 until his assassination in 1961. He officially served as president from 1930 to 1938 and again from 1942 to 1952, otherwise ruling as an unelected military strongman.
Biography
Rafael Trujillo's personal information overview.
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Theater Listings: Sept. 23 — 29
NYTimes - over 5 years
Approximate running times are in parentheses. Theaters are in Manhattan unless otherwise noted. Full reviews of current shows, additional listings, showtimes and ticket information: nytimes.com/theater . Previews and Openings ‘The Bald Soprano’ (in previews; opens on Sunday) Hal Brooks has made a specialty out of staging solo shows,
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SANTO DOMINGO JOURNAL; A Museum of Repression Aims to Shock the Conscience
NYTimes - over 5 years
SANTO DOMINGO, Dominican Republic -- Melba Navarro froze at the image of the man with bulging eyes, his mouth flung open in terror. Or was it pain? He was strapped into an electric chair. ''How horrible was the suffering,'' she said, a replica of the chair -- a simple wooden seat with straps, a little light bulb on the armrest, a wire snaking from
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The Listings
NYTimes - over 5 years
Theater Approximate running times are in parentheses. Theaters are in Manhattan unless otherwise noted. Full reviews of current shows, additional listings, showtimes and ticket information: nytimes.com/theater. Previews and Openings 'After.' (previews start on Wednesday; opens on Sept. 21) Following its success last season with Samuel D. Hunter's
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The Listings
NYTimes - over 5 years
Theater Approximate running times are in parentheses. Theaters are in Manhattan unless otherwise noted. Full reviews of current shows, additional listings, showtimes and ticket information: nytimes.com/theater. Previews And Openings 'Bogboy' (previews start on Wednesday; opens on Sept. 10) Originally developed as a radio play, this drama of
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Theater Listings for Sept. 2 — 8 - New York Times
Google News - over 5 years
(Rachel Saltz) 'En el Tiempo de las Mariposas' Caridad Svich's Spanish-language adaptation (“In the Time of the Butterflies,” in English) of Julia Álvarez's novel about the Mirabal sisters, who opposed the Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo and died as
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Duarte como símbolo monetario - 7dias.com.do
Google News - over 5 years
En muchos manuales de historia dominicana se enseña que el dictador Rafael Trujillo Molina pagó la deuda externa dominicana, en otros se destaca el pago de la deuda y la emisión de una moneda propia en el país y en otros se destaca la labor
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La Cofradía Amigos de la Viña celebra la segunda Fiesta de la Vendimia el ... - Diario Córdoba
Google News - over 5 years
Baena Rafael Trujillo, presidente de la Cofradía de Amigos de la Viña y el Vino de Baena, y la alcaldesa de Baena, María Jesús Serrano, han presentado la segunda Fiesta de la Vendimia, que se celebrará el 3 de septiembre en la bodega Jesús Nazareno
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Rinden homenaje a las hermanas Mirabal en la Feria del Libro de Panamá - EFE
Google News - over 5 years
La figura de las hermanas dominicanas Patria, Minerva y María Teresa Mirabal, asesinadas en 1960 por su oposición al dictador Rafael Trujillo (1930-1961), es objeto de actividades y homenajes en la VII Feria Internacional del Libro (FIL),
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The Logic of Chávez's Affair With Qaddafi - Honduras Weekly
Google News - over 5 years
There was Fulgencio Batista in Cuba, Rafael Trujillo in the Dominican Republic, Anastasio Somoza in Nicaragua, and Augusto Pinochet in Chile. In the 1980s, there were the Contras -- the so-called "freedom fighters" -- in Nicaragua which had to be
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Retos para Leonel en este último año - Hoy Digital (República Dominicana)
Google News - over 5 years
Las dos peores dictaduras de la historia nacional, las de Rafael Trujillo y Ulises Hereaux (Lilís) se extendieron por 31 y 14 años, para un total de 45. La cuasi dictadura de Joaquín Balaguer, agotó 22 años con 6 elecciones casi todas no democráticas y
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Paredes inconstitucionales - El Comercio (Ecuador)
Google News - over 5 years
... Augusto Pinochet, Rafael Trujillo y otros del mismo pelaje, que desangraron sus países, tanto física como económicamente, a favor de los serviles que por medio de la corrupción se enriquecieron en medio de una vorágine de odios e ilegalidades,
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Rafa Trujillo sigue la escalada en Weymouth - EuropaSur
Google News - over 5 years
El linense Rafael Trujillo continúa yendo a más en Weymouth, donde ayer firmó un noveno y un tercero que le permiten ascender un puesto y colocarse sexto en la Regata Preolímpica de la clase Finn. Trujillo supera el ecuador de la competición,
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Rafa Trujillo pasa al ataque en Inglaterra - EuropaSur
Google News - over 5 years
Rafael Trujillo se pone serio. El regatista de La Línea pasó al ataque ayer en la regata preolímpica que se celebra en Weymouth, en las aguas inglesas que acogerán el campo de competición en los próximos Juegos de Londres 2012
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NKHS Summer Reading List For 9th Graders - Patch.com
Google News - over 5 years
This historical novel tells the story of political dissidents the Mirabal sisters opposing the dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo in the Dominican Republic. This historical piece tells the saga of polar explorer Ernest Shackleton and the final voyage of
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Theater Listings July 29 — Aug. 4 - New York Times
Google News - over 5 years
(Rachel Saltz) 'En el Tiempo de las Mariposas' Caridad Svich's Spanish-language adaptation (“In the Time of the Butterflies,” in English) of Julia Álvarez's novel about the Mirabal sisters, who opposed the Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo and died as
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Rafael Trujillo
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  • 1961
    On Tuesday, 30 May 1961, Trujillo was shot and killed when his blue 1957 Chevrolet Bel Air was ambushed on a road outside the Dominican capital.
    More Details Hide Details He was the victim of an ambush plotted by a number of men, among them General Juan Tomás Díaz, Antonio de la Maza, Amado García Guerrero and General Antonio Imbert Barrera. The plotters, however, failed to take control as the later-to-be-executed General José ("Pupo") Román betrayed his co-conspirators by his inactivity, and contingency plans had not been made. On the other side, Johnny Abbes, Roberto Figueroa Carrión, and the Trujillo family, put the SIM to work to hunt the members of the plot, and brought back Ramfis Trujillo from Paris to step into his father's shoes. The response by SIM was swift and brutal. Hundreds of suspects were detained, many tortured. On 18 November the last executions took place when six of the conspirators were executed in the "Hacienda Maria Massacre". Imbert was the only one of the seven assassins who survived the manhunt. A co-conspirator named Luis Amiamo Tio also survived.
    After his assassination in 1961, logging resumed in the Dominican Republic.
    More Details Hide Details Squatters burned down the forests for agriculture, and logging companies clear-cut parks. In 1967, President Joaquín Balaguer launched military strikes against illegal logging. Trujillo encouraged foreign investment in the Dominican Republic, particularly from Americans. He gave a concession with mineral rights in the Azua Basin to Clem S. Clarke, an oilman from Shreveport, Louisiana.
  • 1960
    The Betancourt incident inflamed world opinion against Trujillo. Outraged OAS members voted unanimously to sever diplomatic relations with his government and impose economic sanctions on the Dominican Republic. The brutal murder on Friday, 25 November 1960, of the three Mirabal sisters, Patria, María Teresa and Minerva, who opposed Trujillo's dictatorship, further increased discontent with his repressive rule.
    More Details Hide Details The dictator had become an embarrassment to the United States, and relations became especially strained after the Betancourt incident. Trujillo's "central arch" was his instinct for power. This was coupled with an intense desire for money, which he recognized as a source of and support for power. Up at four in the morning, he exercised, studied the newspaper, read many reports, and completed papers before breakfast; at the office by nine, he continued his work, and took lunch by noon. After a walk, he continued to work until 7:30 pm. After dinner, he attended functions, held discussions, or was driven around incognito in the city "observing and remembering". Until Santo Domingo's National Palace was built in 1947 he worked out of the Casas Reales, the colonial-era Viceregal center of administration. Today the building is a museum; on display are his desk and chair, along with a massive collection of arms and armor that he bought. He was methodical, punctual, secretive, and guarded; he had no true friends, only associates and acquaintances. For his associates, his actions towards them were unpredictable.
    The assassination attempt, carried out on Friday, 24 June 1960, injured but did not kill the Venezuelan president.
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  • 1959
    Trujillo kept Batista until August 1959 as a "virtual prisoner".
    More Details Hide Details Only after paying between three and four million U.S. dollars could Batista leave for Portugal, which had granted him a visa. Castro made threats to overthrow Trujillo, and Trujillo responded by increasing the budget for national defense. A foreign legion was formed to defend Haiti, as it was expected that Castro might invade the Haitian part of the island first and remove François Duvalier as well. A Cuban plane with 56 fighting men landed near Constanza, Dominican Republic, on Sunday, 14 June 1959, and six days later more invaders brought by two yachts landed at the north coast. However, the Dominican Army prevailed. In turn, in August 1959, Johnny Abbes attempted to support an anti-Castro group led by Escambray near Trinidad, Cuba. The attempt, however, was thwarted when Cuban troops surprised a plane he had sent when it was unloading its cargo.
  • 1956
    After 1956, when Trujillo saw that Castro was gaining ground, he started to support Batista with money, planes, equipment, and men.
    More Details Hide Details Trujillo, convinced that Batista would prevail, was very surprised when he showed up as a fugitive after being ousted.
  • 1955
    In turn, when Fulgencio Batista was in power, Trujillo initially supported anti-Batista supporters of Carlos Prío Socarrás in Oriente Province in 1955, however weapons Trujillo sent were soon inherited by Fidel Castro's insurgents when Prío allied with Castro.
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  • 1952
    In 1952, under pressure from the Organization of American States, he ceded the presidency to his brother, Héctor.
    More Details Hide Details Despite being officially out of power, Trujillo organized a major national celebration to commemorate twenty-five years of his rule in 1955. Gold and silver commemorative coins were minted with his image.
  • 1944
    Trujillo unsuccessfully tried to assassinate him in a 1944 plot, and then published their correspondence and discredited him.
    More Details Hide Details Lescot was exiled after a 1946 palace coup. In 1947 Dominican exiles, including Juan Bosch, had concentrated in Cuba. With the approval and support of Cuba's Grau government, an expeditionary force was trained with the intention of invading the Dominican Republic and overthrowing Trujillo; however, international pressure, including from the United States, caused the expedition to be aborted.
  • 1942
    However, in 1942, with President Franklin D. Roosevelt having run for a third term in the United States, Trujillo ran for president again and was elected unopposed.
    More Details Hide Details He served for two terms, which he lengthened to five years each.
  • 1941
    In 1941, Lescot, who had received financial support from Trujillo, succeeded Vincent as President of Haiti.
    More Details Hide Details Trujillo expected Lescot to be a puppet, but Lescot turned against him.
  • 1940
    On 24 September 1940, Trujillo and the American Secretary of State Cordell Hull signed the Hull–Trujillo Treaty, whereby the United States relinquished control over the collection and application of customs revenues, and the Dominican Republic committed to deposit consolidated government revenues in a special bank account to guarantee repayment of foreign debt.
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    In 1940 an agreement was signed and Trujillo donated of his properties for settlements.
    More Details Hide Details The first settlers arrived in May 1940; eventually some 800 settlers came to Sosua and most moved later on to the United States. Refugees from Europe broadened the Dominican Republic's tax base and added more whites to the predominantly mixed-race nation. The government favored white refugees over others while Dominican troops expelled illegal aliens, resulting in the 1937 Parsley Massacre of Haitian immigrants. The Trujillo regime greatly expanded the Vedado del Yaque, a nature reserve around the Yaque del Sur River. In 1934 he created the nation's first national park, banned the slash-and-burn method of clearing land for agriculture, set up a forest warden agency to protect the park system, and banned the logging of pine trees without his permission. In the 1950s the Trujillo regime commissioned a study on the hydroelectric potential of damming the Dominican Republic's waterways. The commission concluded that only forested waterways could support hydroelectric dams, so Trujillo banned logging in potential river watersheds.
    Peynado increased the size of the electric "Dios y Trujillo" sign and died on 7 March 1940, with Troncoso serving out the rest of the term.
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  • 1938
    Trujillo was eligible to run again in 1938, but, citing the United States example of two presidential terms, he stated: "I voluntarily, and against the wishes of my people, refuse re-election to the high office."
    More Details Hide Details In fact, a vigorous reelection campaign had been launched in the middle of 1937 but the international uproar that followed the Haitian massacre later that year forced Trujillo to announce his "return to private life". Consequently, the Dominican Party nominated Trujillo's handpicked successor, 71-year-old vice-president Jacinto Peynado, with Manuel de Jesús Troncoso as his running mate. They appeared alone on the ballot in the 1938 election. Trujillo kept his positions as generalissimo of the army and leader of the Dominican Party. It was understood that Peynado was merely a puppet, and Trujillo still held all governing power in the nation.
  • 1937
    Los Dragones won the 1937 Dominican championship at Estadio Trujillo in Ciudad Trujillo.
    More Details Hide Details Trujillo was energetic and fit. He was generally quite healthy, but suffered from chronic lower urinary infections and, later, prostate problems. In 1934, Dr. Georges Marion was called from Paris to perform three urologic procedures on Trujillo. Over time Trujillo acquired numerous homes. His favorite was Casa Caobas, on Estancia Fundacion near San Cristóbal. He also used Estancia Ramfis (which, after 1953, became the Foreign Office), Estancia Rhadames, and a home at Playa de Najayo. Less frequently he stayed at places he owned in Santiago, Constanza, La Cumbre, San José de las Matas, and elsewhere. He maintained a penthouse at the Embajador Hotel in the capital. While Trujillo was nominally a Roman Catholic, his devotion was limited to a perfunctory role in public affairs; he placed faith in local folk religion. He was popularly known as "El Jefe" ("The Chief") or "El Benefactor" ("The Benefactor"), but was privately referred to as Chapitas ("Bottlecaps") because of his indiscriminate wearing of medals. Dominican children emulated El Jefe by constructing toy medals from bottle caps. He was also known as "el chivo" ("the goat").
    In 1937, Trujillo met Lina Lovatón Pittaluga, an upper-class debutante with whom he had two children, Yolanda in 1939, and Rafael, born on 20 June 1943.
    More Details Hide Details In spite of Trujillo's indifference to the game of baseball, the dictator invited many black American players to the Dominican Republic, where they received good pay for playing on first-class, un-segregated teams. The great Negro League star Satchel Paige pitched for Los Dragones of Ciudad Trujillo, a team organized by Trujillo. Paige would later claim, jokingly, that his guards positioned themselves "like a firing squad" to encourage him to pitch well.
  • 1935
    He divorced Bienvenida in 1935 and married Martínez.
    More Details Hide Details A year later he had a daughter with Bienvenida, named Odette Trujillo Ricardo. Trujillo's two children with María Martínez were María de los Angeles del Sagrado Corazón de Jesus (Angelita), born in Paris on 10 June 1939, and Leonidas Rhadamés, born on 1 December 1942. María had a child by the name Rafael Leónidas Ramfis this one born on 5 June 1929, Ramfis was adopted by Trujillo. Ramfis and Rhadamés were named after characters in Giuseppe Verdi's opera Aida.
  • 1934
    In 1934 Trujillo, who had promoted himself to generalissimo of the army, was up for re-election.
    More Details Hide Details By this time, there was no organized opposition left in the country, and he was elected as the sole candidate on the ballot. In addition to the widely rigged (and regularly uncontested) elections, which never saw a functioning opposition, he instated "civic reviews", with large crowds shouting their loyalty to the government. In 1936, at the suggestion of Mario Fermín Cabral, Congress voted overwhelmingly to change the name of the capital from Santo Domingo to Ciudad Trujillo. The province of San Cristobal was changed to "Trujillo", and the nation's highest peak, Pico Duarte, was renamed Pico Trujillo. Statues of "El Jefe" were mass-produced and erected across the Republic, and bridges and public buildings were named in his honor. The nation's newspapers had praise for Trujillo as part of the front page, and license plates included slogans such as "¡Viva Trujillo!" and "Año Del Benefactor De La Patria" (Year of the Benefactor of the Nation.) An electric sign was erected in Ciudad Trujillo so that "Dios y Trujillo" could be seen at night as well as in the day. Eventually, even churches were required to post the slogan "Dios en cielo, Trujillo en tierra" (God in Heaven, Trujillo on Earth). As time went on, the order of the phrases was reversed (Trujillo on Earth, God in Heaven). Trujillo was recommended for the Nobel Peace Prize by his admirers, but the committee declined the suggestion.
  • 1933
    In 1933, and again in 1935, Trujillo met the Haitian President Sténio Vincent to settle the border issue.
    More Details Hide Details By 1936, they reached and signed a settlement. At the same time, Trujillo plotted against the Haitian government by linking up with General Calixte, Commander of the Garde d'Haiti, and Élie Lescot, at that time the Haitian ambassador in Ciudad Trujillo (Santo Domingo). After the settlement, when further border incursions occurred, the Parsley Massacre was initiated by Trujillo. Known as La Masacre del Perejil in Spanish, Trujillo started the massacre in 1937, claiming that Haiti was harboring his former Dominican opponents, Trujillo ordered an attack on the border, slaughtering tens of thousands of Haitians as they tried to escape. The number of dead is still unknown, though it is now calculated between 20,000 and 30,000. The Haitian response was muted, but its government eventually called for an international investigation. Under pressure from Washington, Trujillo agreed to a reparation settlement in January 1938 that involved the payment of US$750,000. By the next year, the amount had been reduced to US$525,000 (US$ SENT_ in); 30 dollars per victim, of which only 2 cents were given to survivors, due to corruption in the Haitian bureaucracy.
  • 1931
    On 16 August 1931, the first anniversary of his inauguration, Trujillo made the Dominican Party the nation's sole legal political party; however, the country had effectively become a one-party state with Trujillo's swearing-in.
    More Details Hide Details Government employees were required to "donate" 10 percent of their salaries to the national treasury, and there was strong pressure on adult citizens to join the party. Party members had to carry a membership card, the "palmita", and a person could be arrested for vagrancy without one. Those who did not join or contribute to the party did so at their own risk. Opponents of the régime were mysteriously killed.
  • 1930
    Trujillo was sworn in on 16 June 1930, and immediately assumed dictatorial powers.
    More Details Hide Details He had already begun jailing opponents even before his swearing-in. Three weeks after he ascended to the Presidency the destructive Hurricane San Zenon hit Santo Domingo and left more than 3,000 dead.
    He served as president from 1930 to 1938 and again from 1942 to 1952, ruling for the rest of the time as an unelected military strongman under figurehead presidents.
    More Details Hide Details His 31 years in power, to Dominicans known as the Trujillo Era, are considered one of the bloodiest eras ever in the Americas, as well as a time of a personality cult, when monuments to Trujillo were in abundance. It has been estimated that Trujillo was responsible for the deaths of more than 50,000 people, including possibly as many as 10,000 in the Parsley Massacre. The Trujillo era unfolded in a Caribbean environment that was particularly fertile for dictatorial regimes. In the countries of the Caribbean basin alone, his dictatorship was concurrent, in whole or in part, with those in Cuba, Nicaragua, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Venezuela, Colombia, and Haiti. In retrospect, the Trujillo dictatorship has been characterized as more exposed, more achieved, and more brutal than those that rose and fell around it.
  • 1927
    On 30 March 1927, Trujillo married Bienvenida Ricardo Martínez, a girl from Monte Cristi and the daughter of Buenaventura Ricardo Heureaux.
    More Details Hide Details A year later he met María de los Angeles Martínez Alba "la españolita", and had an affair with her.
  • 1918
    Trujillo joined the National Guard in 1918 and trained with the U.S. Marines. Seeing opportunity, Trujillo impressed the recruiters and won promotion from lieutenant to general and commander-in chief of the Army in only nine years. A rebellion (or coup d'état) against President Horacio Vásquez broke out in February 1930 in Santiago.
    More Details Hide Details Trujillo secretly cut a deal with rebel leader Rafael Estrella Ureña; in return for Trujillo letting Estrella take power, Estrella would allow Trujillo to run for president in new elections. As the rebels marched toward Santo Domingo, Vásquez ordered Trujillo to suppress them. However, feigning "neutrality", Trujillo kept his men in barracks, allowing Estrella's rebels to take the capital virtually unopposed. On 3 March, Estrella was proclaimed acting president, with Trujillo confirmed as head of the police and of the army. As per their agreement, Trujillo became the presidential nominee of the Patriotic Coalition of Citizens (Spanish: Coalición patriotica de los ciudadanos), with Estrella as his running mate. The other candidates became targets of harassment by the army, and withdrew when it became apparent that Trujillo would be the only person who would be allowed to effectively campaign. Ultimately, the Trujillo-Estrella ticket was proclaimed victorious with an implausible 99 percent of the vote. According to the American ambassador, Trujillo received more votes than actual voters.
  • 1913
    Trujillo was married three times and kept other women as mistresses. On 13 August 1913, Trujillo married Aminta Ledesma Lachapelle.
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  • 1897
    In 1897, at age six, Trujillo was registered in the school of Juan Hilario Meriño.
    More Details Hide Details One year later he transferred to the school of Broughton, where he became a pupil of Eugenio María de Hostos, and remained there for the rest of his primary schooling. At the age of 16 Trujillo got a job as a telegraph operator, which he held for about three years. Shortly after Trujillo turned to crime: stealing cattle, counterfeiting checks, and postal robbery, a crime for which he spent several months in prison. This would not deter Trujillo, as he would later form a violent gang of robbers called the "42". In 1916, the United States occupied the Dominican Republic due to threats of defaulting on foreign debts. The occupying force soon established a Dominican army constabulary to impose order.
  • 1891
    Born on October 24, 1891.
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Original Authors of this text are noted here.
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