Robert Mugabe
2nd President of Zimbabwe and former Prime Minister of Zimbabwe
Robert Mugabe
Robert Gabriel Mugabe is the President of Zimbabwe. As one of the leaders of the liberation movement against white-minority rule, he was elected into power in 1980. He served as Prime Minister from 1980 to 1987, and as the first executive head of state since 1987. Mugabe rose to prominence in the 1960s as the Secretary General of the Zimbabwe African National Union during the conflict against the white-minority rule government of Ian Smith.
Biography
Robert Mugabe's personal information overview.
{{personal_detail.supertitle}}
{{personal_detail.title}}
{{personal_detail.title}}
Relationships
View family, career and love interests for Robert Mugabe
Show More Show Less
News
News abour Robert Mugabe from around the web
Nearing 93, Robert Mugabe Shows No Sign Of Stepping Down
NPR - 1 day
The world's oldest leader, Zimbabwe's Robert Mugabe, turns 93 Tuesday. He has no intention of retiring and his wife has said even if he dies before next year's election, he should run "as a corpse." (Image credit: Jekesai Njikizana/AFP/Getty Images)
Article Link:
NPR article
'We'll field Robert Mugabe's corpse as candidate for election', says wife Grace - News24
Google News - 4 days
News24 'We'll field Robert Mugabe's corpse as candidate for election', says wife Grace News24 Zimbabwe government gynaecologists and obstetricians have downed tools in solidarity with striking state doctors, as the nationwide industrial action enters its third day, plunging the country' health sector into a major crisis. Zim man, 26, kills ... Mugabe's corpse will win elections: GraceNewsDay Robert Mugabe's Wife Says he Could Run in Election 'As a Corpse'NBCNews.com Even a dead Robert Mugabe could stand in Zimbabwe election - wifeBBC News ABC Online -The Herald -Chronicle -VOA Zimbabwe all 61 news articles »
Article Link:
Google News article
Alec Baldwin's Donald Trump Wreaks World Havoc With A Skeletal Steve Bannon On 'SNL'
Huffington Post - 17 days
The moment we’ve been waiting for has arrived: “SNL” finally showed us what life is like inside President Donald Trump’s Oval Office. On the show’s cold open this week, Baldwin reprised his role as Trump for the first time since the former “Apprentice” host officially took over as the United States commander-in-chief.  After an aide (played by Kyle Mooney) tells the president that his daughter Ivanka and son-in-law Jared Kushner have gone away for the night since they “don’t work on Shabbat,” the president realizes he’s free to sow chaos. “When the Jews are away, the goys will play. Send in Steve Bannon,” he says. After Baldwin’s Trump explains to his chief strategist that he is “tired and cranky and I feel like I could just freak out on somebody,” the skeletal, Grim Reaper-esque version of Bannon weighs in with some advice: “Then maybe you should call Australia.” In a spoof of Trump’s now famously hostile phone call with Australian Prime Minister Malcolm ...
Article Link:
Huffington Post article
Zimbabwe pastor behind protests faces 20 years in prison
Yahoo News - 20 days
HARARE, Zimbabwe (AP) — The Zimbabwe pastor who fled to the United States after launching the popular #ThisFlag protest movement faces up to 20 years in prison for organizing protests against President Robert Mugabe in New York.
Article Link:
Yahoo News article
Cash-strapped Zimbabwe offers workers land instead of bonuses
Yahoo News - 27 days
Zimbabwe authorities offered residential land to government employees in lieu of annual bonuses, unions said on Thursday, rejecting a proposal that suggests the cash squeeze gripping the country is unlikely to ease this year. The southern African nation's economy stagnated last year, fanning anti-government protests and compounding President Robert Mugabe's problems ahead of national elections due in 2018. Public sector workers are paid an annual bonus equivalent to a month's salary every November and December, but the government - which spends more than $250 million monthly on salaries - has not said when it will make the 2016 payment.
Article Link:
Yahoo News article
Zimbabwe telecoms hike draws charges of social media crackdown
Yahoo News - about 1 month
By MacDonald Dzirutwe HARARE (Reuters) - Zimbabwe's biggest mobile telephone company has pushed up data charges by a multiple of 25 in line with new regulations, prompting critics to complain that President Robert Mugabe's government is trying to throttle the use of social media. Econet Wireless's new cheapest data package, which came into effect on Wednesday night, will see users get 10 megabytes for $1, compared with 250 megabytes for the same amount previously. Last year, activists used the Internet to mobilise the biggest anti-government protests in a decade, bypassing traditional opposition parties as anger grew over Mugabe's handling of a failing economy.
Article Link:
Yahoo News article
How Fidel Castro's Legacy Lives on in Africa
Huffington Post - about 2 months
On November 25, 2016, the mastermind of Cuba's 1959 revolution, Fidel Castro, died at age 90. Even though Castro was criticized in the West for the authoritarian nature of his rule and egregious human rights abuses, his death prompted an outpouring of grief in the developing world. Sub-Saharan African leaders reacted in an especially strong manner. The leaders of South Africa, Equatorial Guinea and Zimbabwe attended his funeral, and days of mourning were declared across the continent to commemorate Castro's life and revolutionary ideals. A wide range of factors and national experiences explain the extent of admiration for Castro in Africa. For many African leaders, Castro's resistance to United States hegemony and successful overthrow of Fulgencio Batista's US-backed dictatorship were viewed as a successful model for leaders opposed to neocolonialism to follow. The Algerian struggle for independence during the early 1960s was inspired by Castro's takeover of Cuba. Lahkdar Brahi ...
Article Link:
Huffington Post article
Fake News and the Winds of Hate Roil the U.S.
Huffington Post - 2 months
There is an ill wind blowing across the nation. Sometimes it is a foul gale, other times just a smelly zephyr. But it is as evil as it is nauseating, as noisome as it is cruel. It blights good fellowship, throttles reasonable discourse, and brings threatening clouds for the future. Lies, insinuations, fabrications and distortions are not new to politics, but now they have an awesome delivery system: fake news on the Internet. Fake news likely inspired a man to storm into the public library in Barrington, RI, on Nov. 10, and verbally attack a young patron. Wearing a Trump hat and T-shirt emblazoned with "Racist Cracker 88," he approached her, chanting, "Obama is out! We control this place now!" The librarians called the police, and the man was escorted out." To this buffoon, literacy was akin to elitism, liberalism and moral decay. A fringe of the already fringy alt-right believes that the election victory of Donald Trump established a new order of self-righteous bigotry, as t ...
Article Link:
Huffington Post article
Zimbabwe's Mugabe confirmed as ruling party candidate for 2018
Yahoo News - 2 months
By MacDonald Dzirutwe MASVINGO, Zimbabwe (Reuters) - Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe was confirmed on Saturday as his party's sole candidate for the next presidential election in 2018, when he will be 94. Supporters at a party conference sang a song titled "Mugabe should rule until eternity" as the veteran leader rose to give a speech in which he called for an end to infighting within the ruling ZANU-PF over his eventual successor. Mugabe, the only ruler that the southern African nation has known since independence from Britain in 1980, has come under pressure from a deteriorating economy, corruption and cash shortages that have seen the central bank introducing a new "bond note" currency in November.
Article Link:
Yahoo News article
Mugabe: Liberation hero turned despot
Yahoo News - 2 months
Zimbabwe's veteran leader Robert Mugabe once quipped that he'd rule his country until he turned 100. From crushing political dissent to ushering in disastrous land reforms that saw the economy crumble, many accuse Mugabe of turning the regional breadbasket into a food importer. The leader who is currently Africa's oldest president, having clung to office for 36 years, has shown no sign of loosening his grip.
Article Link:
Yahoo News article
Mugabe rounds on party officials for 'shameless' ambition over succession
Yahoo News - 2 months
Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe, Africa's oldest leader, criticized some ruling party officials on Wednesday for "shameless and unbridled" ambition in their quest to succeed him. Mugabe, 92, who has ruled the former British colony since independence in 1980, has refused to name a successor, saying the party will do so when the time comes. Looking frail and laboring through a 40-minute speech, Mugabe condemned what he called "dirty politics" in the party during an address to the ZANU-PF Central Committee ahead of a two-day annual conference starting on Friday.
Article Link:
Yahoo News article
Young Widow With 5 Kids Turns To Activism To Challenge A President
NPR - 3 months
She's a former train driver and labor leader — and now an activist in the campaign to drive Zimbabwe's president, Robert Mugabe, from office.
Article Link:
NPR article
Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe Hints At Retirement
NPR - 3 months
Zimbabwe has had one ruler since the country gained independence 36 years ago. The 92-year-old is now hinting at retirement, but on his terms. In comments this week to veterans of Zimbabwe's independence war veterans, he didn't offer a possible time frame.
Article Link:
NPR article
Fake Trump Quotes About Africans Have Blown Up On Facebook Thanks To Hoax Sites
Huffington Post - 3 months
In Africa, Donald Trump is believed to have said that Africans are lazy, that African immigrants in the United States should be deported, and that Africa as a continent should be recolonized. With Trump’s presidential win, these comments, allegedly made over the past two years, have begun to circulate again. Turns out, most of them are fake, having originated on satirical news sites. Trump did not call all Kenyans “conmen” or say that he would “lock up” longtime leaders Robert Mugabe and Yoweri Museveni. So far, the president-elect has not tried to dispute these false stories. Trump’s media office did not respond to a request for comment. The Trumpisms about Africa began with Politica, a fake news site registered in Kenya, which reported last year that Trump said, “Some Africans are lazy fools only good at eating, lovemaking and stealing.” According to the site, he was speaking at an event in Indianapolis. Blogs and media in Nigeria, Zimbabwe, and elsewhere pi ...
Article Link:
Huffington Post article
Zimbabwe's army chief says military has no role in Mugabe successor
Yahoo News - 3 months
Zimbabwe's military has no say on who should take over from President Robert Mugabe, the country's army commander said, as tension mounts within the ruling party over who will succeed Africa's oldest leader. Mugabe, 92, has held power since the country gained independence from Britain in 1980. Local media say some top military generals and a group within ZANU-PF are backing Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa to succeed Mugabe.
Article Link:
Yahoo News article
South African opposition figure Malema seeks to overturn apartheid-era land law
Yahoo News - 4 months
By James Macharia JOHANNESBURG (Reuters) - A far-left South African politician who wants to nationalize banks, mines and land said on Monday he would ask the Constitutional Court to scrap an apartheid-era law used to prosecute him over calls to occupy white-owned land. Julius Malema, leader of the far-left Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF) party, won the permission of a judge to have his trial postponed while he challenges the 1956 Riotous Assemblies Act - a challenge legal experts said could well succeed. Land reform is a highly sensitive issue in South Africa and has been brought into focus by the decline in agriculture in neighboring Zimbabwe, where white commercial farmers were often evicted violently by President Robert Mugabe's government.
Article Link:
Yahoo News article
Zimbabwe growth to quicken to 4.8 pct in 2017 - Treasury document
Yahoo News - 4 months
Zimbabwe expects economic growth to quicken to 4.8 percent in 2017 from 1.2 percent this year on improved agriculture production and higher global commodity prices, the Treasury said in a budget strategy document. The southern African nation is in the throes of its worst financial crisis since it switched its currency for the U.S. dollar, and its plans to introduce local bank notes next month have helped fuel protests against President Robert Mugabe. In a document dated October and marked "pre-budget strategy paper for 2017", the Treasury said the economy had this year shown resilience in the face of liquidity shortages and the worst drought in a quarter century but would rebound next year.
Article Link:
Yahoo News article
Can Hashtags And Pop-Up Protests Topple A Leader?
NPR - 4 months
It's hashtags vs. Robert Mugabe. Social media is proving a new kind of challenge to Zimbabwe's strong-armed autocrat.
Article Link:
NPR article
Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Robert Mugabe
    LATE_ADULTHOOD
  • 2016
    Age 92
    As of August 2016, he is the world's oldest and one of the longest serving Head of State.
    More Details Hide Details His 36-year rule has been characterised by gross human rights violations; resulting in him joining the world list of dictators.
    In February 2016, Mugabe said he had no plans for retirement and would remain in power "until God says 'come'". On 11 September 2008, at the end of the fourth day of negotiations, South African President and mediator to Zimbabwe, Thabo Mbeki, announced in Harare that Robert Mugabe of Zanu-PF, Professor Arthur Mutambara and Morgan Tsvangirai (both of MDC) finally signed the power-sharing agreement – "memorandum of understanding."
    More Details Hide Details Mbeki stated: "An agreement has been reached on all items on the agenda... all of them Mugabe, Tsvangirai, Mutambara endorsed the document tonight, and signed it. The formal signing will be done on Monday 10 am. The document will be released then. The ceremony will be attended by SADC and other African regional and continental leaders. The leaders will spend the next few days constituting the inclusive government to be announced on Monday. The leaders will work very hard to mobilise support for the people to recover. We hope the world will assist so that this political agreement succeeds." In the signed historic power deal, Mugabe, on 11 September 2008 agreed to surrender day-to-day control of the government and the deal is also expected to result in a de facto amnesty for the military and Zanu-PF party leaders. Opposition sources said "Tsvangirai will become prime minister at the head of a council of ministers, the principal organ of government, drawn from his Movement for Democratic Change and the president's Zanu-PF party; and Mugabe will remain president and continue to chair a cabinet that will be a largely consultative body, and the real power will lie with Tsvangirai.
  • 2015
    Age 91
    In 2015, Mugabe attempted to censor photographs of him losing his balance in public.
    More Details Hide Details In November that same year, he announced of his intention to run for re-election in 2018, at the age of 94, and has been accepted as the ZANU-PF candidate.
    Mugabe was elected as the Chairperson of the African Union (AU) on 30 January 2015.
    More Details Hide Details He had previously led the AU's predecessor, the Organisation of African Unity in 1997–98. Robert Gabriel Mugabe was born near the Kutama Jesuit Mission in the Zvimba District northwest of Salisbury, in Southern Rhodesia, to a Malawian father, Gabriel Matibili, and a Shona mother, Bona, a daughter Chief Gutu of the Karanga tribe and Gumbo mutupo (totem) Masvingo Province. Both parents were Roman Catholic. He was the third of six children. He had two older brothers, Michael (1919–34) and Raphael. Both his older brothers died when he was young, leaving Robert and his younger brother, Donato (1926–2007), and two younger sisters – Sabina and Bridgette. His father, a carpenter, abandoned the family in 1934 after Michael died, in search of work in Bulawayo. Mugabe was raised as a Roman Catholic, studying in Marist Brothers and Jesuit schools, including the exclusive Kutama College, headed by an Irish priest, Father Jerome O'Hea, who took him under his wing. Through his youth, Mugabe was never socially popular nor physically active and spent most of his time with the priests or his mother when he was not reading in the school's libraries. He was described as never playing with other children but enjoying his own company. According to his brother Donato, "his only friends were his books".
  • 2014
    Age 90
    In December 2014, ten years after taking office, Joice Mujuru was accused of wanting to assassinate Mugabe to take office.
    More Details Hide Details These accusations were made by Grace Mugabe, Mugabe's young wife and her supporters who then included Christopher Mutsvangwa and youth members of ZANU PF. Mujuru was subsequently dismissed from the party together with several other high ranking ZANU PF officials including Didymus Mutasa, Nicholas Goche and Rugare Gumbo. Mugabe attacked Mujuru and her team strongly. the team went on to form People First party to challenge Mugabe. In October 2006, a report prepared by Zimbabwe's Ministry of Economic Development acknowledged the lack of co-ordination among critical government departments in Zimbabwe and the overall lack of commitment to end the crisis. The report implied that the infighting in Zanu-PF over Mugabe's successor was also hurting policy formulation and consistency in implementation.
    On December 9, 2014 it was reported that Mugabe fired his vice-president, Joice Mujuru, along with several other officials.
    More Details Hide Details They were accused of plotting to overthrow Mugabe's regime, although they deny this allegation. Mugabe, at 90 and in deteriorating health, must consider a successor to his regime. It is speculated that firing Mujuru would give way to either his wife, Grace Mugabe, rising to power, or Emmerson Mnangagwa to take over when he retires or dies. After the start of the Fast Track land reform program in 2000, the US Senate put a credit freeze on the government of Zimbabwe, through the Zimbabwe Democracy and Economic Recovery Act of 2001. Signed into law on 21 December 2001, ZDERA froze the Zimbabwean government's lines of credit at international financial institutions through Section 4C, titled Multilateral Financing Restriction. This credit freeze forced the Zimbabwean government to operate on a cash only basis, and caused high inflation in 2001 to turn into hyperinflation in 2002 and beyond. It caused the first export deficit, the first big drop in tobacco exports, and a greater fall of the Zimbabwe dollar against the US dollar than in the previous 6 years, in the year 2002.
    This speculation resurfaced in May 2014, when Mugabe was seen visiting a hospital with a well-known cancer clinic.
    More Details Hide Details Reports began to circulate in print and broadcast media over the Easter weekend 2012 that Mugabe had been flown by private jet to a hospital in Singapore and had agreed to transfer presidential power to defence minister Emmerson Mnangagwa. Reports that Mugabe was seriously ill were denied by the Zimbabwe government which described the visit to Singapore as being related to his daughter's education at a Hong Kong university.
    In 2014, speculation began that Mugabe's wife will succeed him in case of the event that he would die while in office.
    More Details Hide Details
    In February 2014, Mugabe's aides reported that he had undergone a cataract operation in Singapore.
    More Details Hide Details Upon return, he celebrated his 90th birthday in a football stadium in Marondera and addressed his supporters saying "I am made to feel youthful and as energetic as a boy of nine".
  • 2013
    Age 89
    These rumours were enhanced later the same month when WikiLeaks reported that Mugabe's close friend, Gideon Gono, had revealed that Mugabe had prostate cancer that would likely kill him by 2013.
    More Details Hide Details
    Mugabe was re-elected in 2013 with 61 percent of the vote. U.N Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon, having followed the elections in Zimbabwe closely, commended the Zimbabwean people for a broadly peaceful election day and for exercising their democratic rights.
    More Details Hide Details He stressed, at the same time, that the concerns which have been raised about certain aspects of the electoral process should be pursued through established channels. These concerns should then be considered transparently and fairly. The most important thing was that the will of the people of Zimbabwe be respected. Independent poll monitors reported widespread irregularities, and the state-appointed election commission reported that many voters were either turned away or received assistance from election officials. All in all SADC & the African Continent's main body African Union endorsed the Zimbabwean general elections which had an AU Observer team on the ground led by President General Olusegun Obasanjo. Since 1998 Mugabe's policies have increasingly elicited domestic and international denunciation. They have been denounced as racist against Zimbabwe's white minority. Mugabe has described his critics as "born again colonialists", and both he and his supporters claim that Zimbabwe's problems are the legacy of imperialism, aggravated by Western economic meddling. According to The Herald, a Zimbabwean newspaper owned by the government, the UK is pursuing a policy of regime change.
    In 2013, the Election Commission said Mugabe won his seventh term as President, defeating Tsvangirai with 61 percent of the vote in a disputed election in which there were numerous accounts of electoral fraud.
    More Details Hide Details
  • 2011
    Age 87
    Mujuru's candidacy for the presidency was strengthened by the backing of her husband, Solomon Mujuru, the former head of the Zimbabwean army, but his death in mysterious circumstances in August 2011 has reduced her chances.
    More Details Hide Details
  • 2010
    Age 86
    In September 2010 speculation began that Mugabe was dying of cancer.
    More Details Hide Details It is rumoured that his choice of successor would be Simba Makoni.
  • 2008
    Age 84
    At Zanu-PF's tenth annual conference in Bindura in December 2008, Mugabe spoke of his determination not to follow US president George W. Bush to his "political death" and urged the party to ready itself for new polls.
    More Details Hide Details He also took the opportunity once more to cite Britain as the source of Zimbabwe's woes.
    Mugabe was chosen by acclamation as the party's presidential candidate for 2008 by ZANU-PF delegates at a party conference on 13 December 2007.
    More Details Hide Details
    The Times charged that on 12 June 2008, Mugabe's Militia murdered Dadirai Chipiro, the wife of Mugabe's political opponent, Patson Chipiro, by burning her alive with a petrol bomb after severing her hands and feet.
    More Details Hide Details
    With some of the lowest ranked transparency of all nations, Zimbabwe has attracted a widespread loss of confidence in its economy. As a result, conditions have diminished. When the time came for his sixth re-election campaign in 2008, the opposition party, MDC, nominated Morgan Tsvangirai as their candidate.
    More Details Hide Details The resulting run-off between the two candidates was the first time in 30 years Mugabe's power was seriously threatened internally. When it became apparent the race would be close, Mugabe suspended the rules and declared himself president once again. An official from Chatham House suggested that Mugabe was unlikely to leave Zimbabwe, but that if he were to leave, he might go to Malaysia, where some believe that he has "stashed much of his wealth". In response to Mugabe's critics, former Zambian leader Kenneth Kaunda was quoted blaming not Mugabe for Zimbabwe's troubles, but successive British governments. He wrote in June 2007 that "leaders in the West say Robert Mugabe is a demon, that he has destroyed Zimbabwe and he must be got rid of– but this demonising is made by people who may not understand what Robert Gabriel Mugabe and his fellow freedom fighters went through". Similarly, Senegalese President Abdoulaye Wade responded to his critics by saying that Zimbabwe's problems are the legacy of colonialism.
    The Zimbabwean military, and not President Robert Mugabe, is now running the troubled country, in the opinion of a South Africa-based NGO called the Zimbabwe Solidarity Forum (ZSF) – 10 July 2008.
    More Details Hide Details The United Kingdom announced a policy of seizing foreign assets belonging to Mugabe. Mugabe replied that he has no foreign assets to seize. HSBC proceeded to seize the bank account of Sam Mugabe, a 23-year-old British subject of Zimbabwean origin, no relation to Robert Mugabe. The HSBC bank which carried out the seizure of her account subsequently apologised. On 20 December, despite increased criticism and pressure to resign, Mugabe averred during ZANU-PF's tenth annual conference in Bindura, some eighty kilometres north of Harare, that he would brook no such thing.
    Mugabe's inauguration to his sixth presidential term of office was a hastily arranged ceremony, convened barely an hour after the electoral commission declared his victory on 29 June 2008.
    More Details Hide Details None of his fellow African heads of state were present at his inauguration; there were only family members, ministers, and security chiefs in the guests' tent.
    When the official results for the presidential elections were finally published by the Zimbabwe election commission on 2 May 2008, they showed that Mugabe had lost in the first round, getting 1,079,730 votes (43.2%) against 1,195,562 (47.9%) collected by Mr. Tsvangirai.
    More Details Hide Details Therefore, no candidate secured the final win in the first round, and a presidential run-off will be needed. The opposition called the results "scandalous daylight robbery", claiming an outright victory in the first round with 50.3% of the votes. However, closer analysis of the opposition MDC's own figures, as published on the party's website at time, showed they had secured 49.1% of the vote and not the claimed requisite of more than 50% to avoid a run-off election. Mugabe's run-off campaign was managed by Emmerson Mnangagwa, a former security chief of the conflict of Gukurahundi. The Washington Post asserts that the campaign of violence was bringing results to the ruling party, by crushing the opposition party MDC and coercion of its supporters. By 20 June 2008, the Zimbabwe Association of Doctors for Human Rights had "recorded 85 deaths in political violence since the first round of voting". News organisations report that, by the date of the second-round election, more than 80 opposition supporters had been killed, hundreds more were missing, in addition to thousands injured, and hundreds of thousands driven from their homes.
    On 30 March 2008, Mugabe convened a meeting with his top security officials to discuss his defeat in the elections.
    More Details Hide Details According to the Washington Post, he was prepared to concede, but was advised by Zimbabwe's military chief Gen. Constantine Chiwenga to remain in the race, with the senior military officers "supervising a military-style campaign against the opposition". The first phase of the plan started a week later, involving the building of 2,000 party compounds across Zimbabwe, to serve as bases for the party militias. On an 8 April 2008 meeting, the military plan was given the code name of "CIBD", which stood for: "Coercion. Intimidation. Beating. Displacement." The official results for the presidential elections would be delayed for five weeks. When British Prime Minister Gordon Brown attempted to intervene into the election controversy, Mugabe dismissed him as "a little tiny dot on this planet".
    On 2 April 2008, the Zimbabwe Election Commission confirmed that Mugabe and his party, known as ZANU-PF, had lost control of Parliament to the main opposition party, the Movement for Democratic Change.
    More Details Hide Details This was confirmed when the results were released. Both the opposition and his party challenged the results in some constituencies. According to unofficial polling, Zanu-PF took 94 seats, and the main opposition party MDC took 96 seats. On 3 April 2008 Zimbabwean government forces began cracking down on the main opposition party and arrested at least two foreign journalists, who were covering the disputed presidential election, including a correspondent for the New York Times.
    The presidential elections were conducted on 29 March 2008, together with the parliamentary elections.
    More Details Hide Details
    On 9 March 2008, Zimbabwe's President, Robert Mugabe signed the Indigenisation and Economic Empowerment Bill into law.
    More Details Hide Details
    Mugabe's term of office expired at the end of March 2008, but he was re-elected later in 2008 and again 2013 in another elections marred by election fraud and intimidation.
    More Details Hide Details
    Mugabe launched his election campaign on his birthday in Beitbridge, a small town on the border with South Africa on 23 February 2008 by denouncing both the opposition MDC and Simba Makoni's candidacy.
    More Details Hide Details He was quoted in the state media as saying: "Dr Makoni lacked majority support while Mr Tsvangirai was in the presidential race simply to please his Western backers in exchange for money". These are the charges he has used in the past to describe the leader of the opposition. In the week Dr. Makoni launched his campaign for the presidency, he accused Mugabe of buying votes from the electorate. This was a few hours after Dumiso Dabengwa had come out and endorsed Dr. Makoni's candidature.
    In 2008, Mugabe suffered a narrow defeat in the first round of a presidential election but he subsequently won the run-off election in a landslide after his opponent Morgan Tsvangirai withdrew; Mugabe then entered a power-sharing deal with Tsvangirai as well as Arthur Mutambara of the MDC-T and MDC-M opposition party.
    More Details Hide Details
  • 2007
    Age 83
    The Indigenisation and Economic Empowerment Bill was passed through parliament in September 2007 by President Mugabe's party, Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF), Emmerson Mnangagwa was in charge of representing the Bill.
    More Details Hide Details In spite of resistance by the opposition party, Movement for Democratic Change (MDC). President Robert Mugabe said his drive to give black Zimbabweans greater control of the southern African economy will continue "unabated" following his "resounding" endorsement in the 31 July elections. "The indigenisation and empowerment drive will continue unabated in order to ensure that indigenous Zimbabweans enjoy a larger share of the country's resources." Mugabe said that giving black Zimbabweans control of the business sector is the next step and said the election result had given him a "resounding mandate" to do so. "We will do everything in our power to ensure our objective of total indigenisation, empowerment, development and employment is realised," he told a public rally to mark the annual Defence Forces Day. He said the policy was the "final phase of the liberation struggle" and "final phase of total independence".
    At independence celebrations in Ghana in March 2007, South African President Thabo Mbeki was rumoured to have met with Mugabe in private and told him that "he was determined that South Africa's hosting of the Football World Cup in 2010 should not be disrupted by controversial presidential elections in Zimbabwe".
    More Details Hide Details
    On 30 March 2007, it was announced that the ZANU-PF central committee had chosen Mugabe as the party's candidate for another term in 2008, that presidential terms would be shortened to five years, and that the parliamentary election would also be held in 2008.
    More Details Hide Details
    Mugabe claimed that "Tsvangirai deserved his beating-up by police because he was not allowed to attend a banned rally" on 30 March 2007.
    More Details Hide Details
    On 6 February 2007, Mugabe orchestrated a cabinet reshuffle, ousting ministers including five-year veteran finance minister Herbert Murerwa.
    More Details Hide Details On 11 March 2007, opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai was arrested and beaten following a prayer meeting in the Harare suburb of Highfields. Another member of the Movement for Democratic Change was killed while other protesters were injured.
  • 2006
    Age 82
    In late 2006, a plan was presented to postpone the next presidential election until 2010, at the same time as the next parliamentary election, thereby extending Mugabe's term by two years.
    More Details Hide Details It was said that holding the two elections together would be a cost-saving measure, but the plan was not approved: there were reportedly objections from some in ZANU-PF to the idea. In March 2007, Mugabe said that he thought that the feeling was in favour of holding the two elections together in 2008 instead of 2010. He also said that he would be willing to run for re-election again if the party wanted him to do so. Other leaders in southern Africa were rumoured to be less warm on the idea of extending his term to 2010.
    As of September 2006, Mugabe's family owns three farms: "Highfield Estate" in Norton, 45 km west of Harare, "Iron Mask Estate" in Mazowe, about 40 km from Harare, and "Foyle Farm" in Mazowe, formerly owned by Ian Webster and adjacent to Iron Mask Farm and renamed "Gushungo Farm" after Mugabe's own clan name.
    More Details Hide Details These farms were seized forcibly from their previous owners. Mugabe blames the food shortages on drought and the cumulative effect of sanctions imposed against the country. In November 2010 the Institute of Development Studies at Sussex University in England released a comprehensive study on the effects of Zimbabwean land reform. The study suggested that the consequences were mixed but that previous claims that the reform was a failure, that its primary recipients were political "cronies" or that it caused rural collapse were unfounded. One of the study's authors, Professor Ian Scoones, stated: "What comes through from our research is the complexity, the differences in experience, almost farm by farm; there is no single, simple story of the Zimbabwe land reform as sometimes assumed by press reports, political commentators, or indeed much academic study". In 2015 he announced a proposal to return some land to white farmers.
  • 2005
    Age 81
    In June 2005, a report that Mugabe had entered a hospital for tests on his heart fuelled rumours that he had died of a heart attack. These reports were later dismissed by a Mugabe spokesman. Joyce Mujuru, was elevated to vice-president of ZANU-PF during the December 2004 party congress and considerably younger than Joseph Msika, the other vice-president, has been touted as a likely successor to Mugabe.
    More Details Hide Details
    On 8 April 2005, Mugabe attended the funeral of Pope John Paul II, a move which could be seen as defiance of a European Union travel ban that does not, however, apply to Vatican City.
    More Details Hide Details He was granted a transit visa by the Italian authorities, as they are obliged to under the Concordat. However, the Catholic hierarchy in Zimbabwe have been very vocal against his rule and the senior Catholic cleric, Archbishop Pius Ncube is a major critic, even calling for Western governments to help in his overthrow. Robert Mugabe and senior members of the Harare government are not allowed to travel to the United States because it is the position of the US government that he has worked to undermine democracy in Zimbabwe and has restricted freedom of the press. Despite strained political relations, the United States remains a leading provider of humanitarian assistance to Zimbabwe, providing roughly US$900 million in humanitarian assistance from 2002–2008, mostly food aid. Because United Nations events are exempt from the travel bans, Mugabe attended the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) summit in Rome. African leaders threatened to boycott the event if Mugabe were blacklisted; when he was not, the United Kingdom refused to send a representative. British and Australian officials denounced the presence of Mugabe.
    Mugabe's office forbade the screening of the 2005 movie The Interpreter – which had as an antagonist a South African dictator widely thought to be modelled after Mugabe – claiming that it was propaganda by the CIA and fearing that it could incite hostility towards him.
    More Details Hide Details In 2007, Parade magazine ranked Mugabe the 7th worst dictator in the world. The same magazine ranked him worst dictator of the year 2009 two years later.
    In 2005, Mugabe ordered a raid conducted on what the government termed "illegal shelters" in Harare, resulting in 10,000 urban poor being left homeless from "Operation Murambatsvina (English: Operation Drive Out the Rubbish)."
    More Details Hide Details The authorities themselves had moved the poor inhabitants to the area in 1992, telling them not to build permanent homes and that their new homes were temporary, leading the inhabitants to build their own temporary shelters out of cardboard and wood. Since the inhabitants of the shantytowns overwhelmingly supported the Movement for Democratic Change opposition party in the previous election, many alleged that the mass bulldozing was politically motivated. The UK's Daily Telegraph noted that Mugabe's "latest palace," in the style of a pagoda, was located a mile from the destroyed shelters. The UN released a report stating that the actions of Mugabe resulted in the loss of home or livelihood for more than 700,000 Zimbabweans and negatively affected 2.4 million more.
  • 2003
    Age 79
    In the United Kingdom, the House of Commons Foreign Affairs Select Committee called for the removal of this honour in 2003, and on 25 June 2008, the Queen cancelled and annulled the honorary knighthood after advice from the Foreign Secretary of the United Kingdom. "This action has been taken as a mark of revulsion at the abuse of human rights and abject disregard for the democratic process in Zimbabwe over which President Mugabe has presided."
    More Details Hide Details
    In recent years, Western governments have condemned Mugabe's government. On 9 March 2003, US President George W. Bush approved measures for economic sanctions to be levelled against Mugabe and other high-ranking Zimbabwe politicians, freezing their assets and barring Americans from engaging in any transactions or dealings with them.
    More Details Hide Details Justifying the move, Bush's spokesman stated that the President and Congress believe that "the situation in Zimbabwe endangers the southern African region and threatens to undermine efforts to foster good governance and respect for the rule of law throughout the continent." The bill was known as the Zimbabwe Democracy Act. In reaction to human rights violations in Zimbabwe, students at universities from which Mugabe has honorary doctorates have sought to get the degrees revoked. So far, the University of Edinburgh and University of Massachusetts Amherst have stripped Mugabe of his honorary degree after two years of campaigning from Edinburgh University Students' Association. In addition, the student body at Michigan State University (ASMSU) unanimously passed a resolution calling for this. The issue is now being considered by the university.
    The United Kingdom once condemned Mugabe's authoritarian policies and alleged racist attitudes as being comparable to those of German Nazi dictator Adolf Hitler. A response came during the state funeral for a Zimbabwean Cabinet minister in March 2003.
    More Details Hide Details
  • 2002
    Age 78
    Mugabe faced Tsvangirai of the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) in presidential elections in March 2002.
    More Details Hide Details Mugabe defeated Tsvangirai by 56.2% to 41.9% amid violence and the prevention of large numbers of citizens in urban areas from voting. The conduct of the elections was widely viewed internationally as having been manipulated. Many groups, such as the United Kingdom, the European Union, the United States, and Tsvangirai's party, assert that the result was rigged. Mugabe's ZANU-PF party won the 2005 parliamentary elections with an increased majority. The elections were said by (again) South African observers to "reflect the free will of the people of Zimbabwe", despite accusations of widespread fraud from the MDC.
  • 2000
    Age 76
    The report also notes that about 2000 of these people were killed within the first week of deployment.
    More Details Hide Details
  • 1997
    Age 73
    According to Clare Short's advisor Soni Rajan, in the book Dinner With Mugabe by Heidi Holland, the New Labour government wanted to get rid of Robert Mugabe as early as 1997, even before the Fast Track land reform program: “It was absolutely clear from the attitude of her Short’s staff towards my recommendations that Labour's strategy was to accelerate Mugabe's unpopularity by failing to provide him with funding for land redistribution.
    More Details Hide Details They thought if they didn't give him the money for land reform, his people in the rural areas would start to turn against him. That was their position; they wanted him out and they were going to do whatever they could to hasten his demise.” From 12 to 13 February 2000, a referendum on constitutional amendments was held. The proposed amendments would have limited future presidents to two terms, but as it was not retroactive, Mugabe could have stood for another two terms. It also would have made his government and military officials immune from prosecution for any illegal acts committed while in office. In addition, it allowed the government to confiscate white-owned land for redistribution to black farmers without compensation. The motion failed with 55% of participants against the referendum. The referendum had a 20% turnout fuelled by an effective SMS campaign. Mugabe declared that he would "abide by the will of the people". The vote was a surprise to ZANU-PF, and an embarrassment before parliamentary elections due in mid-April. Almost immediately, self-styled "war veterans", led by Chenjerai 'Hitler' Hunzvi, began invading white-owned farms. Those who did not leave voluntarily were often tortured and sometimes killed. One was forced to drink diesel fuel as a form of torture. On 6 April 2000, Parliament pushed through an amendment, taken word for word from the draft constitution that was rejected by voters, allowing the seizure of white-owned farmlands without due reimbursement or payment.
    In 1997, a court found Canaan Banana, Mugabe's predecessor and the first President of Zimbabwe, guilty of 11 counts of sodomy and indecent assault.
    More Details Hide Details He has previously referred to lesbians and gays as being "worse than dogs and pigs". In 2015, Mugabe was condemned by several United Nations agencies for his remarks on homosexuality. Mugabe was criticised for agreeing to Zimbabwe's participation in the Second Congo War in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, this at time when the Zimbabwean economy was struggling. Zimbabwe was responding to a call by the Southern African Development Community to help the struggling regime in Kinshasa. The Democratic Republic of the Congo had been invaded by Rwanda and Uganda, both of which claimed that their civilians, and regional stability, were under constant threat of attack by Rwandan Hutu militiamen based in the Congo. However, the Congolese government, as well as international commentators, charged that the motive for the invasion was to grab the rich mineral resources of eastern Congo. The war raised accusations of corruption, with officials alleged to be plundering the Congo's mineral reserves. Mugabe's defence minister Moven Mahachi said, "Instead of our army in the DRC burdening the treasury for more resources, which are not available, it embarks on viable projects for the sake of generating the necessary revenue".
  • 1996
    Age 72
    Following the death of Sally Hayfron, Mugabe was free to marry Grace which he did on 17 August 1996 in a Roman Catholic wedding Mass at Kutama College; a Catholic mission school he had previously attended.
    More Details Hide Details The wedding was presided over by the Archbishop of Harara, Patrick Fani Chakaipa. Nelson Mandela and Mugabe's two children by Grace were among the guests. Robert Mugabe has three children (one girl and two boys): Bona Mugabe, Robert Peter Mugabe Jr. and Chatunga Bellarmine Mugabe; and one stepson with Grace Mugabe, his second wife: Russell Goreraza. As First Lady of Zimbabwe, Grace has been the subject of criticism for her lifestyle. Her sometimes lavish international shopping sprees have led to the nickname "Gucci Grace". When she was included in the 2002 EU travel sanctions on her husband, one EU parliamentarian was quoted as saying that the ban "will stop Grace Mugabe going on her shopping trips in the face of catastrophic poverty blighting the people of Zimbabwe".
  • 1995
    Age 71
    The World Bank's 1995 report predicted this decline in life expectancy from its 1990 height of 64 years when, commenting on health care system cuts mandated by the IMF structural adjustment programme, it stated that "The decline in resources is creating strains and threatening the sustainability of health sector achievements".
    More Details Hide Details While Zimbabwe has suffered in many other measures under Mugabe, as a former schoolteacher he has been well known for his commitment to education. As of 2008, Zimbabwe had a literacy rate of 90%, the highest in Africa. However, Catholic Archbishop of Zimbabwe Pius Ncube decried the educational situation in the country, saying, among other scathing indictments of Mugabe, "We had the best education in Africa and now our schools are closing". Prior to its suspension in 2009, the Zimbabwe dollar had suffered from the second-highest hyperinflation rate of any currency in modern times. A number of people have accused Mugabe of having a racist attitude towards white people. John Sentamu, the Uganda-born Archbishop of York in the United Kingdom, calls Mugabe "the worst kind of racist dictator," for having "targeted the whites for their apparent riches". Almost thirty years after ending white-minority rule in Zimbabwe, Mugabe accuses the United Kingdom and the United States of promoting white imperialism and regularly accuses opposition figures to his government of being allies of white imperialism.
  • 1990
    Age 66
    Mugabe has been the Chancellor of the University of Zimbabwe since Parliament passed the University of Zimbabwe Amendment Bill in November 1990 and is also Chancellor of all state Universities including Bindura University, National University of Science and Technology, Midlands State University, Chinhoyi University of Science and Technology, Lupane State University, harare Institute of Technology, Great Zimbabwe University and Gwanda State University,
    More Details Hide Details
    He was re-elected in 1990 and 1996, and in 2002 amid claims of widespread vote-rigging and intimidation.
    More Details Hide Details
  • 1987
    Age 63
    In 1987, the position of Prime Minister was abolished and Mugabe assumed the new office of executive President of Zimbabwe gaining additional powers in the process.
    More Details Hide Details
    Mugabe consolidated his power in December 1987, when he was declared executive president by parliament, combining the roles of head of state, head of government, and commander-in-chief of the armed forces, with powers to dissolve parliament and declare martial law.
    More Details Hide Details
  • FIFTIES
  • 1982
    Age 58
    In 1982, Mugabe pretended to discover old Russian trucks and weapons, held in ZAPU farms for disposal.
    More Details Hide Details The weapons were known to the government and were beyond use after having been used in the Angola war. He used this as an excuse to instigate a genocide in Matabeleland, resulting in over 20,000 deaths among the civilian population. The fact that there was no evidence for a planned ZAPU-led conflict was accepted by Zimbabwean courts, which acquitted Dumiso Dabengwa and General Lookout Masuku. Supporting the claim of prior-planning for crushing the people of Matabeleland and Midlands for standing in the way of his one-party state ambition is the fact that his North Korean army training agreement was signed in June 1980, long before any arms were allegedly found. Additionally, the 5th Brigade was never training in military tactics, such as defending a territory or mounting an offensive; they were training in civilian population military tactics. Mugabe himself noted that it was deployed to 'reorient the people' not to fight any dissidents.
    Between 1982 and 1985, the military crushed armed resistance from Ndebele groups in the provinces of Matabeleland and the Midlands, leaving Mugabe's rule secure.
    More Details Hide Details Mugabe has been accused by the BBC's Panorama programme of committing mass murder during this period of his rule, after the show investigated claims made by political activist Gary Jones that Mugabe had been instrumental in removing him and his family from his farmland. A peace accord was negotiated in 1987. ZAPU merged into the Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) on 22 December 1988. Mugabe brought Nkomo into the government once again as a vice-president. Mugabe planned to reorient the people of Matabeleland and Midlands, after he failed to win any seats there. Mugabe had been friends with Julius Nyerere, who had convinced him that the most effective way to progress post-colonial Africa was to embark on one-party politics. To him, democracy was a detraction that colonialists would use to destabilise newly independent countries.
  • 1980
    Age 56
    From 1980 to 1990 infant mortality decreased from 86 to 49 per 1000 live births, under five mortality was reduced from 128 to 58 per 1000 live births, and immunisation increased from 25% to 80% of the population.
    More Details Hide Details Also, "child malnutrition fell from 22% to 12% and life expectancy increased from 56 to 64. By 1990, Zimbabwe had a lower infant mortality rate, higher adult literacy and higher school enrolment rate than average for developing countries". In 1991, the government of Zimbabwe, short on hard currency and under international pressure, embarked on an austerity program. The World Bank's 1995 report explained that such reforms were required because Zimbabwe was unable to absorb into its labour market the many graduates from its impressive education system and that it needed to attract additional foreign investments. The reforms, however, undermined the livelihoods of Zimbabwe's poor majority; the report noted "large segments of the population, including most smallholder farmers and small scale enterprises, find themselves in a vulnerable position with limited capacity to respond to evolving market opportunities. This is due to their limited access to natural, technical and financial resources, to the contraction of many public services for smallholder agriculture, and to their still nascent links with larger scale enterprises."
    As one of the leaders of the rebel groups in opposition to white minority rule, he was elected Prime Minister in 1980, serving in that office as head of the government, until 1987, when he became the country's first executive head of state.
    More Details Hide Details He has led the Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front (ZANU–PF) since 1975.
  • 1979
    Age 55
    His return to Zimbabwe in December 1979, following the completion of the Lancaster House Agreement, was greeted with enormous supportive crowds.
    More Details Hide Details After a campaign marked by intimidation from all sides, mistrust from security forces and reports of full ballot boxes found on the road, the Shona majority was decisive in electing Mugabe to head the first government as prime minister on 4 March 1980. ZANU won 57 out of 80 Common Roll seats in the new parliament, with the 20 white seats all going to the Rhodesian Front. Mugabe, whose political support came from his Shona-speaking homeland in the north, attempted to build Zimbabwe on a basis of an uneasy coalition with his ZAPU rivals, whose support came from the Ndebele-speaking south, and with the white minority. Mugabe sought to incorporate ZAPU into his ZANU led government and ZAPU's military wing into the army. ZAPU's leader, Joshua Nkomo, was given a series of cabinet positions in Mugabe's government. However, Mugabe was torn between this objective and pressures to meet the expectations of his own ZANU followers for a faster pace of social change.
  • 1975
    Age 51
    Mugabe unilaterally assumed control of ZANU after the death of Herbert Chitepo on 18 March 1975.
    More Details Hide Details Later that year, after squabbling with Ndabaningi Sithole, Mugabe formed a militant ZANU faction, leaving Sithole to lead the moderate Zanu (Ndonga) party. Many opposition leaders mysteriously died during this time (including one who allegedly died in a car crash, although the car was rumoured to have been riddled with bullet holes at the scene of the accident). Additionally, an opposing newspaper's printing press was bombed and its journalists tortured. Under pressure from Henry Kissinger, South African Prime Minister B. J. Vorster persuaded his Rhodesian counterpart Ian Smith to accept in principle that white minority rule could not continue indefinitely. On 3 March 1978 Bishop Abel Muzorewa, Ndabaningi Sithole and other moderate leaders signed an agreement at the Governor's Lodge in Salisbury, which paved the way for an interim power-sharing government, in preparation for elections. The elections were won by the United African National Council under Bishop Abel Muzorewa, but international recognition did not follow and sanctions were not lifted. The two 'Patriotic Front' groups under Mugabe and Joshua Nkomo refused to participate and continued the war.
  • FORTIES
  • 1974
    Age 50
    Following a South African détente initiative, Mugabe was released from prison in December 1974 along with other Nationalist leaders and having initially travelled to Zambia, where he was ignored by Kenneth Kaunda, returned then left with Edgar Tekere in April 1975 for Mozambique assisted by a Dominican nun, where he was later placed in temporary protective custody by President Samora Machel, the suspicion was duly quelled by Commander Solomon Mujuru, and Mugabe & Tekere were able to provide the leadership to kickstart the armed struggle after the tragic death of Chairman Herbert Chitepo.
    More Details Hide Details According to Eddie Cross who participated in interviews of the leadership at that time to determine their views on the "longer term future", Mugabe's political viewpoint was that "a new 'progressive' society could not be constructed on the foundations of the past that they would have to destroy most of what had been built up after 1900 before a new society, based on subsistence and peasant values could be constructed".
    In 1974, while still incarcerated, Mugabe was elected—with the powerful influence of Edgar Tekere—to take over the reins of ZANU after a no-confidence vote was passed on Ndabaningi Sithole—Mugabe himself abstained from voting.
    More Details Hide Details His time in prison burnished his reputation and helped his cause.
  • 1966
    Age 42
    When his three-year-old son Nhamodzenyika died from malaria in Ghana in late 1966, Mugabe petitioned the prison governor to leave on parole to attend the funeral in Accra, the Ghanaian capital.
    More Details Hide Details The Prime Minister Ian Smith intervened personally to prevent this.
  • THIRTIES
  • 1964
    Age 40
    During early 1964 tension between the two rival nationalist parties boiled over into violent conflict within the black townships. "Many people were killed as rival former colleagues the nationalist movement turned against each other," write David Martin and Phyllis Johnson; "Homes and stores were burned and looted."
    More Details Hide Details The government reacted by arresting political agitators for criminal offences and jailing Nkomo in Gonakudzingwa Restriction Camp, a remote detention unit in the south-east of the country. After members of ZANU murdered a farmer, Petrus Oberholzer, on 4 July 1964, ZANU and ZAPU were officially banned on 26 August 1964; their leaders, including Mugabe, were shortly arrested and imprisoned indefinitely. ZAPU figures joined Nkomo at Gonakudzingwa while the leaders of ZANU were briefly held in turn at two similar units near Gwelo (Gweru since 1982), first Wha Wha, then, from 15 June 1965, Sikombela, before being transferred permanently to Salisbury Prison on 8 November 1965. Mugabe earned numerous further degrees by correspondence courses while detained, including three from the University of London: degrees in Law and Economics respectively and a Bachelor of Administration.
  • 1963
    Age 39
    Their only son, Michael Nhamodzenyika Mugabe, born 27 September 1963, died on 26 December 1966 from cerebral malaria in Ghana where Sally was working while Mugabe was in prison.
    More Details Hide Details Sally Mugabe was a trained teacher who asserted her position as an independent political activist and campaigner. She was seen as Mugabe's closest friend and adviser, and some critics suggest that Mugabe began to misrule Zimbabwe after her death. While married to Hayfron, Mugabe began an extra-marital affair with his secretary, Grace Marufu, who was 41 years his junior. Grace first became pregnant by Mugabe while both were still married (Grace being married to Stanley Goreraza, whom she subsequently divorced). The couple went on to have a second child.
    Mugabe left ZAPU in 1963 to join the breakaway Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU), which had been formed by the Reverend Ndabaningi Sithole, Edgar Tekere, Edson Zvobgo, Enos Nkala and lawyer Herbert Chitepo.
    More Details Hide Details ZANU was influenced by the Africanist ideas of the Pan Africanist Congress in South Africa and influenced by Maoism while ZAPU was an ally of the African National Congress and was a supporter of a more orthodox pro-Soviet line on national liberation. Similar divisions can also be seen in the independence movement in Angola between the MPLA and UNITA. It would have been easy for the party to split along tribal lines between the Ndebele and Mugabe's own Shona tribe, but cross-tribal representation was maintained by his partners. ZANU leader Sithole nominated Robert Mugabe as his Secretary General.
  • 1960
    Age 36
    Mugabe returned to Southern Rhodesia and joined the National Democratic Party (NDP) in 1960.
    More Details Hide Details After the administration of Prime Minister Edgar Whitehead banned the NDP in September 1961, it almost immediately reformed as the Zimbabwe African Peoples Union (ZAPU), led by Joshua Nkomo.
  • 1955
    Age 31
    After graduating, Mugabe lectured at Chalimbana Teacher Training College in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) from 1955–58, thereafter he taught at Apowa Secondary School at Takoradi, in the Western region of Ghana after completing his local certification at Achimota School (1958–60), where he met Sally Hayfron, whom he married in April 1961.
    More Details Hide Details During his stay in Ghana, he was influenced and inspired by Ghana's then Prime Minister, Kwame Nkrumah. In addition, Mugabe and some of his Zimbabwe African National Union party cadres received instruction at the Kwame Nkrumah Ideological Institute, then at Winneba in southern Ghana.
  • TWENTIES
  • 1951
    Age 27
    Originally graduating with a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Fort Hare in 1951, Mugabe subsequently earned six further degrees through distance learning including a Bachelor of Administration and Bachelor of Education from the University of South Africa and a Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Laws, Master of Science, and Master of Laws, all from the University of London External Programme.
    More Details Hide Details The two Law degrees were earned while he was in prison, the Master of Science degree earned during his premiership of Zimbabwe.
    He qualified as a teacher, but left to study at Fort Hare in South Africa graduating in 1951, while meeting contemporaries such as Julius Nyerere, Herbert Chitepo, Robert Sobukwe and Kenneth Kaunda.
    More Details Hide Details He then studied at Salisbury (1953), Gwelo (1954), and Tanzania (1955–57).
  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1924
    Age 0
    Born on February 21, 1924.
    More Details Hide Details
Original Authors of this text are noted here.
All data offered is derived from public sources. Spokeo does not verify or evaluate each piece of data, and makes no warranties or guarantees about any of the information offered. Spokeo does not possess or have access to secure or private financial information. Spokeo is not a consumer reporting agency and does not offer consumer reports. None of the information offered by Spokeo is to be considered for purposes of determining any entity or person's eligibility for credit, insurance, employment, housing, or for any other purposes covered under the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA)