Robert Schumann
Composer, pianist
Robert Schumann
Robert Schumann, sometimes known as Robert Alexander Schumann, was a German composer, aesthete and influential music critic. He is regarded as one of the greatest and most representative composers of the Romantic era. Schumann left the study of law to return to music, intending to pursue a career as a virtuoso pianist. He had been assured by his teacher Friedrich Wieck that he could become the finest pianist in Europe, but a hand injury ended this dream.
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Renowned bass-baritone Eric Owens to open Vocal Arts DC 2011-12 Season, Sept 10 - Examiner.com
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For his upcoming Kennedy Center Recital, Owens will sing a rapturous program of works by Songs of Hugo Wolf, Robert Schumann, Franz Schubert, Claude Debussy, Henry Duparc, Maurice Ravel and Richard Wagner. In 2010 when Owens was preparing for his
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Oklahoma City-area college news Oklahoma City-area college news. - NewsOK.com
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They will perform Robert Schumann's “Dichterliebe,” with poetry by Heinrich Heine, and Gerald Finzi's “Earth and Air and Rain,” with poetry by Thomas Hardy. The series will include various musical styles, from jazz to chamber music to original
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Explosive chamber music in Santa Fe - El Paso Inc
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They laid on a vivacious presentation of Robert Schumann's “Piano Quartet E-flat Major, Op 47” that drew a standing O from an appreciative audience. Schumann's wistfully romantic lieder was artfully demonstrated in seven songs by this year's popular
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Voice professor to kick off university's Faculty Artist Concert Series - NewsOK.com
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Robert Schumann set 16 poems by Heinrich Heine in his 1840 song cycle “Dichterliebe” (“The Poet's Love”). Gerald Finzi found similar inspiration in the poetry of Thomas Hardy, which subsequently became the basis for his song cycle “Earth and Air and
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Biology Researchers Study Connecticut's Native Fish Populations - Wesleyan Connection (blog)
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Barry Chernoff, the Robert Schumann Professor of Environmental Studies, and his graduate student, Michelle Tipton, photograph an Eastern Blacknose Dace used in their current research. The photo of the fish will appear in an upcoming scientific journal
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Clara/Clara is a well-intended production - Straight.com
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Continues until August 20 Clara/Clara, a show about the great pianist and wife of Robert Schumann at the new Vancouver Symphony School of Music, splits Clara Schumann (born Wieck) into the virtuoso musician and the later keeper of the flame who wore
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Revelatory Schumann from Orchestra of the Swan - Indianapolis Star (blog)
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Two third symphonies make up an arresting release from Avie Records: Robert Schumann's in E-flat, op. 97, sometimes called “the Rhenish,” and Op. 62 in A by Hans Gal, a long-lived Austrian-British composer who died in 1987
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Quest for paradise opens "Oriental" Edinburgh Festival - Reuters
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EDINBURGH (Reuters) - German composer Robert Schumann's tale of a fairy-like creature's quest to enter paradise opened an "Oriental-themed" Edinburgh International Festival this weekend to the acclaim of the critics
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EIF Opening Concert: Das Paradies und die Peri Review - EdinburghGuide.com
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The piece chosen was Robert Schumann's seldom-performed choral work Das Paradis und die Peri. Composed in 1843 the cantata for soloists, chorus and orchestra is based on an extract from Lalla Rookh – a Persian mythological tale by the Irish poet Thomas
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Chamber festival ends with landmark Stravinsky work - Palm Beach Post
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And this weekend, instead of the Bach and Robert Mucyzinski's Fragments for flute, clarinet and bassoon, the festival has scheduled the big Piano Quintet (in E-flat, Op. 44) of Robert Schumann, featuring pianist Yang Shen
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Two Composers, Honored Silently - New York Times
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Mendelssohn's 200th followed in 2009, and 2010 brought a bumper crop of celebrations, with impresarios intertwining the bicentennials of Robert Schumann and Frederic Chopin with the 150th anniversary of Gustav Mahler's birth
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Jacob Greenberg - Schumann and Busoni - Time Out Chicago
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For his latest album, the Northwestern grad steps into the age of piano grandmasters Robert Schumann and Ferruccio Busoni for a more tonal exploration of interiors and exteriors. The intimacy conjured throughout Schumann's Humoreske, Op. 20,
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Fontana delivers encore of 'Clara' - Kalamazoo Gazette - MLive.com
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For those who missed “Clara,” Fontana Chamber Arts is offering a chance Friday, Saturday and July 24 to watch actress Sharon Williams portray Clara Schumann and hear pianist Lori Sims play music by Schumann, her husband, Robert Schumann, and others
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Exotic Creatures, Birds Of Prey, Reptiles, And Atlatl Planned For Schumann Series - Patch.com
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The presentations honor Madison resident Robert Schumann, an avid birder, a former member of the board of the National Audubon, and strong supporter of Friends of Hammonasset. To find out more, contact Russ Miller at 203-245-8743, Don Rankin at
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Brendels, Lee faculty members, to direct music festival in Germany - Cleveland Daily Banner
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This program is designed for classical singers of a variety of ages and levels to study German Romantic song literature in Zwickau, the birthplace of Robert Schumann. Participants will have daily intensive language study, German language diction
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Music@Menlo chamber festival's ninth edition will focus on Brahms - San Jose Mercury News
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The festival's opening program -- "The Young Eagle" (what Robert Schumann dubbed Brahms) -- begins with works by Mozart, Schubert and Schumann. This is music that surrounded and influenced the young Brahms ("who comes along and pushes everybody aside,"
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Robert Schumann
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  • 1856
    Diagnosed with "psychotic melancholia", Schumann died two years later in 1856 without having recovered from his mental illness.
    More Details Hide Details Schumann was born in Zwickau, in the Kingdom of Saxony, the fifth and last child of Johanna Christiane (née Schnabel) and August Schumann. Schumann began to compose before the age of seven, but his boyhood was spent in the cultivation of literature as much as music – undoubtedly influenced by his father, a bookseller, publisher, and novelist. Schumann began receiving general musical and piano instruction at the age of seven from Johann Gottfried Kuntzsch, a teacher at the Zwickau high school. The boy immediately developed a love of music and worked at creating musical compositions himself, without the aid of Kuntzsch. Even though he often disregarded the principles of musical composition, he created works regarded as admirable for his age. The Universal Journal of Music 1850 supplement included a biographical sketch of Schumann that noted, "It has been related that Schumann, as a child, possessed rare taste and talent for portraying feelings and characteristic traits in melody,—ay, he could sketch the different dispositions of his intimate friends by certain figures and passages on the piano so exactly and comically that everyone burst into loud laughter at the similitude of the portrait." (W.J. von Wasielewski 17–19)
    From the time of her husband's death, Clara devoted herself to the performance and interpretation of his works. In 1856, she first visited England, but the critics received Schumann's music coolly.
    More Details Hide Details Critics such as Henry Fothergill Chorley were particularly harsh in their disapproval. She returned to London in 1865 and made regular appearances there in later years. She became the authoritative editor of her husband's works for Breitkopf & Härtel. It was rumoured that she and Brahms destroyed many of Schumann's later works, which they thought to be tainted by his madness. However, only the Five Pieces for Cello and Piano are known to have been destroyed. Most of Schumann's late works, particularly the Violin Concerto, the Fantasy for Violin and Orchestra and the Violin Sonata No. 3, all from 1853, have entered the repertoire. Schumann had considerable influence in the nineteenth century and beyond, despite his adoption of more conservative modes of composition after his marriage. He left an array of acclaimed music in virtually all the forms then known. Partly through his protégé Brahms, Schumann's ideals and musical vocabulary became widely disseminated. Composer Sir Edward Elgar called Schumann "my ideal."
    He entered Dr. Franz Richarz's sanatorium in Endenich, a quarter of Bonn, and remained there until he died on 29 July 1856 at the age of 46.
    More Details Hide Details During his confinement, he was not allowed to see Clara, although Brahms was free to visit him. Clara finally visited him two days before his death. He appeared to recognize her, but was able to speak only a few words. Given his reported symptoms, one modern view is that his death was a result of syphilis, which he may have contracted during his student days, and which would have remained latent during most of his marriage. According to studies by the musicologist and literary scholar Eric Sams, Schumann's symptoms during his terminal illness and death appear consistent with those of mercury poisoning, mercury at this time being a common treatment for syphilis and other conditions. Another possibility is that his neurological problems were the result of an intracranial mass. A report by Janisch and Nauhaus on Schumann's autopsy indicates that he had a "gelatinous" tumor at the base of the brain; it may have represented a colloid cyst, a craniopharyngioma, a chordoma, or a chordoid meningioma. In particular, meningiomas are known to produce musical auditory hallucinations, such as Schumann reported. It has also been hypothesised that he may have suffered from for either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and bipolar II disorder. Other sources have supported a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, citing his mood swings and changes in productivity. Schumann did indeed hear an "A" at the end of his life. It was a form of tinnitus, or perhaps an auditory hallucination related to his major depressive episode.
  • 1854
    On 27 February 1854, he attempted suicide by throwing himself from a bridge into the Rhine River (his elder sister Emilie had committed suicide in 1825, possibly by drowning herself).
    More Details Hide Details Rescued by boatmen and taken home, he asked to be taken to an asylum for the insane.
    In late February 1854, Schumann's symptoms increased, the angelic visions sometimes being replaced by demonic visions.
    More Details Hide Details He warned Clara that he feared he might do her harm.
    In January 1854, Schumann went to Hanover, where he heard a performance of his Paradise and the Peri organized by Joachim and Brahms.
    More Details Hide Details Two years later at Schumann's request, the work received its first English performance conducted by William Sterndale Bennett. Schumann returned to Düsseldorf and began to edit his complete works and make an anthology on the subject of music. He suffered a renewal of the symptoms that had threatened him earlier. Besides the single note sounding in his ear (possibly evidence of tinnitus), he imagined that voices sounded in his ear and he heard angelic music. One night he suddenly left his bed, having dreamt or imagined that a ghost (purportedly the spirit of either Schubert or Mendelssohn) had dictated a "spirit theme" to him. The theme was one he had used several times before: in his Second String Quartet, again in his Lieder-Album für die Jugend, and finally in the slow movement of his Violin Concerto. In the days leading up to his suicide attempt, Schumann wrote five variations on this theme for the piano, his last published work, today known as the Geistervariationen (Ghost Variations). Brahms published it in a supplementary volume to the complete edition of Schumann's piano music. In 1861 Brahms published his Variations for Piano Four Hands, Op. 23, based on this theme.
    After a suicide attempt in 1854, Schumann was admitted to a mental asylum, at his own request, in Endenich near Bonn.
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  • 1853
    On 30 September 1853, the 20-year-old composer Johannes Brahms arrived unannounced at the door of the Schumanns carrying a letter of introduction from violinist Joseph Joachim. (Schumann was not at home, and would not meet Brahms until the next day.) Brahms amazed Clara and Robert with his music, stayed with them for several weeks, and became a close family friend. (He later worked closely with Clara to popularize Schumann's compositions during her long widowhood.)
    More Details Hide Details During this time Schumann, Brahms and Schumann's pupil Albert Dietrich collaborated on the composition of the F-A-E Sonata for Joachim; Schumann also published an article, "Neue Bahnen" ("New Paths") in the Neue Zeitschrift (his first article in many years), hailing the unknown young Brahms from Hamburg, a man who had published nothing, as "the Chosen One" who "was destined to give ideal expression to the times." It was an extraordinary way to present Brahms to the musical world, setting up great expectations which he did not fulfill for many years.
  • 1851
    In 1851 he completed his Symphony No. 3, "Rhenish" (a work containing five movements and whose 4th movement is apparently intended to represent an episcopal coronation ceremony).
    More Details Hide Details He revised what would be published as his fourth symphony.
    From 1851 to 1853 he visited Switzerland, Belgium and Leipzig.
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  • 1850
    In 1850, Schumann succeeded Ferdinand Hiller as musical director at Düsseldorf, but he was a poor conductor and quickly aroused the opposition of the musicians.
    More Details Hide Details According to Harold C. Schonberg (The Great Conductors) "The great composer was impossible on the platform... There is something heartrending about poor Schumann's epochal inefficiency as a conductor." His contract was eventually terminated.
    From 1850 to 1854, Schumann composed in a wide variety of genres.
    More Details Hide Details Critics have disputed the quality of his work at this time; a widely held view has been that his music showed signs of mental breakdown and creative decay. More recently, critics have suggested that the changes in style may be explained by "lucid experimentation".
  • 1849
    The rest of the work was written later in 1849, and the overture (which Schumann described as "one of the sturdiest of his creations") in 1853.
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    In August 1849, on the occasion of the centenary of Goethe's birth, such scenes of Schumann's Scenes from Goethe's Faust as were already completed were performed in Dresden, Leipzig and Weimar.
    More Details Hide Details Liszt gave him assistance and encouragement.
    The music to Byron's Manfred was written in 1849, the overture of which is one of Schumann's most frequently performed orchestral works.
    More Details Hide Details The insurrection of Dresden caused Schumann to move to Kreischa, a little village a few miles outside the city.
  • 1848
    His only opera, Genoveva, Op. 81, was written in 1848.
    More Details Hide Details In it, Schumann attempted to abolish recitative, which he regarded as an interruption to the musical flow (an influence on Richard Wagner; Schumann's consistently flowing melody can be seen as a forerunner to Wagner's Melos). The subject of Genoveva—based on Ludwig Tieck and Christian Friedrich Hebbel—was not an ideal choice. The text is often considered to lack dramatic qualities; the work has not remained in the repertoire. As early as 1842 the possibilities of German opera had been keenly realized by Schumann, who wrote, "Do you know my prayer as an artist, night and morning? It is called 'German Opera.' Here is a real field for enterprise... something simple, profound, German". And in his notebook of suggestions for the text of operas are found amongst others: Nibelungen, Lohengrin and Till Eulenspiegel.
  • 1847
    In the winter, the Schumanns revisited Vienna, traveling to Prague and Berlin in the spring of 1847 and in the summer to Zwickau, where he was received with enthusiasm.
    More Details Hide Details This pleased him, since until that time he was famous in only Dresden and Leipzig.
  • 1846
    In 1846, he felt he had recovered.
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  • 1845
    Also published in 1845 was his Piano Concerto in A minor, Op. 54, originally conceived and performed as a one-movement Fantasy for Piano and Orchestra in 1841.
    More Details Hide Details It is one of the most popular and oft-recorded of all piano concertos; pace Hutcheson "Schumann achieved a masterly work and we inherited the finest piano concerto since Mozart and Beethoven".
  • 1844
    He spent the first half of 1844 with Clara on tour in Russia.
    More Details Hide Details On returning to Germany, he abandoned his editorial work and left Leipzig for Dresden, where he suffered from persistent "nervous prostration". As soon as he began to work, he was seized with fits of shivering and an apprehension of death, experiencing an abhorrence of high places, all metal instruments (even keys), and drugs. Schumann's diaries also state that he suffered perpetually from imagining that he had the note A5 sounding in his ears. His state of unease and neurasthenia is reflected in his Symphony in C, numbered second, but third in order of composition, in which the composer explores states of exhaustion, obsession and depression, culminating in Beethovenian spiritual triumph.
  • 1843
    In 1843 he wrote Paradise and the Peri, his first essay at concerted vocal music, an oratorio style work based on Lalla-Rookh by Thomas Moore.
    More Details Hide Details After this, his compositions were not confined to any one form during any particular period. The stage in his life when he was deeply engaged in setting Goethe's Faust to music (1844–53) was a critical one for his health.
  • 1842
    He devoted 1842 to composing chamber music, including the Piano Quintet in E-flat, Op. 44, now one of his best known and most admired works; the Piano Quartet and three string quartets.
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  • 1841
    In 1841 he wrote two of his four symphonies, No. 1 in B-flat, Op. 38, "Spring" and No. 4 in D minor (the latter, a pioneering essay in 'cyclic form', was performed that year but published only much later after revision and extensive reorchestration as Op. 120).
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  • 1840
    Indeed, 1840 (referred to as the Liederjahr or year of song) is highly significant in Schumann's musical legacy despite his earlier deriding of works for piano and voice as inferior.
    More Details Hide Details Prior to the legal case and subsequent marriage, the lovers exchanged love letters and rendezvoused in secret. Robert would often wait in a cafe for hours in a nearby city just to see Clara for a few minutes after one of her concerts. The strain of this long courtship and of its consummation led to this great outpouring of Lieder (vocal songs with piano accompaniment). This is evident in "Widmung", for example, where he uses the melody from Schubert's "Ave Maria" in the postlude—in homage to Clara. Schumann's biographers have attributed the sweetness, the doubt and the despair of these songs to the varying emotions aroused by his love for Clara and the uncertainties of their future together. Robert and Clara had eight children, Emil (1846–1847), who died at 1 year; Marie (1841–1929); Elise (1843–1928); Julie (1845–1872); Ludwig (1848–1899); Ferdinand (1849–1891); Eugenie (1851–1938); and Felix (1854–1879).
    After a long and acrimonious legal battle with her father, Schumann married Clara Wieck on 12 September 1840, at Schönefeld, the day before her 21st birthday.
    More Details Hide Details Had they waited another day, they would no longer have required her father's consent. Their marriage proved a remarkable business partnership, with Clara acting as an inspiration, critic, and confidant to her husband. Despite her delicate appearance, she was an extremely strong-willed and energetic woman, who kept up a demanding schedule of concert tours in between bearing multiple children. Two years after they married, Friedrich Wieck at last reconciled himself with the couple, eager to see his grandchildren. In the years 1832–1839, Schumann had written almost exclusively for the piano, but in 1840 alone he wrote no less than 138 songs.
    In 1840, Schumann married Friedrich Wieck's daughter Clara, against the wishes of her father, following a long and acrimonious legal battle, which found in favor of Clara and Robert.
    More Details Hide Details Clara also composed music and had a considerable concert career as a pianist, the earnings from which formed a substantial part of her father's fortune. Schumann suffered from a mental disorder, first manifesting itself in 1833 as a severe melancholic depressive episode, which recurred several times alternating with phases of ‘exaltation’ and increasingly also delusional ideas of being poisoned or threatened with metallic items.
  • 1839
    After a visit to Vienna, during which he discovered Franz Schubert's previously unknown Symphony No. 9 in C, in 1839 Schumann wrote the Faschingsschwank aus Wien (Carnival Prank from Vienna).
    More Details Hide Details Most of the joke is in the central section of the first movement, in which a thinly veiled reference is made to "La Marseillaise" (the song had been banned in Vienna due to harsh memories of Napoleon's invasion). The festive mood does not preclude moments of melancholic introspection in the Intermezzo.
  • 1838
    Kinderszenen, Op. 15, completed in 1838 and a favourite of Schumann's piano works, depicts the innocence and playfulness of childhood.
    More Details Hide Details The "Träumerei" in F major, No. 7 of the set, is one of the most famous piano pieces ever written, which has been performed in myriad forms and transcriptions. It has been the favourite encore of several great pianists, including Vladimir Horowitz. Melodic and deceptively simple, the piece has been described as "complex" in its harmonic structure. Kreisleriana, Op. 16 (1838), considered one of Schumann's greatest works, carried his fantasy and emotional range deeper. Johannes Kreisler was the fictional poet created by poet E. T. A. Hoffmann, and characterized as a "romantic brought into contact with reality". Schumann used the figure to express emotional states in music that is "fantastic and mad." According to Hutcheson ("The Literature of the Piano"), this work is "among the finest efforts of Schumann's genius. He never surpassed the searching beauty of the slow movements (Nos. 2, 4, 6) or the urgent passion of others (Nos. 1, 3, 5, 7) To appreciate it a high level of aesthetic intelligence is required This is no facile music, there is severity alike in its beauty and its passion."
  • 1837
    In 1837 Schumann published his Symphonic Studies, a complex set of étude-like variations written in 1834–1835, which demanded a finished piano technique.
    More Details Hide Details These variations were based on a theme by the adoptive father of Ernestine von Fricken. The work – described as "one of the peaks of the piano literature, lofty in conception and faultless in workmanship" Hutcheson – was dedicated to the young English composer William Sterndale Bennett, for whom Schumann had had a high regard when they worked together in Leipzig. The Davidsbündlertänze, Op.6, (also published in 1837 despite the low opus number) literally "Dances of the League of David", is an embodiment of the struggle between enlightened Romanticism and musical philistinism. Schumann credited the two sides of his character with the composition of the work (the more passionate numbers are signed F. (Florestan) and the more dreamy signed E. (Eusebius)). The work begins with the 'motto of C.W.' (Clara Wieck) denoting her support for the ideals of the Davidsbund. The Bund was a work of Schumann's imagination, members of which were kindred spirits (as he saw them) such as Chopin, Paganini and Clara, as well as the personalized Florestan and Eusebius.
  • 1835
    On 3 October 1835, Schumann met Felix Mendelssohn at Wieck's house in Leipzig, and his enthusiastic appreciation of that artist was shown with the same generous freedom that distinguished his acknowledgement of Chopin's greatness and most of his other colleagues, and which later prompted him to publicly pronounce the then-unknown Johannes Brahms a genius.
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  • 1834
    Schumann's editorial duties during the summer of 1834 were interrupted by his relations with 16-year-old Ernestine von Fricken — the adopted daughter of a rich Bohemian-born noble — to whom he became engaged.
    More Details Hide Details Having learned in August 1835 that Ernestine von Fricken was born illegitimate, which meant that she would have no dowry, and fearful that her limited means would force him to earn his living like a "day-labourer", Schumann made a complete break with her toward the end of the year, due to his growing attraction to 15-year-old Clara Wieck. They made mutual declarations of love in December in Zwickau, where Clara appeared in concert. His budding romance with Clara was soon brought to an end when her father learned of their trysts during the Christmas holidays; he summarily forbade them further meetings and ordered all correspondence between them burnt. Carnaval, Op. 9 (1834) is one of Schumann's most characteristic piano works. Schumann begins nearly every section of Carnaval with a musical cryptogram, the musical notes signified in German by the letters that spell Asch (A, E-flat, C, and B, or alternatively A-flat, C, and B; in German these are A, Es, C and H, and As, C and H respectively), the Bohemian town in which Ernestine was born, and the notes are also the musical letters in Schumann's own name. Eusebius and Florestan, the imaginary figures appearing so often in his critical writings, also appear, alongside brilliant imitations of Chopin and Paganini. The work comes to a close with a march of the Davidsbündler — the league of King David's men against the Philistines — in which may be heard the clear accents of truth in contest with the dull clamour of falsehood embodied in a quotation from the seventeenth century Grandfather's Dance.
    By spring 1834, Schumann had sufficiently recovered to inaugurate Die Neue Zeitschrift für Musik ("New Journal for Music"), first published on 3 April 1834.
    More Details Hide Details Schumann published most of his critical writings in the journal, and often lambasted the popular taste for flashy technical displays from figures whom Schumann perceived as inferior composers. Schumann campaigned to revive interest in major composers of the past, including Mozart, Beethoven and Weber, while he also promoted the work of some contemporary composers, including Chopin (about whom Schumann famously wrote, "Hats off, Gentlemen! A genius!") and Hector Berlioz, whom he praised for creating music of substance. On the other hand, Schumann disparaged the school of Franz Liszt and Richard Wagner. Among Schumann's associates at this time were composers Norbert Burgmüller and Ludwig Schuncke (to whom Schumann's Toccata in C is dedicated).
  • 1833
    The 1833 deaths of Schumann's brother Julius and his sister-in-law Rosalie in the worldwide cholera pandemic brought on a severe depressive episode.
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  • 1832
    In the winter of 1832, Schumann, 22 at the time, visited relatives in Zwickau and Schneeberg, where he performed the first movement of his Symphony in G minor (without opus number, known as the "Zwickauer").
    More Details Hide Details In Zwickau, the music was performed at a concert given by Clara Wieck, who was then just 13 years old. On this occasion Clara played bravura Variations by Henri Herz, a composer whom Schumann was already deriding as a philistine. Schumann's mother said to Clara, "You must marry my Robert one day." Although the Symphony in G minor was not published by Schumann during his lifetime, it has been played and recorded in recent times.
    In a letter from Leipzig dated April 1832, Schumann bids his brothers "read the last scene in Jean Paul's Flegeljahre as soon as possible, because the Papillons are intended as a musical representation of that masquerade."
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  • 1831
    This inspiration is foreshadowed to some extent in his first written criticism, an 1831 essay on Frédéric Chopin's variations on a theme from Mozart's Don Giovanni, published in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung.
    More Details Hide Details Here Chopin's work is discussed by imaginary characters created by Schumann himself: Florestan (the embodiment of Schumann's passionate, voluble side) and Eusebius (his dreamy, introspective side) – the counterparts of Vult and Walt in Flegeljahre. A third, Meister Raro, is called upon for his opinion. Raro may represent either the composer himself, Wieck's daughter Clara, or the combination of the two (Clara + Robert).
  • 1830
    During Eastertide 1830 he heard the Italian violinist, violist, guitarist, and composer Niccolò Paganini play in Frankfurt.
    More Details Hide Details In July he wrote to his mother, "My whole life has been a struggle between Poetry and Prose, or call it Music and Law." By Christmas he was back in Leipzig, at age 20 taking piano lessons from his old master Friedrich Wieck, who assured him that he would be a successful concert pianist after a few years' study with him. During his studies with Wieck, it has been claimed that Schumann permanently injured a finger on his right hand. Wieck claimed that Schumann damaged his finger by the use of a mechanical device designed to strengthen the weakest fingers, a device which held back one finger while he exercised the others. This claim has been discredited by Clara Schumann, who said that the disability was not due to a mechanical device, and Robert Schumann himself refers to it as "an affliction of the whole hand". Some have argued that, as the disability appeared to have been chronic and have affected the hand, and not just a finger, it was unlikely to have been caused by a finger strengthening device.
  • 1829
    In 1829 his law studies continued in Heidelberg, where he became a lifelong member of Corps Saxo-Borussia Heidelberg. (See also: Corps)
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  • 1828
    In 1828 Schumann left school, and after a tour during which he met Heinrich Heine in Munich, he went to Leipzig to study law (to meet the terms of his inheritance).
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  • 1826
    His father, who had encouraged the boy's musical aspirations, died in 1826 when Schumann was 16.
    More Details Hide Details Neither his mother nor his guardian thereafter encouraged a career in music.
    His most powerful and permanent literary inspiration was Jean Paul, a German writer whose influence is seen in Schumann's youthful novels Juniusabende, completed in 1826, and Selene.
    More Details Hide Details Schumann's interest in music was sparked by seeing a performance of Ignaz Moscheles playing at Karlsbad, and he later developed an interest in the works of Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Schubert and Felix Mendelssohn.
  • 1029
    Born in 1029.
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