Robert Falcon Scott
Antarctic Explorer
Robert Falcon Scott
Robert Falcon Scott CVO was a Royal Navy officer and explorer who led two expeditions to the Antarctic regions: the Discovery Expedition, 1901–04, and the ill-fated Terra Nova Expedition, 1910–13. During this second venture, Scott led a party of five which reached the South Pole on 17 January 1912, only to find that they had been preceded by Roald Amundsen's Norwegian expedition.
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Natural gas explosion causes 3-alarm fire at Encinitas McDonald's - SignOnSanDiego.com
Google News - over 5 years
Employees called 911 to report the explosion about 8:25 pm, said Encinitas Fire Marshal Robert Scott. Four customers and at least four employees were inside at the time, Scott said. All were able to get out safely. About 50 firefighters responded from
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New Landing Zone coming to you - Commando
Google News - over 5 years
"I'm now looking at what can I provide for programming that is going to be family oriented," said Robert Scott, 1st Special Operations Force Support Squadron, community center director. "It's not to say that I'm getting rid of Airmen programs,
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J. Robert Scott strengthens FS practice - The Grapevine Online
Google News - over 5 years
Based in New York, Douglas Mann will be taking up the new role at J. Robert Scott. Mann will focus on the insurance sector within the practice, working closely with Roderick Haire in the organisation's Hong Kong office to grow the practice on a global
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Dallas Morning News: Duncan flat-out lied about Texas education - Hot Air
Google News - over 5 years
In a column that appeared in yesterday's newspaper, Jones prints the response to Duncan from Robert Scott, Texas' education chief, but not before getting in a few shots himself at Duncan's “lies”: We shouldn't hear lies come out of the mouth of the
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Homeowner's legal fate in the hands of Justice Robert Scott - Belleville Intelligencer
Google News - over 5 years
Justice Robert Scott is scheduled to release his verdict Aug. 26. He will also be deciding the fate of John Huang, 45, who served as the real estate agent who aided the purchase of nine of the 11 local properties hit during Project Industrious,
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County schools make grade - San Angelo Standard Times
Google News - over 5 years
Many districts and campuses, however, have a lower rating than in 2010, in part thanks to Education Commissioner Robert Scott's decision to ban use of the controversial Texas Projection Measure to calculate the ratings. The annual ratings, which are ... - -
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robert scott - KUT News
Google News - over 5 years
With the state budget leaders proposing to cut as much as $10 billion from public education to help close a state budget gap of between $15 and $27 billion, Education Commissioner Robert Scott warned hundreds of school administrators
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Officers: Businessman Used Customer's Credit Card To Pay His Bills - WSOC Charlotte
Google News - over 5 years
Detective Sgt. Rick Gutierrez of the Marion Police Department charged Robert Scott Cowart, 37, of Kathy Street in Marion with 19 felony counts of obtaining property by false pretense, three felony counts of financial card fraud and one felony count of
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Collinwood Man Charged With Injecting Heroin Into Ex-Lawrenceburg Girlfriend - WDXE
Google News - over 5 years
Police have charged Robert Scott Gibbs with the crime and he is being held without bond in the county jail until a August 5th hearing date. The 49 year old victim was found by unconscious by a family member and was rushed to Crockett Hospital
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THE TEXAS TRIBUNE; Change in Rating Formula Creates Anxiety in Schools
NYTimes - over 5 years
On Friday, the Texas Education Agency will publicly release its annual accountability ratings for the state's 1,000-plus school districts. School officials always eye this day with nervous anticipation, but this year many are feeling more than a twinge of dread. This will be the first year the official ratings -- which categorize schools as
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Education panel OKs science materials - Austin American-Statesman
Google News - over 5 years
State Board of Education Commissioner Robert Scott hopes to find common ground on a contested submission on evolution. On Friday, the State Board of Education took a final vote on new science materials that reflect a controversial curriculum standard ... - -
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Robert Falcon Scott
    FORTIES
  • 1912
    Age 43
    Meteorologist Susan Solomon's 2001 account The Coldest March ties the fate of Scott's party to the extraordinarily adverse Barrier weather conditions of February and March 1912 rather than to personal or organisational failings and, while not entirely questioning any criticism of Scott, Solomon principally characterizes the criticism as the "Myth of Scott as a bungler".
    More Details Hide Details In 2004 polar explorer Sir Ranulph Fiennes published a biography which was a strong defence of Scott and an equally forthright rebuttal of Huntford; the book is dedicated "To the Families of the Defamed Dead". Fiennes was later criticised for his assumption that his own experiences as a polar explorer made him more qualified to assess the matter. In 2005 David Crane published a new Scott biography which, according to Barczewski, goes some way towards an assessment of Scott "free from the baggage of earlier interpretations". What has happened to Scott's reputation, Crane argues, derives from the way the world has changed since the "hopeless heroism und obscene waste" of the First World War. At the time of Scott's death, people clutched at the proof he gave that the qualities that once made Britain great were not extinct, but with the knowledge what lay only two years ahead, the ideals of duty, self-sacrifice, discipline, patriotism and hierarchy associated with his tragedy take on a different and more sinister coloring. Crane's main achievement, according to Barczewski, is the restoration of Scott's humanity, "far more effectively than either Fiennes's stridency or Solomon's scientific data." Daily Telegraph columnist Jasper Rees, likening the changes in explorers' reputations to climatic variations, suggests that "in the current Antarctic weather report, Scott is enjoying his first spell in the sun for twenty-five years". The New York Times Book Review was more critical, pointing out Crane's support for Scott's account regarding the circumstances of the freeing of the Discovery from the pack ice, and concluded without providing any evidence to the reader that "For all the many attractions of his book, David Crane offers no answers that convincingly exonerate Scott from a significant share of responsibility for his own demise."
    The bodies of Scott and his companions were discovered by a search party on 12 November 1912 and their records retrieved.
    More Details Hide Details Their final camp became their tomb; a high cairn of snow was erected over it, topped by a roughly fashioned cross. In January 1913, before Terra Nova left for home, a large wooden cross was made by the ship's carpenters, inscribed with the names of the lost party and Tennyson's line from his poem Ulysses: "To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield", and was erected as a permanent memorial on Observation Hill, overlooking Hut Point. A century of storms and snow have covered the cairn and tent, which are now encased in the Ross Ice Shelf as it inches towards the Ross Sea. In 2001 glaciologist Charles R. Bentley estimated that the tent with the bodies was under about 75 feet (23 m) of ice and about 30 miles (48 km) from the point where they died; he speculated that in about 275 years the bodies would reach the Ross Sea, and perhaps float away inside an iceberg.
    On the return journey from the Pole, Scott reached the 82.30°S meeting point for the dog teams, three days ahead of schedule, noting in his diary for 27 February 1912 "We are naturally always discussing possibility of meeting dogs, where and when, etc.
    More Details Hide Details It is a critical position. We may find ourselves in safety at the next depot, but there is a horrid element of doubt." By 10 March the temperature had dropped unexpectedly to below, and it became evident the dog teams were not coming: "The dogs which would have been our salvation have evidently failed. Meares dog-driver had a bad trip home I suppose. It's a miserable jumble." With 400 miles (670 km) still to travel across the Ross Ice Shelf, Scott's party's prospects steadily worsened as, with deteriorating weather, a puzzling lack of fuel in the depots, hunger and exhaustion, they struggled northward. In a farewell letter to Sir Edgar Speyer, dated 16 March, Scott wondered whether he had overshot the meeting point and fought the growing suspicion that he had in fact been abandoned by the dog teams: "We very nearly came through, and it's a pity to have missed it, but lately I have felt that we have overshot our mark. No-one is to blame and I hope no attempt will be made to suggest that we had lacked support." On the same day, Oates, whose toes had become frostbitten, voluntarily left the tent and walked to his death. Scott wrote that Oates' last words were "I am just going outside and may be some time".
    By 4 January 1912, the last two four-man groups had reached 87° 34′ S. Scott announced his decision: five men (Scott, Edward Wilson, Henry Bowers, Lawrence Oates and Edgar Evans) would go forward, the other three (Teddy Evans, William Lashly and Tom Crean) would return.
    More Details Hide Details The chosen group marched on, reaching the Pole on 17 January 1912, only to find that Amundsen had preceded them by five weeks. Scott's anguish is indicated in his diary: "The worst has happened"; "All the day dreams must go"; "Great God! This is an awful place". The deflated party began the return journey on 19 January. "I'm afraid the return journey is going to be dreadfully tiring and monotonous", wrote Scott on that day. However, the party made good progress despite poor weather, and had completed the Polar Plateau stage of their journey, approximately 300 miles (500 km), by 7 February. In the following days, as the party made the descent of the Beardmore Glacier, the physical condition of Edgar Evans, which Scott had noted with concern as early as 23 January, declined sharply. A fall on 4 February had left Evans "dull and incapable", and on 17 February, after another fall, he died near the glacier foot.
    During the second venture, Scott led a party of five which reached the South Pole on 17 January 1912 after Roald Amundsen's Norwegian expedition.
    More Details Hide Details On their return journey, Scott's party discovered plant fossils, proving Antarctica was once forested and joined to other continents. A planned meeting with supporting dog teams from the base camp failed, although Scott had ordered his team to do so, and at a distance of 150 miles from their base camp and 11 miles from the next depot, Scott and his companions died from a combination of exhaustion, starvation and extreme cold.
  • 1911
    Age 42
    Scott outlined his plans for the southern journey to the entire shore party, leaving open who would form the final polar team, according to their performance during the polar travel. Eleven days before Scott's teams set off towards the pole, Scott gave the dog driver Meares the following written orders at Cape Evans dated 20 October 1911 to secure Scott's speedy return from the pole using dogs:
    More Details Hide Details The march south began on 1 November 1911, a caravan of mixed transport groups (motors, dogs, horses), with loaded sledges, travelling at different rates, all designed to support a final group of four men who would make a dash for the Pole. The southbound party steadily reduced in size as successive support teams turned back. Scott reminded the returning Atkinson of the order "to take the two dog-teams south in the event of Meares having to return home, as seemed likely".
    However, during the 1911 winter Scott's confidence increased; on 2 August, after the return of a three-man party from their winter journey to Cape Crozier, Scott wrote, "I feel sure we are as near perfection as experience can direct".
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  • 1910
    Age 41
    Arriving in Melbourne, Australia in October 1910, Scott received a telegram from Amundsen stating: "Beg leave to inform you Fram proceeding Antarctic Amundsen", possibly indicating that Scott faced a race to the pole.
    More Details Hide Details The expedition suffered a series of early misfortunes which hampered the first season's work and impaired preparations for the main polar march. On its journey from New Zealand to the Antarctic, Terra Nova nearly sank in a storm and was then trapped in pack ice for 20 days, far longer than other ships had experienced, which meant a late-season arrival and less time for preparatory work before the Antarctic winter. At Cape Evans, Antarctica, one of the motor sledges was lost during its unloading from the ship, breaking through the sea ice and sinking. Deteriorating weather conditions and weak, unacclimatised ponies affected the initial depot-laying journey, so that the expedition's main supply point, One Ton Depot, was laid north of its planned location at 80° S. Lawrence Oates, in charge of the ponies, advised Scott to kill ponies for food and advance the depot to 80° S, which Scott refused to do. Oates is reported as saying to Scott, "Sir, I'm afraid you'll come to regret not taking my advice." Four ponies died during this journey either from the cold or because they slowed the team down so they were shot.
    On 15 June 1910, Scott's ship Terra Nova, an old converted whaler, set sail from Cardiff, south Wales.
    More Details Hide Details Scott meanwhile was fundraising in Britain and joined the ship later in South Africa.
  • 1909
    Age 40
    Their only child, Peter Markham Scott, born 14 September 1909, was to found the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF).
    More Details Hide Details
    In the middle of 1909 Scott realised that motors were unlikely to get him all the way to the Pole, and decided additionally to take horses (based on Shackleton's near success in attaining the Pole, using ponies), and dogs and skis after consultation with Nansen during trials of the motors in Norway in March 1910.
    More Details Hide Details Man-hauling would still be needed on the Polar Plateau, on the assumption that motors and animals could not ascend the crevassed Beardmore Glacier. Dog expert Cecil Meares was going to Siberia to select the dogs, and Scott ordered that, while he was there, he should deal with the purchase of Manchurian ponies. Meares was not an experienced horse-dealer, and the ponies he chose proved mostly of poor quality, and ill-suited to prolonged Antarctic work. Meanwhile, Scott also recruited Bernard Day, from Shackleton's expedition, as his motor expert.
    Shackleton returned from the Antarctic having narrowly failed to reach the Pole, and this gave Scott the impetus to proceed with plans for his second Antarctic expedition. On 24 March 1909, he had taken the Admiralty-based appointment of naval assistant to the Second Sea Lord which placed him conveniently in London.
    More Details Hide Details In December he was released on half-pay, to take up the full-time command of the British Antarctic Expedition 1910, to be known as the Terra Nova Expedition from its ship, Terra Nova. It was the expressed hope of the RGS that this expedition would be "scientific primarily, with exploration and the Pole as secondary objects" but, unlike the Discovery Expedition, neither they nor the Royal Society were in charge this time. In his expedition prospectus, Scott stated that its main objective was "to reach the South Pole, and to secure for the British Empire the honour of this achievement". Scott had, as Markham observed, been "bitten by the Pole mania". In a memorandum of 1908, Scott presented his view that man-hauling to the South Pole was impossible and that motor traction was needed. Snow vehicles did not yet exist however, and so his engineer Reginald Skelton developed the idea of a caterpillar track for snow surfaces.
  • THIRTIES
  • 1908
    Age 39
    However, Scott's persistence was rewarded and, on 2 September 1908, at the Chapel Royal, Hampton Court Palace, the wedding took place.
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  • 1907
    Age 38
    Scott, who because of his Discovery fame had entered Edwardian society, first met Kathleen Bruce early in 1907 at a private luncheon party.
    More Details Hide Details She was a sculptress, socialite and cosmopolitan who had studied under Auguste Rodin and whose circle included Isadora Duncan, Pablo Picasso and Aleister Crowley. Her initial meeting with Scott was brief, but when they met again later that year, the mutual attraction was obvious. A stormy courtship followed; Scott was not her only suitor—his main rival was would-be novelist Gilbert Cannan—and his absences at sea did not assist his cause.
    Finally, to end the impasse, Shackleton agreed, in a letter to Scott dated 17 May 1907, to work to the east of the 170° W meridian and therefore to avoid all the familiar Discovery ground.
    More Details Hide Details In the end it was a promise that he was unable to keep after his search for alternative landing grounds proved fruitless. With his only other option being to return home, he set up his headquarters at Cape Royds, close to the old Discovery base. For this he was roundly condemned by the British polar establishment at the time. Among modern polar writers, Ranulph Fiennes regards Shackleton's actions as a technical breach of honour, but adds: "My personal belief is that Shackleton was basically honest but circumstances forced his McMurdo landing, much to his distress." The polar historian Beau Riffenburgh states that the promise to Scott "should never ethically have been demanded", and compares Scott's intransigence on this matter unfavourably with the generous attitudes of the Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen, who gave freely of his advice and expertise to all, whether they were potential rivals or not.
  • 1906
    Age 37
    By early 1906, Scott had sounded out the RGS about the possible funding of a future Antarctic expedition.
    More Details Hide Details It was therefore unwelcome news to him that Ernest Shackleton had announced his own plans to travel to Discoverys old McMurdo Sound base and launch a bid for the South Pole from there. Scott claimed, in the first of a series of letters to Shackleton, that the area around McMurdo was his own "field of work" to which he had prior rights until he chose to give them up, and that Shackleton should therefore work from an entirely different area. In this, he was strongly supported by Discoverys former zoologist, Edward Wilson, who asserted that Scott's rights extended to the entire Ross Sea sector. This Shackleton refused to concede.
    Scott's next few years were crowded. For more than a year he was occupied with public receptions, lectures and the writing of the expedition record, The Voyage of the Discovery. In January 1906, he resumed his full-time naval career, first as an Assistant Director of Naval Intelligence at the Admiralty and, in August, as flag-captain to Rear-Admiral Sir George Egerton on.
    More Details Hide Details He was now moving in ever more exalted social circles — a telegram to Markham in February 1907 refers to meetings with the Queen and Crown Prince of Portugal, and a later letter home reports lunching with the Commander-in-Chief of the Fleet and Prince Heinrich of Prussia., a battleship commanded by Scott, collided with the battleship on 11 February 1907, suffering minor bow damage.
  • 1903
    Age 34
    At the end of the expedition it took the combined efforts of two relief ships and the use of explosives to free Discovery from the ice. His insistence during the expedition on Royal Navy formalities had made for uneasy relations with the merchant navy contingent, many of whom departed for home with the first relief ship in March 1903.
    More Details Hide Details Second-in-command Albert Armitage, a merchant officer, was offered the chance to go home on compassionate grounds, but chose to interpret the offer as a personal slight, and refused. Armitage also promoted the idea that the decision to send Shackleton home on the relief ship arose from Scott's animosity rather than Shackleton's physical breakdown. Although there were later tensions between Scott and Shackleton, when their polar ambitions directly clashed, in public mutual civilities were preserved; Scott joined in the official receptions that greeted Shackleton on his return in 1909 after the Nimrod Expedition, and the two were exchanging polite letters about their respective ambitions in 1909–10. Discovery returned to Britain in September 1904. The expedition had caught the public imagination, and Scott became a popular hero. He was awarded a cluster of honours and medals, including many from overseas, and was promoted to the rank of captain. He was invited to Balmoral Castle, where King Edward VII promoted him a Commander of the Royal Victorian Order (CVO).
  • 1901
    Age 32
    Eventually, however, Markham's view prevailed; Scott was given overall command, and was promoted to the rank of commander before Discovery sailed for the Antarctic on 6 August 1901.
    More Details Hide Details King Edward VII, who showed a keen interest in the expedition, visited the Discovery the day before the ship left British shores in August 1901, and during the visit appointed Scott a Member of the Royal Victorian Order (MVO), his personal gift. Experience of Antarctic or Arctic waters was almost entirely lacking within the 50-strong party and there was very little special training in equipment or techniques before the ship set sail. Dogs were taken, as were skis, but the dogs succumbed to disease in the first season. Nevertheless, the dogs' performance impressed Scott, and, despite moral qualms, he implemented the principle of slaughtering dogs for dog-food to increase their range. During an early attempt at ice travel, a blizzard trapped expedition members in their tent and their decision to leave it resulted in the death of George Vince, who slipped over a precipice on 11 March 1902.
  • 1899
    Age 30
    Early in June 1899, while home on leave, he had a chance encounter in a London street with Clements Markham, who was now knighted and President of the Royal Geographical Society (RGS), and learned for the first time of an impending Antarctic expedition with the Discovery, under the auspices of the RGS.
    More Details Hide Details It was the opportunity for early command and a chance to distinguish himself, rather than any predilection for polar exploration which motivated Scott, according to Crane. What passed between them on this occasion is not recorded, but a few days later, on 11 June, Scott appeared at the Markham residence and volunteered to lead the expedition. The British National Antarctic Expedition, later known as the Discovery Expedition, was a joint enterprise of the RGS and the Royal Society. A long-cherished dream of Markham's, it required all of his skills and cunning to bring the expedition to fruition, under naval command and largely staffed by naval personnel. Scott may not have been Markham's first choice as leader but, having decided on him, the older man's support remained constant. There were committee battles over the scope of Scott's responsibilities, with the Royal Society pressing to put a scientist in charge of the expedition's programme while Scott merely commanded the ship.
    Before his appointment to lead the Discovery Expedition, Scott had followed the conventional career of a naval officer in the Royal Navy. In 1899, he had a chance encounter with Sir Clements Markham, the president of the Royal Geographical Society, thus learning of a planned Antarctic expedition, and soon volunteered to lead this expedition.
    More Details Hide Details Having taken this step, his name became inseparably associated with the Antarctic, the field of work to which he remained committed during the final twelve years of his life. Following the news of his death, Scott became a celebrated hero, a status reflected by the many permanent memorials erected across the nation. In the closing decades of the 20th century, Scott became a figure of controversy, with questions raised about his competence and character. Commentators in the 21st century have on the whole regarded Scott more positively, noting errors made by his team members, but attributing the expedition's fate primarily to misfortune.
  • TWENTIES
  • 1894
    Age 25
    In 1894, while serving as torpedo officer on the depot ship, Scott learned of the financial calamity that had overtaken his family.
    More Details Hide Details John Scott, having sold the brewery and invested the proceeds unwisely, had lost all his capital and was now virtually bankrupt. At the age of 63, and in poor health, he was forced to take a job as a brewery manager and move his family to Shepton Mallet, Somerset. Three years later, while Robert was serving with the Channel squadron flagship, John Scott died of heart disease, creating a fresh family crisis. Hannah Scott and her two unmarried daughters now relied entirely on the service pay of Scott and the salary of younger brother Archie, who had left the army for a higher-paid post in the colonial service. Archie's own death in the autumn of 1898, after contracting typhoid fever, meant that the whole financial responsibility for the family rested on Scott. Promotion, and the extra income this would bring, now became a matter of considerable concern to Scott. In the Royal Navy however, opportunities for career advancement were both limited and keenly sought after by ambitious officers.
  • 1889
    Age 20
    According to Huntford, Scott "disappears from naval records" for eight months, from mid-August 1889 until 26 March 1890.
    More Details Hide Details Huntford hints at involvement with a married American woman, a cover-up, and protection by senior officers. Biographer David Crane reduces the missing period to eleven weeks, but is unable to clarify further. He rejects the notion of protection by senior officers on the grounds that Scott was not important or well-connected enough to warrant this. Documents that may have offered explanations are missing from Admiralty records.
    During the research for his dual biography of Scott and Roald Amundsen, polar historian Roland Huntford investigated a possible scandal in Scott's early naval career, related to the period 1889–90 when Scott was a lieutenant on.
    More Details Hide Details
    His career progressed smoothly, with service on various ships and promotion to lieutenant in 1889.
    More Details Hide Details In 1891, after a long spell in foreign waters, he applied for the two-year torpedo training course on, an important career step. He graduated with first class certificates in both the theory and practical examinations. A small blot occurred in the summer of 1893 when, while commanding a torpedo boat, Scott ran it aground, a mishap which earned him a mild rebuke.
  • TEENAGE
  • 1888
    Age 19
    In March 1888 Scott passed his examinations for sub-lieutenant, with four first class certificates out of five.
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  • 1887
    Age 18
    On this occasion, 1 March 1887, Markham observed Midshipman Scott's cutter winning that morning's race across the bay.
    More Details Hide Details Markham's habit was to "collect" likely young naval officers with a view to their undertaking polar exploration work in the future. He was impressed by Scott's intelligence, enthusiasm and charm, and the 18-year-old midshipman was duly noted.
  • 1883
    Age 14
    In July 1883, Scott passed out of Britannia as a midshipman, seventh overall in a class of 26.
    More Details Hide Details By October, he was en route to South Africa to join, the flagship of the Cape squadron, the first of several ships on which he served during his midshipman years. While stationed in St Kitts, West Indies, on, he had his first encounter with Clements Markham, then Secretary of the Royal Geographical Society, who would loom large in Scott's later career.
  • 1881
    Age 12
    Having passed these exams Scott, began his naval career in 1881, as a cadet, aged only 13 years old.
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  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1868
    Born
    Scott was born on 6 June 1868, the third child out of six and elder son of John Edward and Hannah (née Cuming) Scott of Stoke Damerel, near Devonport.
    More Details Hide Details Scott's father was a brewer and magistrate. There were also naval and military traditions in the family, Scott's grandfather and four uncles all having served in the army or navy. John Scott's prosperity came from the ownership of a small Plymouth brewery which he inherited from his father and subsequently sold. Robert Falcon Scott's early childhood years were spent in comfort, but some years later, when he was establishing his naval career, the family would suffer serious financial misfortune. In accordance with the family's tradition, Robert and his younger brother Archie were predestined for careers in the armed services. Robert spent four years at a local day school before being sent to Stubbington House School in Hampshire, a cramming establishment preparing candidates for the entrance examinations to the naval training ship HMS Britannia at Dartmouth.
Original Authors of this text are noted here.
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