Ronald Fisher
English Statistician, geneticist
Ronald Fisher
Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher FRS was an English statistician, evolutionary biologist, eugenicist and geneticist. Among other things, Fisher is well known for his contributions to statistics by creating Fisher's exact test and Fisher's equation. Anders Hald called him "a genius who almost single-handedly created the foundations for modern statistical science" while Richard Dawkins named him "the greatest biologist since Darwin".
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Ronald Fisher's personal information overview.
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Gregory - Fisher - Oneonta Daily Star
Google News - over 5 years
The groom-to-be is the son of Brenda Fisher of Harpursville and Ronald Fisher of East Patchogue. He graduated from Afton High School in 2003, and earned his bachelor's degree in adolescence education from the State University College at Oneonta in 2007
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Mathematics: Life models - Nature.com (subscription)
Google News - over 5 years
A better survey might, for example, have considered Sewall Wright's contributions to the study of small populations or Ronald Fisher's reconciliation of genetics and biometry. One-third of the book is essentially a fast course in biology, covering the
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Group says it hopes to stop misinformation about charter - Auburn Journal
Google News - over 5 years
In closed session the council is expected to hear reports on the Ronald Fisher and Judy Fisher v. City of Auburn and Auburn Police Officers' Association v. City of Auburn court cases. The Fishers' case involves a couple on Knoll Street expanding their
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Chinese cultural exchange for Union-Endicott - Press & Sun-Bulletin
Google News - over 5 years
The two-week visit came about after UE officials made contacts in Kunming during a trip to China earlier this year, Assistant Superintendent Ronald Fisher said. To his knowledge, this is the first time Chinese students have visited Broome County,
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Union-Endicott High School Student Host 15 Chinese Exchange Students - FOX 40 News WICZ TV
Google News - over 5 years
Learning a little bit of language along the way and just having a great time," said Assistant Superintendent Ronald Fisher. Fisher said they're seeing China as a major player in the world and starting exchanges will provide excellent education
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Man kills for ecstasy pills - Examiner.com
Google News - over 5 years
All day Mr. Ronald Fisher hunted for his prey – a 26-year-old man who he said stole $30 worth of his Ecstasy pills. When he finally found him, he shot the man several times, killing him, Fulton County prosecutors said. Now Mr. Fisher faces a life
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Grand Strand Scoreboard - Myrtle Beach Sun News
Google News - over 5 years
Fun Bunch - Jeff Lohmeyer 252-646, Steve Marcus 638, Larry Avant 625, Pepper Lilly 610, Otis Blakeney 607, Ronald Wright 605, Rose Ernst 236-588, Grady Haire 579, Leroy Ernst 557, Trey Snide 554, Julia Avant 548, Ronald Fisher 529, PJ Soffriti 503,
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Read The Angry Letter Ken Griffin's Citadel Sent To The E-Trade Board - Business Insider
Google News - over 5 years
Half of the current Board members (Ronald Fisher, Michael Parks, Lewis Randall, Donna Weaver and Stephen Willard) share the remarkable distinction of having presided over the Company's catastrophic mortgage loan investment strategy
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Grand Strand Scoreboard (July 7) - Myrtle Beach Sun News
Google News - over 5 years
Fun Bunch - Mark Greer 670, Steve Marcus 666, Ronald Wright 279-647, Brandon Deem 256-638, Trey Snide 612, Todd Mothershead 599, John Horvath 597, Jeff Lohmeyer 595, Billy Hatoway 592, Larry Avant 589, Ronald Fisher 583, Rose Ernst 577, Joseph McDowell
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Words are at heart of Labor complaint - STLtoday.com
Google News - over 5 years
Ronald Fisher, a labor attorney at Harris Dowell Fisher & Harris in Chesterfield, thinks Boeing has a strong defense. "This is basically what companies do," he said. "They will make decisions to move work or transfer work to other facilities for
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Religion Calendar - Winston-Salem Journal
Google News - over 5 years
Ronald Fisher and members of Dreamland Park Baptist Church will be the guests at the 3 pm service. For more information, call 998-8373. Christ Kingdom Building Worship Center, 3894 Northampton Drive, will have its Family Circle Summer Program from 6:30
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50-acre soccer complex debuts at annual Warrior Soccer Classic - Dayton Daily News
Google News - over 5 years
By Thursday, during a news conference at which Maas, Paxton, Dayton Mayor Gary Leitzell, Montgomery County Commissioner Dan Foley and Huber Heights Mayor Ronald Fisher spoke about the event's importance to the community, players were able to run around
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Old Zionsville Fire Company Hosts Open House - Patch.com
Google News - almost 6 years
Firefighters involved in the “rescue” were: Curtis Knauss, Jeff Lehr, Dylan Schantz, Justin “Chippy” Kane, Chris Rickert, Ronald Fisher, Cody Raudenbush, Russ Siminski, Stanley Cupp and Mike Kline. Fire Chief Joe Kernick proudly watched from the
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Làm thế nào để nhận biết khi nào ai đó nói dối - Báo Khoa học
Google News - almost 6 years
Kỹ thuật này, là một phần của một "cuộc phỏng vấn liên quan đến nhận thức" được phát triển bởi Giáo sư Geiselman và Ronald Fisher, thời gian trước đây nguyên là một nhà tâm lý học làm việc tại UCLA, còn hiện nay đang làm việc tại Đại học Quốc tế
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How to tell when someone is lying - ScienceBlog.com (blog)
Google News - almost 6 years
This technique, part of a “cognitive interview” Geiselman co-developed with Ronald Fisher, a former UCLA psychologist now at Florida International University, “increases the cognitive load to push them over the edge.” A deceptive person, even a
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How to tell when someone's lying - HealthCanal.com
Google News - almost 6 years
This technique, part of a "cognitive interview" Geiselman co-developed with Ronald Fisher, a former UCLA psychologist now at Florida International University, "increases the cognitive load to push them over the edge." A deceptive person, even a
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Betty J. Wencl — Owatonna - Post-Bulletin
Google News - almost 6 years
She is survived by five daughters, Janet Radtke, Karen (Erling) Hommedahl and Lorna (Thomas) Staska all of Owatonna, Gale (Ronald) Fisher, Ft. Dodge, Iowa and Renee (Chuck) Erickson, Kasson. Three sons, Roger (Kim) Owatonna, Russell (Nancy) Big Rapids,
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Gobierno lanza comisión asesora para el desarrollo del sector eléctrico - Diario Financiero
Google News - almost 6 years
La comisión, anunciada hoy en La Moneda, estará integrada por 14 expertos del sector: Sergio del Campo, Sebastián Bernstein,Vivianne Blanlot, Alejandro Jadrecic, Marcelo Tokman, Nicola Borregaard, Renato Agurto, Ronald Fisher, Juan Antonio Guzmán,
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Ronald Fisher
    OTHER
  • 1962
    Died on July 29, 1962.
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  • 1957
    In 1957, a retired Fisher emigrated to Australia where he spent time as a senior research fellow at the Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) in Adelaide, where he died in 1962, with his remains interred within St Peter's Cathedral.
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  • 1955
    In a 1955 broadcast on Science and Christianity, he said:
    More Details Hide Details The custom of making abstract dogmatic assertions is not, certainly, derived from the teaching of Jesus, but has been a widespread weakness among religious teachers in subsequent centuries. I do not think that the word for the Christian virtue of faith should be prostituted to mean the credulous acceptance of all such piously intended assertions. Much self-deception in the young believer is needed to convince himself that he knows that of which in reality he knows himself to be ignorant. That surely is hypocrisy, against which we have been most conspicuously warned.
  • 1954
    Debabrata Basu, the Indian statistician, met Fisher in the winter of 1954–1955; he wrote in 1988, "With his reference set argument, Sir Ronald was trying to find a via media between the two poles of Statistics – Berkeley and Bayes.
    More Details Hide Details My efforts to understand this Fisher compromise led me to the likelihood principle". He is also known for the following theories:
  • 1953
    He gave the 1953 Croonian lecture on population genetics.
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  • 1950
    Fisher publicly spoke out against the 1950 study showing that smoking tobacco causes lung cancer, arguing that correlation does not imply causation.
    More Details Hide Details To quote his biographers Yates and Mather, "It has been suggested that the fact that Fisher was employed as consultant by the tobacco firms in this controversy casts doubt on the value of his arguments. This is to misjudge the man. He was not above accepting financial reward for his labours, but the reason for his interest was undoubtedly his dislike and mistrust of puritanical tendencies of all kinds; and perhaps also the personal solace he had always found in tobacco."
    In 1950 he published "Gene Frequencies in a Cline Determined by Selection and Diffusion" on the wave of advance of advantageous genes and on clines of gene frequency, being notable as the first application of a computer, the EDSAC, to biology.
    More Details Hide Details He developed computational algorithms for analyzing data from his balanced experimental designs, with various editions and translations, becoming a standard reference work for scientists in many disciplines. In ecological genetics he and E. B. Ford showed how the force of natural selection was much stronger than had been assumed, with many ecogenetic situations (such as polymorphism) being maintained by the force of selection. During this time he also worked on mouse chromosome mapping; breeding the mice in laboratories in his own house.
  • 1949
    In the same year, Fisher cofounded the journal Heredity with Cyril Darlington and in 1949 he published The Theory of Inbreeding.
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  • 1947
    In 1947, Fisher used a Pearson's chi-squared test to analyze Mendel's data and concluded that Mendel's results with the predicted ratios were far too perfect, suggesting that adjustments (intentional or unconscious) had been made to the data to make the observations fit the hypothesis.
    More Details Hide Details Later authors have claimed Fisher's analysis was flawed, proposing various statistical and botanical explanations for Mendel's numbers.
  • 1943
    In 1943, along with A.S. Corbett and C.B. Williams he published a paper on Relative species abundance where he developed the logseries to fit two different abundance data sets In the same year he took the Balfour Chair of Genetics where the Italian researcher Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza was recruited in 1948, establishing a one-man unit of bacterial genetics.
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  • 1938
    In 1938 the Fisher–Yates shuffle was described by Fisher and Frank Yates in their book Statistical tables for biological, agricultural and medical research.
    More Details Hide Details Their description of the algorithm used pencil and paper; a table of random numbers provided the randomness. Although a prominent opponent of Bayesian statistics, Fisher was the first to use the term "Bayesian". He was the first to use diffusion equations to attempt to calculate the distribution of allele frequencies and the estimation of genetic linkage by maximum likelihood methods among populations.
  • 1937
    In his 1937 paper The wave of advance of advantageous genes he proposed Fisher's equation in the context of population dynamics to describe the spatial spread of an advantageous allele and explored its travelling wave solutions.
    More Details Hide Details Out of this also came the Fisher–Kolmogorov equation.
  • 1936
    In 1936 he introduced the Iris flower data set as an example of discriminant analysis.
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  • 1935
    In 1935, he published by The Design of Experiments, which was "also fundamental, promoted statistical technique and application...
    More Details Hide Details The mathematical justification of the methods was not stressed and proofs were often barely sketched or omitted altogether. This led H.B. Mann to fill the gaps with a rigorous mathematical treatment in his treatise". In this book Fisher also outlined the Lady tasting tea, now a famous design of a statistical randomized experiment which uses Fisher's exact test and is the original exposition of Fisher's notion of a null hypothesis. The same year he also published a paper on fiducial inference and applied it to the Behrens–Fisher problem, the solution to which, proposed first by Walter Behrens and a few years later by Fisher, is the Behrens–Fisher distribution.
  • 1934
    In 1934, he resigned from the Eugenics Society over a dispute about increasing the power of scientists within the movement.
    More Details Hide Details He opposed UNESCO's The Race Question, believing that evidence and everyday experience showed that human groups differ profoundly "in their innate capacity for intellectual and emotional development" and concluded that the "practical international problem is that of learning to share the resources of this planet amicably with persons of materially different nature", and that "this problem is being obscured by entirely well-intentioned efforts to minimize the real differences that exist". The revised statement titled "The Race Concept: Results of an Inquiry" (1951) was accompanied by Fisher's dissenting commentary. According to Yates and Mather, "His large family, in particular, reared in conditions of great financial stringency, was a personal expression of his genetic and evolutionary convictions." Fisher was noted for being loyal, and was seen as a patriot, a member of the Church of England, politically conservative, as well as a scientific rationalist. He developed a reputation for carelessness in his dress and was the archetype of the absent-minded professor. H. Allen Orr describes him in the Boston Review as a "deeply devout Anglican who, between founding modern statistics and population genetics, penned articles for church magazines".
  • 1933
    In 1933 he became Professor of Eugenics at University College London until 1939 when the department was dissolved.
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  • 1929
    Fisher was elected to the Royal Society in 1929.
    More Details Hide Details He was made a Knight Bachelor by Queen Elizabeth II in 1952 and awarded the Linnean Society of London Darwin–Wallace Medal in 1958. In 1950, Maurice Wilkes and David Wheeler used the Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator to solve a differential equation relating to gene frequencies in a paper by Ronald Fisher. This represents the first use of a computer for a problem in the field of biology. The Kent distribution (also known as the Fisher–Bingham distribution) was named after him and Christopher Bingham in 1982 while Fisher kernel was named after Fisher in 1998. The R. A. Fisher Lectureship is a prize of a lecture given yearly in North America that was established in 1963. On April 28, 1998 a minor planet, 21451 Fisher, was named after him.
  • 1928
    In 1928 Joseph Oscar Irwin began a three-year stint at Rothamsted and became one of the first people to master Fisher's innovations.
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  • 1925
    In 1925 he published Statistical Methods for Research Workers, one of the 20th century's most influential books on statistical methods.
    More Details Hide Details Fisher's method is a technique for data fusion or "meta-analysis" (analysis of analyses). This book also popularized the p-value, and it plays a central role in his approach. Fisher proposes the level p = .05, or a 1 in 20 chance of being exceeded by chance, as a limit for statistical significance, and applies this to a normal distribution (as a two-tailed test), thus yielding the rule of two standard deviations (on a normal distribution) for statistical significance. The 1.96, the approximate value of the 97.5 percentile point of the normal distribution used in probability and statistics, also originated in this book. "The value for which P = .05, or 1 in 20, is 1.96 or nearly 2; it is convenient to take this point as a limit in judging whether a deviation is to be considered significant or not."
  • 1921
    His first application of the analysis of variance was published in 1921.
    More Details Hide Details Fisher's article On a distribution yielding the error functions of several well known statistics (1924) presented Pearson's chi-squared test and William Gosset's Student's t-distribution in the same framework as the Gaussian distribution and where he developed Fisher's z-distribution a new statistical method, commonly used decades later as the F distribution. He pioneered the principles of the design of experiments and the statistics of small samples and the analysis of real data.
  • 1919
    In 1919 he was offered a position at the Galton Laboratory in University College London led by Karl Pearson, but instead accepted a temporary job at Rothamsted Research in Harpenden to investigate the possibility of analysing the vast amount of data accumulated since 1842 from the "Classical Field Experiments" where he analysed the data recorded over many years and published Studies in Crop Variation in 1921.
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  • 1912
    Between 1912 and 1922 Fisher recommended, analyzed (with flawed attempts at proofs) and vastly popularized Maximum likelihood.
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  • 1911
    Joan Box, Fisher's biographer and daughter says that Fisher had resolved this problem in 1911.
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  • 1909
    Fisher gained a scholarship to study Mathematics at the University of Cambridge in 1909, gaining a First in Astronomy in 1912.
    More Details Hide Details In 1915 he published a paper The evolution of sexual preference on sexual selection and mate choice. He published The Correlation Between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance in 1918, in which he introduced the term variance and proposed its formal analysis. He put forward a genetics conceptual model showing that continuous variation amongst phenotypic traits measured by the biostatisticians could be produced by the combined action of many discrete genes and thus be the result of Mendelian inheritance. This was the first step towards the establishment of population genetics and quantitative genetics, which demonstrated that natural selection could change allele frequencies in a population, resulting in reconciling its discontinuous nature with gradual evolution.
    In 1909, he won a scholarship to Gonville and Caius College at the Cambridge University.
    More Details Hide Details Fisher worked for six years as a statistician in the City of London and taught physics and maths at a sequence of public schools, and at the Thames Nautical Training College, and Bradfield College where he settled with his new bride, Eileen Guinness, with whom he had two sons and six daughters. In 1919 he began working at Rothamsted Research. His fame grew and he began to travel and lecture widely. In 1931, he spent six weeks at the Statistical Laboratory at Iowa State College where he gave three lectures per week, and met many American statisticians, including George W. Snedecor before returning again in 1936. In 1937, he visited the Indian Statistical Institute in Calcutta, and its one part-time employee, P. C. Mahalanobis, often returning to encourage its development, being the guest of honour at its 25th anniversary in 1957 when it had 2000 employees.
  • 1890
    Born on February 17, 1890.
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