Samora Machel
President of Mozambique
Samora Machel
Samora Moisés Machel was a Mozambican military commander, revolutionary socialist leader and eventual President of Mozambique. Machel led the country from independence in 1975 until his death in 1986, when his presidential aircraft crashed in mountainous terrain where the borders of Mozambique, Swaziland and South Africa converge.
Biography
Samora Machel's personal information overview.
{{personal_detail.supertitle}}
{{personal_detail.title}}
{{personal_detail.title}}
Photo Albums
Popular photos of Samora Machel
Relationships
View family, career and love interests for Samora Machel
Show More Show Less
News
News abour Samora Machel from around the web
Zimbabwe/Liberia: Zifa Introduces Pre-Sale Tickets - AllAfrica.com
Google News - over 5 years
CBZ branches in the capital namely Samora Machel, Robert Mugabe, Machipisa (Highfield) Branch, and Chitungwiza Makoni Branch. "The tickets are also found at BancABC, Samora Machel branch and Betta Ball Sports outlets in Jason Moyo, Joina City 2nd Floor
Article Link:
Google News article
Congo couple live in fear after attack - Independent Online
Google News - over 5 years
At the time of the violence, we were living in Samora Machel. “We faced attacks, so that's why we ran. I also ran from groups of militia in Congo seven years ago. As foreigners we are easy targets because they (the criminals) know we would keep quiet
Article Link:
Google News article
Cleaners can't make ends meet on R2 000 a month - West Cape News
Google News - over 5 years
Photo: Neil Baynes SWEEPING the streets of Samora Machel township in Philippi is a job City of Cape Town employee Iris Dywili “hates”. Now 52-years-old, she's been doing it for 17 years, and the dust kicked up from sweeping makes her asthma worse
Article Link:
Google News article
Mhanda exposes Mugabe, Mujuru, Moyo - The Zimbabwe Standard
Google News - over 5 years
Mhanda says at the time Mugabe and the late Edgar Tekere had been banished to the coastal town of Quelimane by Mozambican President Samora Machel, who “did not trust Mugabe”. An arranged encounter between the commanders and Mugabe at Chimoio refugee
Article Link:
Google News article
Imbizo - My Debate: Web of conspiracies in apartheid South Africa - The New Age Online
Google News - over 5 years
But the one that most likely stands out as a conspiracy must surely be the untimely death of Samora Machel. Samora Machel, the president of Mozambique, died in a plane crash on October 19, 1986. The Tupelov 134A aeroplane crashed in mountainous terrain
Article Link:
Google News article
Food and Travel: Pip-pip! to Paula's Place - Zimbabwe Independent
Google News - over 5 years
FIRST time visitors to Paula's Place, the recently opened Portuguese piri-piri speciality eatery at 314, Samora Machel Avenue (where Highlands meets Greendale and Eastlea) may well experience a strong sense of déjà vu. Because Paula (Conceicao) and
Article Link:
Google News article
The bad economy is reviving social movements - Daily Monitor
Google News - over 5 years
They crushed the Portuguese rule in Mozambique led by the charismatic Samora Machel. In Zimbabwe, they outshinned the Ian Smith racial government forcing it into a settlement and later independence in 1980 under the now fallen hero Robert Mugabe
Article Link:
Google News article
Zimbabwe honours freedom fighters on Heroes Day - The Zimbabwe Guardian
Google News - over 5 years
Yesterday, youths drawn from the Harare Province Zimbabwe National Youth Service Graduates Association (ZNYSGA) could be seen jogging, waving placards and singing revolutionary songs as they toy-toyed down Samora Machel Avenue from the Zanu PF
Article Link:
Google News article
jobs in first semester - Coastweek
Google News - over 5 years
Botswana is going to built a monument “Samora Machel”, to remember him when he passed through the country in the 1960s to join Frelimo in the process to liberate Mozambique from the Portuguese colonialism. For Botswana, Macvhel is a hero,
Article Link:
Google News article
Weekend outing - NewsDay
Google News - over 5 years
The new-look Tony’s Nite Spot at corner Samora Machel Avenue/Eighth Street is the kicking place for hard clubbers all weekend. Full braai and a wide range of drinks is always on sale. Every Saturday the club features “Caribbean Reggae/Dancehall
Article Link:
Google News article
Backyarders call for Housing MEC's resignation - West Cape News
Google News - over 5 years
The Mandela Park Backyarders are also calling for the final report detailing the department's findings following a four-month investigation into the occupancy of RDP houses in Philippi's Samora Machel and Mandela Park conducted last year
Article Link:
Google News article
Street kids in group sex shocker - NewsDay
Google News - over 5 years
... hours told of horrible stories, detailing how they always saw street kids engaging in live action pornography, some seen at an open space after a tennis court at Girls High school at the corner of Samora Machel Avenue and Rotten Row in the city
Article Link:
Google News article
Bikers for Mandela Day show the way - South Africa.info
Google News - over 5 years
In addition to the work at the Howick capture site, one of the more poignant moments on the Bikers For Mandela Day 2011 trip will be when the group lays a symbolic wreath at Samora Machel's Memorial site in Mbuzini on 15 July after their journey
Article Link:
Google News article
No silver lining for the Spur - The Zimbabwe Standard
Google News - over 5 years
The restaurant is situated in the Holiday Inn complex, just off Samora Machel Avenue. Parking is secure and well guarded and there is easy access to the restaurant both for those staying at the Hotel and for visitors. Touted as “The Official Restaurant
Article Link:
Google News article
Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Samora Machel
    FIFTIES
  • 1986
    Age 52
    On October 19, 1986, Machel attended a summit in Mbala, Zambia, called to put pressure on Zairean dictator Mobutu Sese Seko, over his support for the Angolan opposition movement UNITA.
    More Details Hide Details The strategy of the Front Line States was to move against Mobutu and Banda in an attempt to end their support for UNITA and Renamo, who they regarded as South African surrogates. Although the Zambian authorities invited Machel to stay in Mbala overnight, he insisted on returning to Maputo. He had a meeting scheduled for the following morning at which he intended to reshuffle the leadership of the armed forces. Machel thus overrode the instruction from the Security Ministry that the President should not travel at night – with fatal consequences. The plane never reached Maputo. That night it crashed into a hillside at Mbuzini, just inside South Africa. Machel and 33 others died. Nine people sitting at the back of the plane survived. The Margo Commission, set up by the South African government, but which included high-level international representation, investigated the incident and concluded that the accident was caused by pilot error. Despite the acceptance of its findings by the International Civil Aviation Organization, the report was rejected by the Mozambican and Soviet governments. The latter submitted a minority report suggesting that the aircraft was intentionally lured off course by a decoy radio navigation beacon set up specifically for this purpose by the South Africans. Speculation about the accident has therefore continued to the present day, particularly in Mozambique.
  • FORTIES
  • 1981
    Age 47
    He returned to visit Reggio Emilia in 1981.
    More Details Hide Details A memorial at the Mbuzini crash site was inaugurated on January 19, 1999, by Nelson Mandela and his wife Graça, and by President Joaquim Chissano of Mozambique. Now the monument is made professional and the memorial service is held on October 19 each year. Designed by Mozambican architect José Forjaz, at a cost to the South African government of 1.5 million Rand (US$300,000), the monument comprises 35 steel tubes symbolising the number of lives lost in the air crash. At least eight foreigners were killed there, including the four Soviet crew members, Machel's two Cuban doctors and the Zambian and Zairean ambassadors to Mozambique. There is a large street in downtown Dar es Salaam, the de facto capital of Tanzania, called Samora Avenue. One of the largest streets in Harare, the capital of Zimbabwe, was renamed Samora Machel Avenue (from Jameson Avenue) after independence in a gesture of gratitude for Machel's support for black liberation activities before majority rule. Also, a street in Moscow bears his name and the Zimbabwean band R.U.N.N. family had a hit song that mourned his loss.
  • 1980
    Age 46
    Machel was fully aware of the dangerous ethnic divisions in Zimbabwe, with ZANU drawing most of its support from the Shona majority, and ZAPU from the minority Ndebele people. On his first state visit to Zimbabwe, in 1980, Machel gave a warning: "To ensure national unity, there must be no Shonas in Zimbabwe, there must be no Ndebeles in Zimbabwe, there must be Zimbabweans.
    More Details Hide Details Some people are proud of their tribalism. But we call tribalists reactionary agents of the enemy".
  • 1976
    Age 42
    In March 1976, Machel’s government implemented United Nations sanctions against the Smith government, and closed the borders with Rhodesia.
    More Details Hide Details In retaliation, Smith’s Central Intelligence Organisation (CIO) recruited dissatisfied Mozambicans and former Portuguese settlers and helped set up an anti-Frelimo movement. Initially this “Mozambique National Resistance” operated as an auxiliary branch of the Rhodesian armed forces. Frelimo dismissed them as “armed bandits”. As part of the measures accompanying the new Frelimo government, Machel introduced "reeducation centers" in which petty criminals, political opponents, and alleged anti-social elements such as prostitutes were imprisoned, often without trial. These were later described by foreign observers as "infamous centers of torture and death." It is estimated that 30,000 inmates died in these camps. Frelimo had longstanding links with Zimbabwean nationalist movements. Even during the independence war, guerrillas of ZANLA (Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army), the armed wing of ZANU (Zimbabwe African National Union), were able to operate from Frelimo-held areas in Tete province into northern areas of Rhodesia. After the implementation of the UN sanctions against the Rhodesian government, the entire length of the border was now available for nationalist incursions into Zimbabwe. ZANU leader Robert Mugabe, released from a Rhodesian jail in 1974, made his way into Mozambique the following year. Initially Machel was suspicious of the apparent coup within ZANU that had brought Mugabe to power, and he was effectively rusticated to the central city of Quelimane, where he taught English. Tired of the divisions within Zimbabwean nationalism, Machel sponsored an alternative to both ZANU and its rival ZAPU.
  • 1975
    Age 41
    She and Machel were married three months after Independence, in September 1975.
    More Details Hide Details In April 1976 a daughter, Josina, was born, and in December 1978 a son, Malengane. At Independence Machel’s five older children joined Josina Machel’s son Samito in the Presidential household. In 1998, twelve years after Samora Machel's death, Graça Machel married Nelson Mandela, President of South Africa, thus becoming the only woman to have been First Lady of two countries. Samora Machel established a strong relationship with Italy, because of its interest in fighting apartheid and Portuguese colonialism. In particular, the city of Reggio Emilia organized many initiatives to draw Italian attention to the great political problems of southern Africa. On March 24 and 25, 1973, Machel took part in the first "National Conference of solidarity against colonialism and imperialism for freedom and independence of Mozambique, Angola and Guinea Bissau". When Reggio Emilia sent the first solidarity ship "Amanda", Machel welcomed it at the port of Maputo. He said: "Solidarity is not a charity act. It's cooperation, mutual support between peoples striving to reach the same goal. This ship brings peace, it brings the solidarity of the whole Italian people for every population."
    On June 25, 1975, Machel proclaimed "the total and complete independence of Mozambique and its constitution into the People’s Republic of Mozambique".
    More Details Hide Details This, he said, would be "a state of People's Democracy, in which, under the leadership of the worker-peasant alliance, all patriotic strata commit themselves to the destruction of the sequels of colonialism, and to annihilate the system of exploitation of man by man". Machel’s government moved quickly to bring key areas under state control. All land was nationalized – individuals and institutions could not hold land, but leased it from the state. On July 24, 1975, just a month after independence, all health and education institutions were nationalized. National health and education services were set up, and all private schools and clinics were abolished. The Catholic Church immediately lost the privileged position it had held in these areas. On February 3, 1976, the government nationalized all rented housing. “Landlords? What do we want landlords for in our country for?”, asked Machel at the rally announcing the measure. Private ownership of houses was not banned. Anyone, Mozambican or foreign, could own a house for their own use - but building private property for rent was forbidden. This changed the face of Mozambican cities – black Mozambicans moved from the suburbs into blocks in the centre of the cities, occupying houses and flats, once owned by Portuguese landlords, and many of which had now been abandoned. In February 1977, at its 3rd Congress, Frelimo declared that it was now a Marxist–Leninist party, dedicated to the building of socialism, based on the “worker-peasant alliance”.
    A socialist in the tradition of Marxism-Leninism, he served as the first President of Mozambique from the country's independence in 1975.
    More Details Hide Details
  • 1974
    Age 40
    On April 25, 1974, Portuguese officers, tired of fighting three unwinnable wars in Africa, overthrew the government in Lisbon.
    More Details Hide Details The coup was almost bloodless. Nobody came onto the streets to defend Prime Minister Marcelo Caetano. Within 24 hours, the Armed Forces Movement (MFA) was in full control of Portugal. Frelimo’s immediate warning was that there was no such thing as democratic colonialism, and that nobody should imagine that Mozambicans would tolerate Portuguese rule just because there had been a change of government in Lisbon. Frelimo’s fears were well-founded. The MFA allowed General António de Spínola to become the first post-coup President. He had been commander of the Portuguese forces in Guinea-Bissau, then Portuguese Guinea, and was believed to be deeply implicated in the assassination of the Guinean nationalist leader, Amílcar Cabral. Spinola had no intention of letting Mozambique and Angola go. He dreamed of a Lusophone commonwealth run from Lisbon, and wanted a referendum on independence. Machel rejected such plans with the pithy remark “You don’t ask a slave if he wants to be free, particularly when he is already in revolt, and much less if you happen to be a slave-owner”. Initial discussions between Frelimo and the new Portuguese government, held in Lusaka in June 1974, proved fruitless. It was clear to Machel that the Portuguese foreign minister, Socialist Party leader Mário Soares, had no power to negotiate independence. So Machel sent one of his top advisers, Aquino de Bragança, to Lisbon to find out who really held power in Portugal.
  • THIRTIES
  • 1970
    Age 36
    He launched the largest offensive of Portugal's colonial wars, Operation Gordian Knot, in 1970, concentrating on what was regarded as the FRELIMO heartland of Cabo Delgado in the far north.
    More Details Hide Details Kaúlza de Arriaga boasted of destroying a large number of guerrilla bases – but since such a base was just a collection of huts, the military significance of such supposed victories was dubious. Machel reacted by shifting the focus of the war elsewhere, stepping up FRELIMO operations in the western province of Tete. This was where a massive dam was being built at Cahora Bassa, on the Zambezi, to sell electricity to South Africa. Fearful that FRELIMO would attack the dam site, the Portuguese set up three concentric rings of defence around Cahora Bassa. This denuded the rest of Tete province of troops, and in 1972 FRELIMO crossed the Zambezi, striking further and further south. By 1973, FRELIMO units were operating in Manica and Sofala Province and began to hit the railway from Rhodesia to Beira, causing panic among the settler population of Beira, who accused the Portuguese army of not doing enough to defend white interests. The end came suddenly.
    This led to Simango's expulsion from the liberation front, and the election, in 1970, of Machel as Frelimo President, with dos Santos as Deputy President.
    More Details Hide Details Like the late Mondlane, Machel identified himself with Marxism-Leninism, and under his leadership these positions became central to FRELIMO, which evolved from a broad front into a more Marxist party. The new commander of the Portuguese army in Mozambique, Gen. Kaúlza de Arriaga, boasted that he would eliminate FRELIMO in a few months.
  • 1969
    Age 35
    She and Machel were married at Tunduru in southern Tanzania in May 1969.
    More Details Hide Details In November their only son Samora, known as Samito, was born. Josina returned to work as head of Social Affairs, with special responsibility for the welfare of war orphans, and for the health and education of all children in the war zones of northern Mozambique. But she felt increasingly unwell. In 1970 she travelled to the Soviet Union to seek a diagnosis for her chronic ill-health, but to no avail. She was probably suffering from leukaemia, although pancreatic cancer is another possibility. She died on April 7, 1971, aged twenty-five. Machel was devastated. Machel’s second wife, Graça Simbine, joined Frelimo in 1973 after graduating in modern languages from Lisbon University. She worked as a teacher, first in Frelimo-held areas in Cabo Delgado province, and then at the Frelimo school in Tanzania. She became Minister for Education and Culture in newly independent Mozambique.
  • 1966
    Age 32
    He rapidly rose up the ranks of the guerrilla army, the FPLM, and became the head of the army after the death of its first commander, Filipe Samuel Magaia, in October 1966. Frelimo’s founder and first president, Eduardo Mondlane, was assassinated by a parcel bomb on February 3, 1969.
    More Details Hide Details His deputy, Rev Uria Simango, expected to take over – but instead the FRELIMO Executive Committee appointed a presidential triumvirate, consisting of Simango, Machel and veteran nationalist and poet Marcelino dos Santos. Simango soon broke ranks, and denounced the rest of the FRELIMO leadership in the pamphlet “Gloomy Situation in Frelimo”.
  • 1964
    Age 30
    After FRELIMO launched the independence war, on September 25, 1964, Machel soon became a key commander, making his name in particular in the grueling conditions of the eastern area of the vast and sparsely populated province of Niassa.
    More Details Hide Details
  • TWENTIES
  • 1963
    Age 29
    She gave birth to their daughter Ornila in February 1963, three weeks before Machel left Mozambique to join Frelimo.
    More Details Hide Details N’tewane, Tchaiakomo’s fourth child with Machel, was born that September, six months after Machel had left the country. Later, Machel expressed remorse for what he had come to see as bad behaviour towards Sorita and Irene. Machel was not married to either Tchaiakomo or Buque. When he joined Frelimo in 1963 it was widely believed that the war for independence would last years, if not decades, and that the chances of Frelimo cadres being reunited with their families in Mozambique were vanishingly small. Josina Abiatar Muthemba, who had been active in the anti-colonial student organisation NESAM, arrived in Tanzania in 1965, on her second attempt to flee Mozambique. In Tanzania she worked first as an assistant to Janet Mondlane, Eduardo Mondlane's wife and director of the Mozambique Institute. She became one of the earliest recruits to the Women’s Detachment of the guerrilla army, and campaigned vigorously for women’s full inclusion within all aspects of the liberation struggle.
  • 1954
    Age 20
    Machel started to study nursing in the capital city of Lourenço Marques (today Maputo), beginning in 1954.
    More Details Hide Details In the 1950s, he saw some of the fertile lands around his farming community on the Limpopo river appropriated by the provincial government and worked by white settlers who developed a wide range of new infrastructure for the region. Like many other Mozambicans near the southern border of Mozambique, some of his relatives went to work in the South African mines where additional job opportunities were found. Shortly afterwards, one of his brothers was killed in a mining accident. Unable to complete formal training at the Miguel Bombarda Hospital in Lourenço Marques, he got a job working as an aide in the same hospital and earned enough to continue his education at night school. He worked at the hospital until he left the country to join the Mozambican nationalist struggle in neighbouring Tanzania. Machel was attracted to anti-colonial ideals and began his political activities in the Miguel Bombarda hospital in Lourenço Marques, where he protested against the fact that black nurses were paid less than whites doing the same job. Machel decided to leave Lourenço Marques, when a white anti-fascist, the pharmaceutical representative João Ferreira, warned him that he was being watched by the Portuguese political police, the PIDE. He slipped across the border, and made his way to join FRELIMO in Dar es Salaam, via Swaziland, South Africa and Botswana. In Botswana, he hitched a lift on a plane carrying recruits of the African National Congress of South Africa to Tanzania.
  • CHILDHOOD
  • 1942
    Age 8
    In 1942, he was sent to school in the town of Zonguene in Gaza Province.
    More Details Hide Details The school was run by Catholic missionaries who educated the children in Portuguese language and culture. Although having completed the fourth grade, Machel never completed his secondary education. However, he had the prerequisite certificate to train as a nurse anywhere in Portugal at the time, since the nursing schools were not degree-conferring institutions.
  • 1940
    Age 6
    However, Machel's father was a successful farmer: he owned four plows and 400 head of cattle by 1940.
    More Details Hide Details Machel grew up in this farming village and attended mission elementary school.
  • 1933
    Born
    Born on September 29, 1933.
    More Details Hide Details
Original Authors of this text are noted here.
All data offered is derived from public sources. Spokeo does not verify or evaluate each piece of data, and makes no warranties or guarantees about any of the information offered. Spokeo does not possess or have access to secure or private financial information. Spokeo is not a consumer reporting agency and does not offer consumer reports. None of the information offered by Spokeo is to be considered for purposes of determining any entity or person's eligibility for credit, insurance, employment, housing, or for any other purposes covered under the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA)