Stefan Nemanja
Stefan Nemanja
Stefan Nemanja was the Grand Prince of the Serbian Grand Principality from 1166 to 1196, an heir of the Vukanović dynasty that marked the beginning of a greater Serbian realm (he is the founding father of the Nemanjić dynasty). He is remembered for his contributions to Serbian culture and history, being the founder of the powerful Serbian state that would evolve into the Serbian Empire, and the national church.
Biography
Stefan Nemanja's personal information overview.
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News
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Putin, marame i crni luk - Данас
Google News - over 5 years
U njenoj crkvi svetog Đorđa Stefan Nemanja je molitveno proslavio pobedu nad Vizantijom kod Pantona 1170, au kuli je život tragično završio i sveti kralj Stefan Dečanski. - Rešenje ove situaciju je stvar visoke politike. O tome treba da se dogovore
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150 predloga za ime mosta na Adi - B92
Google News - over 5 years
Tako su patrijarh Pavle, Duško Radović, Ivo Andrić, Momo Kapor, Milutin Milanković, Nikola Hajdin, Stefan Nemanja, Novak Đoković, Zoran Đinđić, Dragan Đilas, Branko Pešić, zaslužili da se po njima zove most. Predloženo je i da novi most na Adi nosi ime
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Učenici pomagali saobraćajcima - Блиц
Google News - over 5 years
Još dve škole iz Beograda: „Stefan Nemanja“ i „Veselin Masleša“ učestvovaće u ovoj akciji u sredu, 14. septembra, i na taj način doprineti povećanju bezbednosti u saobraćaju. Četvrtu godinu zaredom „Delta Đenerali osiguranje“ organizuje akciju „Jabuka
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NIKOLA ŽIVKOVIĆ: PISMO PRIJATELJU U ČILE (2) - U SRBIJU SE TREBA VRATITI - NoviStandard
Google News - over 5 years
Zadržasmo se gotovo dva časa u crkvi, gde se upoznasmo s mladim sveštenikom, koji nam podrobno ispriča o Manastiru: "Osnivač i ktitor Manastira je Veliki župan Stefan Nemanja. Studenicu je on gradio od 1183. do 1196, kada se na državnom Saboru najpre
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NEMANJIN SABOR SLEDEĆE SUBOTE U PORTI PETROVE CRKVE - Dnevne novine - Kurir
Google News - over 5 years
"I ove godine po blagoslovu episkopa raško-prizrenskog Teodosija održava se sabor u crkvi gde je Stefan Nemanja kršten, gde je predao vlast Stefanu Prvovenčanom 1196. godine iu hramu gde je kršten Sveti Sava", rekao je Milenković dodajući da je ovo
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PRINCE OF WALES CONTRIBUTING TO THE RESTORATION OF HILANDAR MONASTERY - Radio Srbija (blog)
Google News - over 5 years
Hilandar is a Holy Mountain monastery founded in 1198 by the First Serbian Archbishop St Sava and his father, the Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja. On March 4, 2004, a catastrophic fire struck this monastery. At the personal invitation of the Prince of
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Kosovo: Ungewissheit und Unsicherheit - Radio Srbija (Blog)
Google News - over 5 years
Die Kosovo-Albaner haben zum Beispiel das Kloster Hohe Decani auf Postmarken gedruckt, mit der Aufschrift, dass es sich um byzantinisches Erbe handelt, und den Groszupan Stefan Nemanja, den Gründer der Dynastie der Nemanjiden, der viele Klöster im
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Ne zaboravite! Još uvek u toku donatorska akcija „Podignimo Stupove - obnovimo ... - Данас
Google News - over 5 years
Na uzvišenju, odakle se Novi Pazar vidi kao na dlanu, podigao ga je u 12. veku veliki župan Stefan Nemanja. Ktitorov biograf, sin Stefan Prvovenčani zapisao je da je manastir nastao jer se Nemanja, dok je bio zatvoren u jednoj pećini, zavetovao da će
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U najvećem gradu Evrope - Press online
Google News - over 5 years
Njegovim ulicama u kavezu je proveden Stefan Nemanja; odavde nam je stigla Simonida. Iz dvorova Konstantinopolja dolazili su nam arhitektura, vladarske titule, čak i pribor za jelo. Tako je bilo čitavih hiljadu godina, od devetog pa do devetnaestog
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Dan srpske diplomatije - Вечерње Новости
Google News - over 5 years
U Nišu su se 27. jula susreli Fridrih Barbarosa i Stefan Nemanja. Već devet vekova rasprava: car je jeo prstima, a Nemanja priborom KOD crkve svetog Pantelejmona u Nišu, 27. jula 1189. godine, bilo je življe nego ikada pre tog dana
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Studenica Journal; If the Walls Could Speak, Serb Epic Would Unfold
NYTimes - over 19 years
Well before dawn has cast its pale light over these scrub-covered hills, an 80-year-old abbot leads 14 monks and novices into the hulking marble walls of a 12th-century church for morning devotions. The melodic chant of the monks, echoing off the faded frescoed walls of the church and rising up to the gloomy vaulted ceiling, is a morning ritual
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Timeline
Learn about memorable moments in the evolution of Stefan Nemanja
    OTHER
  • 1199
    Died on February 13, 1199.
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  • 1198
    Together with his son Sava, Nemanja had built the Serbian Hilandar Monastery at Mount Athos from 1198-1199, and issued the "Hilandar Charter".
    More Details Hide Details The monastery later became the cradle of the Serbian Orthodox Church. The Serbian Orthodox Church canonized Stefan Nemanja shortly after his death under the name Saint Symeon the Myrrh-streaming (Свети Симеон Мироточиви) after numerous miracles.
  • 1196
    On March 25, 1196, Stefan Nemanja summoned a Council in Ras, where he officially abdicated in favour of his second son, Stefan, to whom he bequeathed all his earthly possessions.
    More Details Hide Details Although Vukan was Nemanja's eldest son, Nemanja preferred to see Stefan II on the Serbian throne in part because Stefan had married the Byzantine princess Eudokia. However, traditions of primogeniture, would instead mean Vukan, his first son, should inherit the throne. Vukan reacted on this change in succession by declaring himself King of Duklja. Nemanja took monastic vows with his wife Ana in Ras' Church of Saint Peter and Paul. He took the monastic name of Simeon; his wife became Anastasia. Simeon subsequently retired to his Studenica monastery, and Anastasia retired to the Monastery of the Mother of Christ in Kuršumlija. However, after about 18 months, Simeon journeyed to Mount Athos, and joined his son Sava (formerly Rastko) in the Vatopedi monastery. In 1199, the two rebuilt together the ruined Eastern Orthodox Monastery of Hilandar which the Byzantine Emperor had given to the Serbian people and which became the heart of Serbian spiritity.
    In 1196, after three decades of warfare and negotiations which consolidated Serbia while distinguishing it from both Western and Byzantine spheres of influence, Nemanja abdicated in favour of his middle son Stefan Nemanjić, who became the first King of Serbia.
    More Details Hide Details Nemanja ultimately went to Mount Athos, where he became a monk and took the name of Symeon, joining his youngest son (later known as Saint Sava), who had already become the first archbishop of the Serbian Orthodox Church.
  • 1195
    In 1195, Stefan Nemanja's brother-in-law Alexios III Angelos inherited the Byzantine throne.
    More Details Hide Details Nemanja, tired of ruling, expanded the power and lands of his eldest son Vukan. He joined Zeta with Trebinje (Travunija), Hvosno (Metohija) and his capital of Toplica under Vukan's absolute rule.
  • 1193
    However, Nemanja's forces quickly pushed the Hungarians back across the border in 1193.
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  • 1192
    In 1192 Nemanja's youngest son Rastko retired to Mount Athos where he accepted monastic vows and took the name Sava.
    More Details Hide Details This greatly saddened Nemanja. In Rastko's place, Miroslav's son Toljen became Prince of Zahumlje and founded a local dynasty. Serbia seemed once again endangered once as Nemanja's former ally, King Bela of Hungary invaded from the north.
  • 1191
    In fall of 1191, the well-prepared Byzantine army, led by the Emperor himself, crushed Nemanja's forces in South Morava.
    More Details Hide Details Stefan Nemanja retreated into the mountains, as Byzantines raided all along the river and even burned down the capital in Kuršumlija. However, Nemanja began raiding the Byzantine armies, so Emperor Isaac decided to negotiate a final peace treaty. Stefan Nemanja relinquished a large part of his conquests, east of the river of Great Morava, and recognized Byzantine supremacy, while in return the Emperor recognized him as the rightful Grand Prince. Nemanja's son Stefan married the Byzantine princess Eudokia Angelina and received the title of sebastokrator, among the highest Byzantine court titles only given to Imperial family members. To separate the Serbs from the Bulgarians, the Emperor kept Niš and Ravno; while recognizing Stefan Nemanja's rule over the lands of Zeta, what is today Kosovo, and Pilot previously held by Arbanon.
  • 1190
    Also in 1190 his brother Miroslav died of old age, so Stefan Nemanja temporarily assigned his pious youngest son Rastko as the new Prince of Zahumlje in Ston.
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    In 1190, the new Byzantine Emperor Isaac II Angelos prepared a massive and experienced army to strike against Nemanja.
    More Details Hide Details The same year, Nemanja finished his magnificent Virgin's Church in the Studenica monastery out of white marble which later became the Nemanjić dynasty's hallmark.
    However, Barbarossa never consummated an alliance with Nemanja, instead signing a peace treaty with Byzantine representatives on 14 February 1190 in Adrianople.
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  • 1188
    In 1188 Stefan Nemanja sent an envoy to Frederick Barbarossa, inviting him to stay in Serbia during his Crusade to the Holy Land.
    More Details Hide Details Barbarossa, the Holy Roman Emperor, disembarked on the Third Crusade and arrived on 27 July 1189 at Niš with 100,000 Crusaders, hosted by Stefan Nemanja and Stracimir. A marriage was arranged between the daughter of Berthold, Duke of Merania and Miroslav's son Toljen to strengthen Serbian-German relations. Nemanja proposed that Barbarossa join him and the Venetians and strike at the Byzantines, but Barbarossa remained intent on his Crusade. Barbarossa recognized that he needed Byzantine help to transport his forces to Asia, but his plans changed when a Byzantine force stopped him from reaching his next stop at Sophia. The Byzantines also started raiding Barbarossa's army, which infuriated Barbarossa so much that he planned an offensive to Constantinople itself. Stefan Nemanja offered 20,000 men to support Barbarossa's military campaign, and the Bulgarians offered more than twice that number. Despite being in his early 70s, Stefan Nemanja followed the Crusader Army to the border at the Gate of Trajan. He then dispatched envoys to Adrianople to finalize this Western alliance. While Nemanja's envoys were negotiating with Berthold as Barbarossa's representative, Nemanja took Pernik, Zemen, Velbužd, Žitomisk, Stobi, Prizren and rest of Kosovo and Metohija and even Skopje.
  • 1184
    In 1184, Prince Miroslav tried to retake the islands of Korčula and Vis, but on 18 August 1184, his fleet was devastated by the Ragusan navy at Poljice near Koločep, so Miroslav signed a peace treaty with the Republic of Ragusa.
    More Details Hide Details However, his brother, Prince Stracimir, did not feel bound by that defeat and the following year raided Korčula and Vis with the Doclean fleet. However, by time he marshalled his forces, he decided to join in Miroslav's peace efforts because the Byzantines launched a counter-attack on Serbia. Nonetheless, a Bulgarian uprising in the Danubian areas sidetracked the imperial offensive, so Stefan Nemanja took advantage of the complex situation and conquered the Timok Frontier with Niš and sacked Svrljig, Ravno and Koželj. While Nemanja held Niš, it served as his capital and base of operations.
  • 1183
    In 1183, Stefan Nemanja formed a new alliance, with King Bela III of Hungary, and invaded Byzantine soil.
    More Details Hide Details Andronicus Comnenus had taken over the imperial throne, but was not recognized. The Massacre of the Latins in Constantinople inflamed the tense political situation. Kulin Ban of Bosnia also joined Nemanja. The Byzantine forces in the eastern Serb borderlands were led by Alexios Branas and Andronikos Lapardas. Inner fights occurred, as Branas supported the new Emperor and Lapardas, opposing, deserted with his troops. The Hungarian-Serbian military soon pushed the Byzantines out of the Morava Valley and advanced all the way to Sofia, raiding Belgrade, Braničevo, Ravno, Niš en route. However, the Hungarians soon withdrew, leaving Nemanja's forces raiding across western Bulgaria.
  • 1180
    Following Emperor Manuel I Komnenos' death in 1180, Stefan Nemanja no longer believed he owed any allegiance to the Byzantines, characterizing his vows as being to the Emperor, not the Empire.
    More Details Hide Details He took advantage of the Empire's weakened state, and allowed his brothers leeway as well. Prince Miroslav protected the Narentine Kačić family, pirates that had robbed and murdered Rainer (Arnerius), the archbishop of Split. Although the pope demanded the prince execute the perpetrators and surrender the loot, Miroslav refused, and instead expelled the Bishop of Ston. Excommunicated by the Papacy, Miroslav merely replaced the vacant church buildings in the vicinity of Ston.
  • 1172
    However, in 1172, the anti-Byzantine coalition that Nemanja had joined with the Kingdom of Hungary, the Venetian Republic and the Holy Roman Empire collapsed.
    More Details Hide Details Venice faced a mutiny and an outbreak of plague that devastated her navy, while the King of Hungary died and a new, pro-Byzantine King ascended that throne. Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos had launched an expedition and Nemanja's defeat seemed certain. Thus, the Grand Župan sought leave to parley and met the Emperor in Niš with his head and feet bare and a halter around his neck, much as the rebel Reginald of Chatillon who had established himself as Prince of Antioch had 13 years before, and received reinstatement. However, although Nemanja bowed before Emperor Manuel and surrendered his personal sword, he was imprisoned and brought to the Imperial Capital of Constantinople to take part in a triumphal entry as a defeated barbarian. However, the emperor also befriended Nemanja and saw that he was tutored. Nemanja vowed to never again attack Manuel, while the Emperor in return recognized Stefan Nemanja and his bloodline as the rightful Grand Župans of the Rascian lands. Stefan Nemanja forced his brothers, Stracimir of West Moravia and Miroslav of Zachlumia and Lim to accept his supreme rule in return for his forgiveness; he also made Tihomir's son Stefan Prvoslav surrender his claim to the throne. His army was involved only in a single conflict at the request of his Byzantine overlord, in Asia Minor. Nemanja also used the following decade to deal with the Bogomil heresy that had spread to his realm, as well as to neighboring Bosnia, from neighboring Bulgaria, and strengthening Eastern Orthodox Christianity.
    Grand Prince Nemanja then dispatched troops to the Morava valley in 1172, to disrupt communications and commerce between Niš and Belgrade and instigate a rebellion amongst the local Serbs at Ravno.
    More Details Hide Details However, Ravno's Serbs refused to allow passage to the King of Saxony Heinrich the Lion. The Serbs organised a surprise attack on the German camp, then attacked their own neighbours.
  • 1171
    In 1171, Grand Župan Stefan Nemanja sided with the Venetian Republic in a dispute with the Byzantine Empire, with the aim of gaining full independence from Byzantine rule.
    More Details Hide Details The Venetians incited the Slavs of the eastern Adriatic littoral to rebel against Byzantine rule. Nemanja joined them, launching an offensive towards the coastal city of Kotor. A German fleet also formed to replace the Venetian navy, and advanced eastwards in the September 1171, capturing Ragusa. Nemanja also made an alliance with the Kingdom of Hungary, and, though the Hungarians, with the Duchy of Austria.
    Stefan Nemanja built the church of Đurđevi Stupovi (Pillars of St. George) in Ras in 1171.
    More Details Hide Details According to the legend, this was to thank Saint George for freeing him from the cave in which his brothers had imprisoned him, as well as helping him rise to power. The same year, Nemanja had his third son - Rastko.
  • 1166
    Between 1166 and 1168, Prince Nemanja rebelled against his older brother Tihomir, and deposed him and his brothers, Miroslav and Stracimir.
    More Details Hide Details The Byzantine Emperor raised a mercenary army for Tihomir, made up of Greeks, Francs and Turks, which Nemanja defeated at the Battle of Pantino, south of Zvečan. Tihomir drowned in the Sitnica river, and the other brothers surrendered to Nemanja, who allowed them to rule their previous lands. Nemanja assumed the title of Grand Župan of all Serbia, and took the first name Stefan (from Greek Stephanos meaning "crowned"). Nemanja married a Serbian noblewoman, Ana, with whom he had three sons: Vukan, Stefan and Rastko.
  • 1164
    Nemanja's Serb squadrons fought in the Imperial Army in 1164 in Srem during the wars against the Kingdom of Hungary.
    More Details Hide Details Nemanja ruled independently; he built the Monastery of Saint Nicholas in Kuršumlija and the Monastery of the Holy Mother of Christ near Kosanica-Toplica, without the Tihomir's approval. His brothers invited him to a council at Ras, supposedly to resolve the situation, but instead they imprisoned him in a nearby cave. Nemanja's supporters advised church leaders that Tihomir had done this because he disapproved of church building, something that would later help Nemanja greatly. A later legend claimed Saint George himself freed Nemanja from the cave.
  • 1162
    Nemanja met Emperor Manuel in Niš in 1162, who gave him the region of Dubočica to rule over and declared him independent.
    More Details Hide Details The Emperor gave him a Byzantine court title as it was important for the Emperor to have the borderlands of the Empire ruled by loyal leaders.
  • 1113
    Nemanja was born around the year 1113 AD in Ribnica, Zeta (in the vicinity of present-day Podgorica, the capital of Montenegro).
    More Details Hide Details He was the youngest son of Zavida, a Prince of Zahumlje, who after a conflict with his brothers was sent to Ribnica where he had the title of Lord. Zavida (Beli Uroš) was most probably a son of Uroš I or Vukan. Since western Zeta was under Roman Catholic jurisdiction, Nemanja received a Latin baptism, although much of his later life was spent balancing Western and Eastern forms of Christianity. After Byzantine armies defeated Nemanja's kinsmen Đorđe of Duklja and Desa Urošević, leading to the decline of that branch of the Vojislavljević family, Zavida took his family to their hereditary lands at Rascia. Upon arriving in Ras, the capital of Rascia, Nemanja was re-baptised in the Eastern Orthodox Church, in the Church of St. Apostles Peter and Paul which was an episcopal see. Upon reaching adulthood, Nemanja became "Prince (Župan) of Ibar, Toplica, Rasina and Reke", receiving the česti (parts of the state) from the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I. Manuel had appointed Zavida's eldest son Tihomir as the supreme Grand Prince of the Serb lands; his brother Stracimir ruled West Morava, Miroslav ruled Zahumlje and Travunia.
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