Ibrahim of Johor


Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar Al-Masyhur ibni Abu Bakar or Sultan Ibrahim II, GCMG, GBE, was the 22nd Sultan of Johor, in Malaysia. He was known as one of the richest men in the world during his reign. An Anglophile, Sultan Ibrahim continued the policy of friendly relations with the crown of the United Kingdom, often manipulating his friendship with the reigning kings of Britain to thwart the expansionist ambitions of the British Colonial Office.… Read More

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1873 Birth Wan Ibrahim was born 17 September 1873 in Istana Bidadari, Singapore, and received his education at a boarding school in England during his formative years.


1891 17 Years Old He was appointed a Second Lieutenant of the Johor Military Forces during his teenage years and was formally installed as the first Tunku Mahkota of Johor on 23 May 1891 and was brought to Europe by his father where he was being introduced to the European royal families. … Read More


1895 21 Years Old 1 More Event
Tunku Ibrahim acted as one of the three signatories when Sultan Abu Bakar promogulated the Johor state constitution in April 1895. … Read More
1899 25 Years Old The Resident General of the Federated Malay States, Frank Swettenham proposed to Sultan Ibrahim in November 1899 for the construction of a railway line into Johor, in conjunction with his plan for the North-South Main Trunk Railway line in the Malay Peninsula. … Read More
1901 27 Years Old Sultan Ibrahim then sent his Abdul Rahman the following May to London to negotiate with the Colonial Office, and in April 1901, Sultan Ibrahim made a year-long trip to London to seek private English financers to fund the construction of the railway line and negotiated with the Colonial Office for a railway loan.


1904 30 Years Old The Sultan did, however, manage to obtain a loan for the construction of the railway and the Johor Railway Convention was signed in July 1904 by his adviser, Abdul Rahman, that gave provisions for an extension of the Malayan railway line to be extended into Johor. … Read More
1906 32 Years Old 1 More Event
In 1906, he granted land concessions to English capitalists and financiers for development purposes. … Read More
1910 36 Years Old In 1910, Sultan Ibrahim accepted a British adviser for Johor after immense pressure from the colonial government. … Read More
1912 38 Years Old A political scandal erupted in 1912 after Campbell publicly revealed malpractices of the Johor Bahru Prison. … Read More


1918 44 Years Old …  Campbell served as its state's General Adviser until his death in June 1918, and between June 1918 until December 1920, five General Advisers were appointed in succession, each of whom only took office for a few months. … Read More


1928 54 Years Old He began to take time off to travel abroad from 1928, after he began to suffer from chronic gout and myocardial degeneration. … Read More


1934 - 1942 4 More Events
1945 71 Years Old 1 More Event
…  Shortly before the Japanese surrendered in 1945, Sultan Ibrahim was expelled from his residence at Istana Bukit Serene and was forced to reside at Istana Pasir Pelangi, the crown prince's palace. … Read More
In early February 1946, seven political dissidents led by Awang bin Hassan organised a rally to protest against the Sultan's decision for signing the treaties, and Onn Jaafar, who was then serving as a district officer in Batu Pahat, was invited to attend the rally.
1950 76 Years Old In early 1950, Sultan Ibrahim approached Onn, who was asked to choose between committing his efforts for UMNO and the state. … Read More
1953 79 Years Old In a letter which he wrote to The Straits Times in 1953, "Straits Settlement Forever", Sultan Ibrahim expressed a sceptical opinion of Johor's future as part of an independent Malaya, and voiced support for the continuation of British Adviser system in Johor.
1955 81 Years Old 1 More Event
At his Diamond Jubilee celebrations in September 1955, Sultan Ibrahim publicly called for Johor's secession from the Federation. … Read More
1957 83 Years Old 1 More Event
Meanwhile, at the Conference of Rulers in March 1957, Tunku Abdul Rahman expressed his desire to elect Sultan Ibrahim as the first Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia, but Sultan Ibrahim declined on grounds of his old age and desire to lead his final years in retirement.
1959 86 Years Old …  The Sultan died on 8 May 1959 at his apartment, with his wife reportedly at his bedside during his last hours. … Read More
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